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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Christopher Dick

To date, research on sponsorship considers the effects of only positive or only negative sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand. However…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, research on sponsorship considers the effects of only positive or only negative sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand. However, in practice, sometimes mixed information (positive and negative) is available that influences consumers’ sponsor evaluations. To mirror the information situation of the real world, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the valence of sponsorship information (only positive vs mixed vs only negative) and the strength of sponsorship information (weak vs strong) influence the consumers’ attitudes toward the sponsor brand.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses an experimental research design (n=210). Data were collected among students of a German university.

Findings

The results reveal that when the strength of information was weak, attitudes in the mixed information condition were not significantly worse than in the only positive condition and significantly better than in the only negative condition. In addition, when the strength of information was strong, attitudes in the mixed information condition were significantly worse than in the only positive condition and significantly better than in the only negative condition.

Practical implications

This study offers several practical recommendations regarding the sponsors’ evaluation of their investments and the decision to maintain or exit the sponsorship of a controversial object.

Originality/value

This study expands the research on the effects of available sponsorship information on consumers’ sponsor evaluation. The present research highlights the effects of different types of sponsorship information on consumers’ attitudes and considers the strength of information as a boundary condition of these effects.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Wen-Chin Tsao and Tz-Chi Mau

Consumer-generated online product reviews (OPRs) have become a crucial source of information for consumers; however, OPRs are increasingly being incentivized. The purpose…

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3269

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer-generated online product reviews (OPRs) have become a crucial source of information for consumers; however, OPRs are increasingly being incentivized. The purpose of this paper is to find a method of sponsorship and disclosure that could be considered ethically sound.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a quasi-experimental approach to clarifying how the method of sponsorship impacts reader perceptions of OPRs in terms of helpfulness, credibility and purchase intention. Two experiments were performed on an online platform using data from 480 participants. Hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance.

Findings

Meaning under the premise that sponsorship information is disclosed and not withheld from the readers, Study 1 revealed that experiential sponsorship is the best sponsorship. Study 2 revealed that featuring reviewers with greater influence in the online community increases the positive influence of disclosing experiential sponsorship on OPR persuasiveness.

Originality/value

The findings in this study provide rational incentives for firms to disclose sponsorship information, i.e. demonstrate high ethical standards in marketing. This was shown to create a win-win-win situation for consumers, firms and reviewers. Managerial implications for online marketing managers are also discussed.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Alexander Edeling, Stefan Hattula and Torsten Bornemann

This study aims at developing and testing a conceptual model that shows the antecedents of the recall of a former sponsorship.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at developing and testing a conceptual model that shows the antecedents of the recall of a former sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary (n = 1,146) and secondary data from German professional soccer build the empirical base for this research. Multilevel logistic regression is used for data analysis.

Findings

The results show that retroactive interferences in the form of replacement sponsors for the same object reduce the recall of a former sponsorship, while the mere passage of time does not have a significant main effect. To counteract such forgetting, the empirical analysis shows that sponsor managers can influence recall of a former sponsorship positively after sponsorship termination by switching to a lower-level sponsorship for the same object or by engaging in subsequent sponsorships with other congruent objects in the same context.

Research limitations/implications

The focus on one type of sponsorship (sport sponsorship) in one country (Germany) is the main limitation of this research.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper should encourage managers to consider the long-term consequences of sponsorship engagements beyond the duration of the sponsorship contract. Managers can influence the recall of a sponsorship not only prior to and during an engagement, but also after the loss of sponsorship rights.

Originality/value

Previous research on former sponsorships has mainly focused on the phenomenon of former sponsor recall per se, without considering the determinants of the construct. This paper contributes to sponsorship literature by showing that the number of replacement sponsorships, a construct unique to the former sponsorship context, dominates the time since sponsorship ending as the main driver of forgetting. Moreover, it provides managers with new post-sponsorship strategies that help maintaining the recall of a former sponsorship at a high level.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos and Ferran Calabuig Moreno

The purpose of this paper is to represent a pilot study which aims to explore the attention to sponsorship variable by assessing the level of congruence linked to both the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to represent a pilot study which aims to explore the attention to sponsorship variable by assessing the level of congruence linked to both the sponsor and the sponsored entity (sponsee).

Design/methodology/approach

This research performed an experiment involving three different sporting activities where the level of congruence was perceived in a different way according to the different attributes of sponsorship message. Electroencephalograms were employed in order to measure reaction times when recognizing and identifying the level of congruence of sponsorship messages. The rate of successful understanding and identification of these sponsorship messages was also measured with this tool.

