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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2022

Tanveer Ahsan, Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Ammar Ali Gull and Fazal Muhammad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of policy uncertainty on firm performance and to examine how the different cultural societies deal with the policy-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of policy uncertainty on firm performance and to examine how the different cultural societies deal with the policy-induced uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data of European non-financial firms to extend the growing literature on policy uncertainty, firm performance and national culture. The authors consider financial as well as market proxies to measure firm performance and use Hofstede's cultural dimensions as a proxy for national culture. The authors apply the generalized method of moments (GMM-system) regression technique on a dataset of 702 non-financial European firms, listed during the period 2002–2018.

Findings

The authors find overwhelming evidence that policy uncertainty reduces the performance of the European firms; however, cultural differences among different European countries moderate the impact of policy uncertainty on the financial as well as the market performance of the firms. The results of this study show that European cultures with high power distance, individualism, masculinity and indulgence efficiently deal with the economic policy uncertainty. While the European societies with high uncertainty avoidance fail to cope with policy-induced uncertainty. The results are robust to different regression models, alternate proxies of firm performance and endogeneity issues.

Practical implications

The authors argue that policy uncertainty increases information asymmetry and decreases firm performance, therefore, the policymakers shall be considerate of the consequences of the policy-induced uncertainty in the society and business arena that would not only adversely affect the firms but also the economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the role of national culture on the relationship between policy uncertainty and firm performance in the European context.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Tanveer Ahsan, Sultan Sikandar Mirza, Bakr Al-Gamrh, Chai Bin-Feng and Zia-Ur-Rehman Rao

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating impact of corporate governance (CG) on the relationship between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and the sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating impact of corporate governance (CG) on the relationship between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and the sustainable growth (SG) of Chinese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collects data of 975 Chinese non-financial listed firms for the period from 2010 to 2017. The study measures SG using a comprehensive index based on nine financial indicators and applies industry and year fixed effects regression to investigate the direct and moderating impact of CG on the relationship between EPU and SG of Chinese firms.

Findings

The results of the study explain that EPU negatively affects SG, while concentrated ownership, board independence and board gender diversity (BGD) positively contribute to the SG of the Chinese firms. The results also explain that concentrated ownership and BGD reduce the negative impact of EPU on the SG of the Chinese firms.

Research limitations/implications

The study considers only non-financial firms; therefore, the results of this study cannot be generalized for financial firms. Future research can be carried out while considering financial firms as a unit of analysis.

Practical implications

The investigation of the negative impact of policy uncertainty on SG is essential for the government and policymakers to devise policies to reduce uncertainty. The investigation of the moderating effect of CG enriches the literature on corporates’ response to policy uncertainty. It provides valuable insights for corporates regarding CG mechanisms to attain SG.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the moderating impact of CG on the SG of Chinese firms using an index-based measurement of SG.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2023

Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Tanveer Ahsan, Ammar Ali Gull and Zaghum Umar

This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on corporate sustainability [environmental, social and governance (ESG)] performance and aims to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on corporate sustainability [environmental, social and governance (ESG)] performance and aims to explore whether uncertainty-induced sustainability performance is influenced by the firm's life cycle (LC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data from European non-financial firms listed during the period from 2002 to 2022 to extend the nascent literature regarding EPU and sustainability performance while applying a dynamic panel data regression analysis (Generalized Method of Moments - GMM System) on 11,462 firm-year observations of 1,869 European firms.

Findings

The authors find overwhelming evidence that policy uncertainty affects the sustainability performance of European firms. The firms restrict their environmental and governance-related activities and address immediate issues to survive during periods of high EPU. Conversely, the firms increase their social engagements to decrease uncertainty-induced information asymmetry. The authors' results show that the intensity and type of sustainability performance are also influenced by the firm's LC. The results imply that board gender diversity (BGD) increases while power concentration with the chief executive officer (CEO) decreases sustainability performance.

Practical implications

These findings have important implications for policymakers, potential investors, firm management and other stakeholders given the firms' access to resources and preferences to encounter uncertainty vary across different LC stages.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the role of the firm's LC in the relationship between policy uncertainty and sustainability performance in the European context.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Bakr Al-Gamrh, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Tanveer Ahsan and Abdulsalam Alquhaif

This paper examines the influence of investment opportunities on firm performance and evaluates corporate governance practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to determine…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the influence of investment opportunities on firm performance and evaluates corporate governance practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to determine whether corporate governance quality moderates that influence.

Design/methodology/approach

A fixed-effects regression was employed to examine the influence of investment opportunities on firm performance and the role of corporate governance quality as a moderator for all listed firms on the Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX) and the Dubai Financial Market (DFM). We examined 501 firm-year observations for the period when the corporate governance code in the UAE was coming into force, from 2008 to 2012.

