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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

GEORGE L. YE

Liquidity risk, i.e., the likelihood that a swap can be “sold” (i.e., assigned) may affect swap prices. This article addresses the importance of liquidity risk as a factor…

Abstract

Liquidity risk, i.e., the likelihood that a swap can be “sold” (i.e., assigned) may affect swap prices. This article addresses the importance of liquidity risk as a factor in the valuation of swaps, which are subject to default risk. The author presents a model for pricing these swaps by incorporating a proxy for liquidity risk. Using the model, the author finds that the effects of liquidity risk may partially offset the effects of default risk.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Ameni Ghenimi, Hasna Chaibi and Mohamed Ali Brahim Omri

This paper aims to identify and analyze the similarities and differences of the liquidity risk determinants within conventional and Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and analyze the similarities and differences of the liquidity risk determinants within conventional and Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a dynamic panel data approach to examine the relationship between liquidity risk and a set of bank-specific and macroeconomic factors during 2005–2015, by selecting 27 Islamic banks and 49 conventional ones operating in the MENA region. More specifically, the dynamic two-step generalized method of moment estimator technique introduced by Arellano and Bond (1991) is applied.

Findings

The results suggest that the set of bank-specific variables influences the liquidity risk of both banking systems, while macroeconomic factors determine the liquidity risk of conventional banks. Islamic banks are not affected by macroeconomic determinants.

Practical implications

The research facilitates to the academicians, practitioners and bankers to have an alluded picture about liquidity risk determinants and their management. The findings can be used by bankers’ policy decision-makers to improve and enhance their consideration for liquidity risk management in both banking systems. Indeed, the study makes them aware to manage liquidity risk differently between conventional and Islamic banks, as the results reveal different liquidity risk determinants.

Originality/value

Compared to the abundant studies on the determinants of credit risk, researchers have not sufficiently addressed the factors influencing liquidity risk. Moreover, none of these few research studies has discussed and compared liquidity risk determinants within both banking systems operating in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This leads us to identify the similarities and differences between conventional and Islamic banks in the MENA region in respect of systematic and unsystematic determinants of the liquidity risk. The value is attributed to the increasing differentiation between Islamic and conventional banks. Islamic banks are characterized with a different liquidity structure distinguishing them from their conventional counterparts.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Abstract

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The Banking Sector Under Financial Stability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-681-5

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Suzanna ElMassah, Ola AlSayed and Shereen Mostafa Bacheer

The purpose of this study is to investigate the main factors that affect liquidity risk in the UAE Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the main factors that affect liquidity risk in the UAE Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the annual data of the seven UAE Islamic banks over the period 2008-2014. Random effects panel data model is used to estimate the impact of four bank-specific variables and two macroeconomic ones on the liquidity risk of the UAE Islamic banks via their impact on five alternative liquidity ratios.

Findings

The paper finds that bank size has a negative impact on liquidity risk according to two liquidity ratios only, and an insignificant impact according to the other three. Both capital adequacy and London interbank offered rate have significant negative impacts on liquidity risk for three liquidity ratios, and insignificant impacts on two. The effect of credit risk is negative for all adopted ratios, while that of return on assets is negative for one ratio only. Finally, real GDP has a positive effect on two ratios and an insignificant one on the others.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides insights for policymakers and practitioners to choose appropriate liquidity management procedures. It emphasizes that identifying efficient procedures or policies depends on the liquidity ratio that is used as a proxy of liquidity risk and its definition, in addition to the correlation between the liquidity ratio and liquidity risk. The study also provides some guidance to Islamic banks in the UAE concerning the main factors impacting their liquidity, which can eventually enable them to support their liquidity management policies, in a way that would expand their customer base according to profitability aspects, and not only religious ones.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the relatively limited literature on liquidity risk in Islamic banks. It also is the first study that investigates the determinants of liquidity risk facing Islamic banks in the UAE using five alternative liquidity ratios.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Ahmed Arif and Ahmed Nauman Anees

The purpose of this paper is to examine liquidity risk in Pakistani banks and evaluate the effect on banks' profitability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine liquidity risk in Pakistani banks and evaluate the effect on banks' profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are retrieved from the balance sheets, income statements and notes of 22 Pakistani banks during 2004‐2009. Multiple regressions are applied to assess the impact of liquidity risk on banks' profitability.