Findings

Incongruent, misfit messages are processed and encoded with a higher level of attention as opposed to the information which is reliable and consistent with prior expectations (congruent pairings). This means that subjects find fit, congruent messages more difficult to identify; in this case the information is poorly encoded and often misunderstood. In relation to attention congruity, this research found no differences across the different sporting activities which were examined.

Practical implications

This research proves that neuroscientific methods can be useful to assess the performance of sponsorship as an alternative to traditional techniques. In addition, this research contributes to the existing debate in the literature regarding the disagreeing results on the actual effectiveness of sponsoring congruent perceived events involving congruent perceived sports teams.

Originality/value

This paper is pioneering in the measurement of sponsorship performance through the use of electroencephalograms. Also, the level of attention is considered as a performance indicator.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Margaret A. Johnston

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of 51 sponsorship announcements upon the stock prices of firms sponsoring in Australia. The research examines the…

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1828

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of 51 sponsorship announcements upon the stock prices of firms sponsoring in Australia. The research examines the broader question of whether sponsorship has the potential to transcend cultural boundaries and contribute to financial performance in regional markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the event study technique which is applied to the estimation of excess returns that arise in response to announcements of corporate sponsorship made by leading industrial stocks trading on the Australian Stock Exchange. Regressions examine whether the cost and duration of sponsorship signal information of importance to investors regarding the financial prospects of sponsoring firms.

Findings

A small, fleeting positive increase in wealth effects is observed indicating that economically, sponsorship expenditure in Australia is more or less value neutral. While investors appear indifferent to sponsorship cost, they value short‐term sponsorships of less than two years in particular.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to examine the role of associated variables such as contract size and length, and the type and level of sponsorship investment.

Originality/value

For firms, the study indicates that sponsorship in smaller regional markets should be valued by investors especially when firms keep the duration of the sponsorship as short. As stock prices tend to rise briefly following sponsorship announcements, marketers should leverage sponsorships immediately to gain the attention of investors. For a regional market, short and sharp sponsorships appear to be the optimal approach.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Maria Huertas-Serrano, Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco and Eduardo I. Torres-Moraga

The academic literature debates the desirability of sponsoring alcohol products at sporting events, a discussion that increases as major sporting events approach. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The academic literature debates the desirability of sponsoring alcohol products at sporting events, a discussion that increases as major sporting events approach. This study aims to examine the influence that sponsorship of an alcoholic product such as beer has on the sports spectator, and the level of efficacy with respect to congruent, alcohol, and incongruent sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiment was performed on 180 subjects considering three variables 3 × 3 × 2 (congruency type vs alcohol; sport discipline; placement). The experiment consisted of exposure to sponsored sports posters. Visual attention was recorded through eye tracking and then a self-reported questionnaire.

Findings

Through an experiment using eye tracking the results showed that the recall variable is higher among alcohol sponsorships and incongruent sponsorship, but it cannot be concluded either that the intention to buy or the attitude toward the brand differ among the sponsorships analyzed.

Practical implications

Alcohol brand is perceived as an incongruous brand in the context of sports sponsorship. Congruent sponsors attract more attention and recall, but no differences in terms of intention to buy. If purchase intent and consumption does not increase, perhaps sports sponsorship by alcohol brands should be reconsidered.

Originality/value

This research makes at least three relevant contributions to the scientific literature. (1) It examines the response to sponsorship in the media of the sports poster. (2) It analyses the consumer's response using neurophysiological means and provides new indicators in this area and (3) It compares performance indicators such as purchase intent, recall and brand attitude for alcoholic and non-alcoholic brand sponsors. These contributions could introduce new information about sponsorship performance.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Carolina Stubb, Anna-Greta Nyström and Jonas Colliander

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of a particular form of sponsorship disclaimer in sponsored content by social media influencers (SMIs), namely a…

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37666

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of a particular form of sponsorship disclaimer in sponsored content by social media influencers (SMIs), namely a sponsorship compensation justification disclosure. A sponsorship compensation justification disclosure explains why influencers and brands engage in sponsorship collaborations by providing a normative reason that justifies the existence and dissemination of sponsored content.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was used to compare the effects of a sponsorship compensation justification disclosure made by either an influencer or the sponsoring brand, to a simple sponsorship disclosure and a no disclosure control post, on consumers’ responses to a product-review video by a YouTube influencer.