Findings

The regression results indicate that investment opportunities have a negative influence on firm performance. The corporate governance index used here shows that the level of corporate governance practiced in the UAE is weak. We also find that strong corporate governance ameliorates the negative influence of investment opportunities, which supports our hypotheses. The sub-indices of corporate governance that matter the most for moderating investment opportunities are board functioning and ethics.

Practical implications

The results of this paper reflect the need to examine corporate governance in the context of the external environment represented by investment opportunities in our study. The findings could raise awareness of the importance of strong corporate governance practices, not only to directly improve firm performance but also through its influence on external variables. Legislators, regulators and other interested parties could use these results to examine practices in the UAE following the implementation of the corporate governance code.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by evaluating the role that corporate governance quality and its components could play in firm performance and indirectly moderating other external factors (such as investment opportunities).

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Raheel Safdar, Mirza Sultan Sikandar and Tanveer Ahsan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether liquidity risk (i.e. the returns’ vulnerability to the unexpected changes in overall market liquidity) is a priced risk factor…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether liquidity risk (i.e. the returns’ vulnerability to the unexpected changes in overall market liquidity) is a priced risk factor in China. Moreover, it investigates the potential role of a stock’s information quality in reducing its liquidity risk during the period of post-non-tradable shares reforms in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect data of all the A-share issuing firms listed either on the Shanghai Stock Exchange or Shenzhen Stock Exchange during the period 2006–2016. The authors perform two-stage cross-sectional regression testing. First, the authors perform firm-specific time-series regressions of excess returns over Fama–French’s three-factor model and a liquidity factor. Second, to test whether firm-specific liquidity risk is a priced risk factor, the authors apply Fama and MacBeth’s regressions.

Findings

Firm-level asset pricing tests provide substantial evidence for market pricing of liquidity risk in China. The authors find a significant negative association between information quality and liquidity risk. The authors also find that the reduction in liquidity risk induced by better information quality is substantial enough to reduce required returns. These findings are robust to alternative measures of liquidity risk and information quality.

Practical implications

The study underscores that a policy initiative to enhance the information environment can significantly reduce the market volatility in China.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that considers the Shanghai Stock Exchange as well as Shenzhen Stock Exchange to investigate market pricing of liquidity risk in China.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Tanveer Ahsan, Sultan Sikandar Mirza, Bakr Al-Gamrh and Muhammad Zubair Tauni

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate toward the target capital structure of Chinese nonfinancial listed firms and to investigate the impacts of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate toward the target capital structure of Chinese nonfinancial listed firms and to investigate the impacts of the split-share reforms (2005–2006) on the capital structure adjustment rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors control for the unobserved heterogeneity and the fractional nature of the adjustment rate by applying an unbiased dynamic panel fractional estimator on the unbalanced panel data of 27,545 firm-year observations of Chinese nonfinancial firms listed during 1998–2015.

Findings

The authors find that Chinese firms adjust at an annual rate of 19–27% to reach their capital structure targets. The authors also find a positive impact of the split-share reforms on the adjustment rates of Chinese nonfinancial firms toward their target capital structure. Split-share reforms also helped Chinese firms to increase the use of equity financing in their capital structure.

Practical implications

The authors argue that the government should strengthen capital markets to enable easy access to more financing options so that Chinese firms can acquire cheaper external financing.

Originality/value

To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study that applies an unbiased dynamic panel fractional estimator on an extended data set of 27,545 firm-year observations of Chinese nonfinancial firms listed during 1998–2015.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 April 2023

Chengwei Zhang, Sultan Sikandar Mirza, Tanveer Ahsan and Sardar Muhammad Usman

This study aims to investigate the impact of managerial power distance on the corporate sustainability performance of Chinese firms and to explore the regulatory role of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of managerial power distance on the corporate sustainability performance of Chinese firms and to explore the regulatory role of corporate digitalization in the Chinese capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collects data from 2,632 A-share Chinese non-financial firms listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges during the period from 2010 to 2020. The authors apply different panel data regression techniques (fixed effects, GMM-System) to investigate the impact of managerial power distance on corporate sustainability performance and to explore the regulatory role of corporate digitalization in the Chinese capital market.