Findings

The results of multiple regressions show that liquidity risk affects bank profitability significantly, with liquidity gap and non‐performing as the two factors exacerbating the liquidity risk. They have a negative relationship with profitability.

Research limitations/implications

The period studied in this paper is 2004‐2009, due to availability of the data. However, the sample period does not impair the findings since the sample includes 22 banks, which constitute the main part of the Pakistani banking system. Moreover, only profitability is used as the measure of performance. Economic factors contributing to liquidity risk are not covered in this paper.

Originality/value

This is the first paper addressing the liquidity risk faced by the Pakistani banking system. Past researchers and practitioners have not given the proper attention to liquidity risk. This paper helps in understanding the factors of liquidity risk and their impact on the profitability of the banking system. The authors emphasise contemporary risk managers to mitigate liquidity risk by having sufficient cash resources. This will reduce the liquidity gap, thereby reducing the dependence on repo market.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Nevine Sobhy Abdel Megeid

This research aims to analyze and compare the effectiveness of liquidity risk management of Islamic and conventional banking in Egypt to ascertain which of the two banking…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to analyze and compare the effectiveness of liquidity risk management of Islamic and conventional banking in Egypt to ascertain which of the two banking systems are performing better.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of six conventional banks (CBs) and two Islamic banks (IBs) in Egypt was selected. Using the liquidity ratios, the investigation involves analyzing the financial statements for the period of 2004-2011. The data were obtained from Bank scope database.

Findings

The research found that in Egypt, CBs perform better in terms of liquidity risk management than IBs. The liquidity risk management significant differences between IBs and CBs could be attributed more cash availability to CBs than to IBs, in addition, Egyptian Central Bank regulations on capital and liquidity requirements for IBs disconcert IBs’ performance.

Practical implications

This research facilitates the bankers, academician, scholars and bankers to have an alluded picture about Egyptian banking developments in liquidity risk management. The results can be used by bankers’ policy decision-makers to improve and enhance their consideration for liquidity risk management.

Originality/value

This research covers a period and a country that compares CBs’ and IBs’ liquidity risk management. Its value is attributed to the increasing differentiation between CBs and IBs.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Ahmed Mohamed Dahir, Fauziah Binti Mahat and Noor Azman Bin Ali

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of funding liquidity risk and liquidity risk on the bank risk-taking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of funding liquidity risk and liquidity risk on the bank risk-taking.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation technique and a sample of 57 banks operating in BRICS countries over the period from 2006 to 2015.

Findings

The results reveal that liquidity risk has a significant and negative effect on the bank risk-taking, indicating that a decrease in liquidity risk contributes to higher bank risk-taking. The study also reveals that funding liquidity risk has the substantial impact on bank risk-taking, suggesting lower funding liquidity risk results in higher bank risk-taking. These results are consistent with prior assumptions.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this study highlight the fact that liquidity risk is a risk factor which drives the potential bank default, of which banks tend to take more risks when higher funding liquidity exists.

Practical implications

This study offers a number of valuable implications for the policy makers as well as practitioners. The policy makers should take into account better liquidity risk management framework aimed at preventing banks from taking excessive risks. Bank executives must pay more attention on how banks could hold more liquid securities and cash. Less risk-taking reduces higher borrowing costs undermining earnings through imposing taxes on corporate.

Originality/value

This work uncovered that liquidity risk per se is an important and previously unidentified risk factor, specifically its effects on bank risk-taking and contributes to the view in support of holding more liquid securities than the past.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Mazin A.M. Al Janabi

The purpose of this paper is to originate a proactive approach for the quantification and analysis of liquidity risk for trading portfolios that consist of multiple equity assets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to originate a proactive approach for the quantification and analysis of liquidity risk for trading portfolios that consist of multiple equity assets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a coherent modeling method whereby the holding periods are adjusted according to the specific needs of each trading portfolio. This adjustment can be attained for the entire portfolio or for any specific asset within the equity trading portfolio. This paper extends previous approaches by explicitly modeling the liquidation of trading portfolios, over the holding period, with the aid of an appropriate scaling of the multiple‐assets' liquidity‐adjusted value‐at‐risk matrix. The key methodological contribution is a different and less conservative liquidity scaling factor than the conventional root‐t multiplier.