Findings

The paper offers empirical evidence that sponsorship compensation justification generates more positive consumer attitudes toward influencers receiving sponsorship compensation, and increases source and message credibility, compared to a simple sponsorship disclosure.

Research limitations/implications

The hypotheses were tested on one YouTube video, comprising of a single product category, one SMI and one social media platform. Further studies might replicate the experiment on different product categories and on different social media platforms.

Practical implications

This empirical study can offer brand communication managers and influencers important information on how to communicate and design sponsorship disclosures to reach-desired responses from consumers.

Originality/value

The study is the first study to empirically demonstrate the effects of this particular type of sponsorship disclosure.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Apollo Demirel

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between sponsorship of professional sport teams and consumers' socially responsible perceptions of a sponsoring brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between sponsorship of professional sport teams and consumers' socially responsible perceptions of a sponsoring brand. More specifically, this research investigates if sponsorship of professional sport teams in itself leads consumers to perceive a sponsoring brand as socially responsible, and what factors may produce CSR perceptions and subsequent consumer response.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of sponsorship of professional sport teams on consumers' CSR perceptions of a sponsoring brand. Further, a field study was used to explore the role of sponsorship fit in generating CSR perceptions.

Findings

The results from the experimental study indicated that brand sponsorship of professional sport teams contributes to the socially responsible image of that brand, and sponsorship fit induces consumers' CSR perceptions of a sponsoring brand. Additionally, the results from the field study identified CSR perceptions as an underlying process driving the effect of sponsorship fit on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward a sponsoring brand. Lastly, the role of team identification was shown as a boundary condition shaping the effects of sponsorship fit.

Practical implications

Brands specifically seeking to create a socially responsible image, thanks to sponsoring a sport team, should consider the importance of perceived fit between their brand and the sponsored sport team as it is a key predictor of CSR perceptions.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence for the sport sponsorship and CSR perceptions link and sheds light on important predictors for consumer response.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Steffen Schmidt, Matthias Limbach, Sascha Langner, Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Levke Albertsen and Philipp Reiter

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect…

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1309

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect spectators’ implicit and explicit brand information processing.

Design/methodology/approach

A dual model of brand knowledge is used that considers the implicit and explicit information processing of marketing-induced brand messages. A web study was conducted prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Each participant implicitly and explicitly evaluated either one sponsor brand or one ambush brand before and after watching the video advertisement (within-subject design). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate each change of the pre-post testing scores.

Findings

Implicit and explicit brand associations as well as brand behavior were partially affected by the short contact with the advertisements of sponsor brands and ambush brands. In this regard, the implicit association measurements were more sensitive to reveal changes in the brand knowledge structure than their explicit counterparts. Furthermore, sponsorship advertising was slightly more effective than ambush advertising.

Originality/value

The current exploratory study evaluated for the first time the performance of event-related video advertisements that were originally released on social media of sponsor brands and ambush brands. The findings emphasize the necessary requirement of evaluating the implicit processing in addition to the explicit processing of sponsorship information to ensure a holistic evaluation of consumers’ memory with regard to the effectiveness of a sponsorship activity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Darja Groselj

This study aims to map the information landscape as it unfolds to users when they search for health topics on general search engines. Website sponsorship, platform type…

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2659

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to map the information landscape as it unfolds to users when they search for health topics on general search engines. Website sponsorship, platform type and linking patterns were analysed in order to advance the understanding of the provision of health information online.

Design/methodology/approach

The landscape was sampled by ten very different search queries and crawled with VOSON software. Drawing on Roger's framework of information politics on the web, the landscape is described on two levels. The front-end is examined qualitatively by assessing website sponsorship and platform type. On the back-end, linking patterns are analysed using hyperlink network analysis.

Findings

A vast majority of the websites have commercial and organisational sponsorship. The analysis of the platform type shows that health information is provided mainly on static homepages, informational portals and general news sites. A comparison of ten different health domains revealed substantial differences in their landscapes, related to domain-specific characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The size and properties of the web crawl were shaped by using third party software, and the generalisability of the results is limited by the selected search queries. Further research exploring how specific characteristics of different health domains shape provision of information online is suggested.

Practical implications

The demonstrated method can be used by organisations to discern the characteristics of the online information landscape in which they operate and to inform their business strategies.

Originality/value

The study examines health information landscapes on a large scale and makes an original contribution by comparing them across ten different health domains.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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