Findings

The results of the study show a positive relationship between high managerial power distance and the sustainability performance of Chinese non-financial firms. This positive relationship is particularly pronounced in Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The results also show that corporate digitalization increases the sustainability performance of Chinese firms. Further, corporate digitalization weakens the positive relationship between high-power distance and the sustainability performance of Chinese firms. These results are robust to alternate sustainability performance measures and various regression techniques.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the regulating impact of corporate digitalization on the relationship between managerial power distance and corporate sustainability performance in China.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Tanveer Ahsan and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic Banking Index representing the Islamic banking model and to investigate its impact on the performance of Islamic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic Banking Index representing the Islamic banking model and to investigate its impact on the performance of Islamic and conventional banks. This study also analyzes the impact of Islamic financial development on bank performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected the data from 23 countries for the period from 2010 to 2018 and developed a composite Islamic Banking Index. The authors applied the generalized method of moments on 3,542 bank-year observations for both Islamic and conventional banks to analyze the impact of the Islamic Banking Index on bank performance. The results of the study are robust to time-fixed effects, country-level time-varying factors and endogeneity issues.

Findings

The authors found that Islamic Banking Index positively contributes to the return on assets (ROAit) of Islamic banks only. This impact becomes highly significant in countries with comparatively higher Islamic financial development. This finding suggests that the Islamic financial development in a country provides a supportive operating environment to Islamic banks and increases their performance. The authors also found that Islamic Banking Index positively contributes to the return on equity (ROEit) of both types of banks.

Practical implications

The authors argue that moving away from interest-based products and focusing more on diversified portfolios can boost the performance of both types of banks without increasing their risk levels.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that develops a composite Islamic Banking Index based on differentiating factors of the Islamic banking model and investigates the impact of Islamic Banking Index and Islamic financial development on bank performance.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Tanveer Ahsan, Man Wang and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this paper is to find out firm, industry, and country level determinants of capital structure of Pakistani listed non-financial firms.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out firm, industry, and country level determinants of capital structure of Pakistani listed non-financial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a fixed effects panel data model over a 39 years (1972-2010) unbalanced panel data of Pakistani non-financial listed firms to determine the factors that influence capital structure of these firms.

Findings

The authors find that Pakistani firms prefer retained earnings to finance their business projects, and debt is easily available for experienced firms. Moreover, socio-economic collusive networks, poor corporate governance mechanism along with weak legal system provide these firms an opportunity to pass on their risk to the creditors (banks).

Research limitations/implications

The data set does not contain factors characterizing inter-industry heterogeneity, therefore, the authors use mean industry leverage and mean industry profitability to explore if any relationship exists between leverage of firms, and their respective industry leverage/profitability.

Practical implications

Pakistani non-financial firms are highly leveraged increasing their probability to face financial distress in erratic economic conditions. As such, the policy makers need to develop capital markets of Pakistan to enable a resilient corporate capital structure. Further, erratic economic conditions of Pakistan create uncertain business environment yielding short-term opportunities and to finance them Pakistani firms use short-term debt as a main financing source. The policy makers need to improve corporate governance mechanism and strengthen legal system that will go a long way to develop Pakistani capital market on sound and sustainable footing.

Originality/value

This is the first study that uses an extended number of variables and discovers financial behavior of firms in a bank-based economy having limited financing options, and facing erratic economic conditions.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Tanveer Ahsan, Man Wang and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate made to target capital structures by listed non-financial firms in Pakistan during the courses of their life cycles and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate made to target capital structures by listed non-financial firms in Pakistan during the courses of their life cycles and to determine what factors influence their adjustment rates.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used multivariate analysis to classify 39 years (1972-2010) of unbalanced panel data from listed non-financial Pakistani firms in terms of their growth, maturity and decline stages. Further, it used a fixed-effects panel data model to determine the factors that influence capital structure and adjustment rates during the life-cycle stages of firms.

Findings

The study observed a low–high–low leverage pattern during the growth, maturity and decline stages of businesses in line with tradeoff theory. Furthermore, the study observed an adjustment rate for growing firms of between 49.3-37.9 per cent, for mature firms of between 35.5-17.5 per cent and for declining firms of between 22.2-15.1 per cent toward their respective leverage targets. Furthermore, it was found that growing firms have higher leverage adjustment rates because, by having more investment opportunities, these firms can alter their capital structures easily by changing the composition of their new issues.

Practical implications

Erratic economic conditions in Pakistan have created an uncertain business environment. Therefore, even mature Pakistani firms remain skeptical about the sustainability of positive trends among current economic indicators. Furthermore, to avoid uncertainty, Pakistani firms grab short-term opportunities by using quickly available short-term debt as a main financing source. Government should introduce long-term policies that will stabilize the business environment and strengthen the financial, as well as the judicial, institutions of the country so that these firms may benefit from long-term investment opportunities and access more options for raising external financing. The results of this study will also help policymakers for other Asian economies where the capital markets are underdeveloped and where firms have higher leverage ratios, such as Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Originality/value

This is the first study in Pakistan that has used a multivariate approach to classify firms into their different life-cycle stages and to discover the leverage adjustment rates of firms during those life-cycle stages.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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