Findings

The proposed coherent liquidity multiplier is a function of a predetermined liquidity threshold, defined as the maximum position which can be unwound without disturbing market prices during one trading day, and is quite straightforward to put into practice even by very large financial institutions and institutional portfolio managers. Furthermore, it is designed to accommodate all types of trading assets held and its simplicity stems from the fact that it focuses on the time‐volatility dimension of liquidity risk instead of the cost spread (bid‐ask margin) as most researchers have done heretofore.

Practical implications

Using more than six years of daily return data, for the period 2004‐2009, of emerging Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock markets, the paper analyzes different structured and optimum trading portfolios and determine coherent risk exposure and liquidity risk premium under different illiquid and adverse market conditions and under the notion of different correlation factors.

Originality/value

This paper fills a main gap in market and liquidity risk management literatures by putting forward a thorough modeling of liquidity risk under the supposition of illiquid and adverse market settings. The empirical results are interesting in terms of theory as well as practical applications to trading units, asset management service entities and other financial institutions. This coherent modeling technique and empirical tests can aid the GCC financial markets and other emerging economies in devising contemporary internal risk models, particularly in light of the aftermaths of the recent sub‐prime financial crisis.

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2014

Francesca Battaglia and Maria Mazzuca

The purpose of this study was to examine the 2007-2009 financial crisis to analyze how securitization relates to the Italian bank risk profile, both in terms of credit and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the 2007-2009 financial crisis to analyze how securitization relates to the Italian bank risk profile, both in terms of credit and liquidity risks.

Design/methodology/approach

To test our research hypotheses, we adopt ordered probit models, in which we regress the changes in credit risk and liquidity on a set of regressors, including two securitization dummy variables plus a vector of control variables.

Findings

Our results show that the impact of securitization on the originators risk-taking is not uniform. When credit risk is considered, the securitization effects seem to be statistically significant only during the crisis period. However, when we turn to analyze the bank’s liquidity position, our results show that securitization improves it both during the pre-crisis and the crisis years. Our results support the Basel III initiatives aimed to realize a better integration between the different types of risks (i.e. credit and liquidity risks).

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of our study is related to the analyzed geographic area.

Practical implications

First, our results support the Basel III initiatives aimed to realize a better integration between the different types of risks (i.e. credit and liquidity risks). In general, the broad policy implication of the paper is that in some contexts, such as the Italian market, securitization does not necessarily produce negative effects in terms of bank’s risk.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the empirical literature on the effects of securitization for banks in several ways. First, we consider the complexity of the bank’s risk profile; second, despite the importance of the Italian securitization market, there is a research void on it. Furthermore, unlike previous studies, our analysis covers the period 2000-2009, including the financial crisis years. Finally, to our knowledge, our methodology (ordered probit models) has not been used in the past in this context.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Wassim Ben Ayed, Rim Ammar Lamouchi and Suha M. Alawi

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the net stable funding ratio (NSFR) in the Islamic banking system. More specifically, the authors analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the net stable funding ratio (NSFR) in the Islamic banking system. More specifically, the authors analyze the impact of the deposit structure on the liquidity ratio using the two-step generalized method of moments approach during the 2000–2014 period.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on IFSB-12 and the GN-6, the authors calculated the NSFR for 35 Islamic banks operating in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Findings

The findings of this study show the following: first, ratio of profit-sharing investment accounts have a positive impact on the NSFR, while ratio of non profit-sharing investment accounts increase the maturity transformation risk; second, the results highlight that asset risk, bank capital and the business cycle have a positive impact on the liquidity ratio, while the returns on assets, bank size and market concentration have a negative impact; and third, these results support the IFSB’s efforts in developing guidelines for modifying the NSFR to enhance the liquidity risk management of institutions offering Islamic financial services.

Research limitations/implications

The most prominent limitation of this research is the availability of data.

Practical implications

These results will be useful for authorities and policy makers seeking to clarify the implications of adopting the liquidity requirement for banking behavior.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the knowledge in this area by improving our understanding of liquidity risk management during liquidity stress periods. It analyzes the modified NSFR that was adopted by the IFSB. Besides, this study fills a gap in the literature. Previous studies have used the conventional ratios to determinate the main factors of the maturity transformation risk in a full-fledged Islamic bank based on an early version of NSFR. Finally, most studies focus on the NSFR as proposed by the Basel Committee, whereas the authors investigate the case of the dual-banking system in the emerging economies of seven Arab countries in the MENA region.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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