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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Cho-Pei Jiang, Yung-Chang Cheng, Hong-Wei Lin, Yu-Lee Chang, Tim Pasang and Shyh-Yuan Lee

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is used to manufacture biomedical implants because it has a high strength-to-weight ratio and high strength and is biocompatible. However, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is used to manufacture biomedical implants because it has a high strength-to-weight ratio and high strength and is biocompatible. However, the use of fused deposition modeling to print a PEEK results in low strength and crystallinity. This study aims to use the Taguchi method to optimize the printing factors to obtain the highest tensile strength of the printed PEEK object. The annealing effect on printed PEEK object and crystallinity are also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study determines the printing factors including the printing speed, layer thickness, printing temperature and extrusion width. Taguchi experimental design with a L9 orthogonal array is used to print the tensile specimen and carried out the tensile test to compare the tensile strength and porosity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the experimental error and to determine the optimization printing parameters to obtain the highest tensile strength. A multivariate linear regression analysis is used to obtain the linear regression equation for predicting the theoretical tensile strength. An X-ray analysis is achieved to evaluate the crystalline of printed object. The effect of annealing is investigated to improve the tensile strength of printed part. An intervertebral lumber device is printed to demonstrate the feasibility of the obtained optimization parameters for practical application.

Findings

Taguchi experiment designs nine sets of parameters to print the PEEK tensile specimen. The experimental results and the ANOVA present that the order in which the factors affect the tensile strength for printed PEEK parts is the layer thickness, the extrusion width, the printing speed and the printing temperature. The optimized printing parameters are a printing speed of 5 mm/s, a layer thickness of 0.1 mm, a printing temperature of 395 °C and an extrusion strand width of 0.44 mm. The average tensile strength of printed specimen with the optimized printing parameters is 91.48 MPa, which is slightly less than the theoretical predicted value of 94.34 MPa. After annealing, the tensile strength increases to 98.85 MPa, which is comparable to that for molded PEEK and the porosity decreases to 0.3 from 3.9%. X-ray diffraction results show that all printed and annealed specimens have a high degree of crystallinity. The printed intervertebral lumber device has ultimate compressive load of 13.42 kN.

Originality/value

The optimized printing parameters is suitable for low-price fused deposition modeling machine because it does not involve a table at high temperature and can print the PEEK object with high tensile strength and good crystalline. Annealing parameters offer a good solution for tensile strength improvement.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Huang-Jan Hsu, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Cho-Pei Jiang and Richard Lin

This study aims to compare the marginal fit, flexural strength and hardness for a ceramic premolar that is constructed using dental computer aided machining (CAM) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the marginal fit, flexural strength and hardness for a ceramic premolar that is constructed using dental computer aided machining (CAM) and three-dimensional slurry printing (3DSP).

Design/methodology/approach

Dental CAM and 3DSP are used to fabricate a premolar model. To reduce the fabrication time for 3DSP, a new composition of solvent-free slurry is proposed. Before it is fabricated, the dimensions of the green body for the premolar model are enlarged to account for the shrinkage ratio. A two-stage sintering process ensures accurate final dimensions for the premolar model. The surface morphology of the green body and the sintered premolars that are produced using the two methods is then determined using scanning electronic microscopy. The sintered premolars are seated on a stone model to determine the marginal gap using an optical microscope. The hardness and the flexural strength are also measured for the purpose of comparison.

Findings

The developed solvent-free slurry for 3DSP can be used to produce a premolar green body without micro-cracks or delamination. The maximal marginal gap for the sintered premolar parts that are constructed using the green bodies from dental CAM is 98.9 µm and that from 3DSP is 72 µm. Both methods produce a highly dense zirconia premolar using the same sintering conditions. The hardness value for the dental CAM group is 1238.8 HV, which is slightly higher than that for the 3DSP group (1189.4 HV) because there is a difference in the pre-processing of the initial ceramic materials. However, the flexural strength for 3DSP is 716.76 MPa, which is less than the requirement for clinical use.

Originality/value

This study verifies that 3DSP can be used to fabricate a zirconia dental restoration device that is as good as the one that is produced using the dental CAM system and which has a marginal gap that is smaller than the threshold value. The resulting premolar restoration devices that are produced by sintering the green bodies that are produced using 3DSP and dental CAM under the same conditions have a similar hardness value, which is four times greater than that of enamel. The flexural strength of 3DSP does not meet the requirement for clinical use.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Wei-Ting Chang, Huang-Jan Hsu, Cho-Pei Jiang, Shyh-Yuan Lee and Yuan-Min Lin

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of light controlling system that combined high refractive particles (n-TiO2 [titanium dioxide – TiO2]) and tartrazine lake…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of light controlling system that combined high refractive particles (n-TiO2 [titanium dioxide – TiO2]) and tartrazine lake dye (TL dye) on thickness, flexural strength, flexural modulus and surface details of the 3D-printed resin.

Design/methodology/approach

Influences of different concentrations of n-TiO2 and TL dye in light-cured resin formulations for 3D printing (3DP) application were evaluated, including curing thickness, flexural strength and surface details under scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The polymerization thickness of samples containing both n-TiO2 and TL dye was lower compared to samples with TL dye solely. Samples containing more n-TiO2 and more TL dye exhibited lower flexural strength and modulus. Ramp models showed that for samples containing 1 per cent TL dye, when their n-TiO2 content increased from 1 to 5 per cent, surface laminate structures became sharper. However, when the TL dye content doubled to 2 per cent, the surface laminate structures were indefinite compared to 1 per cent TL dye-containing counterparts.

Originality value

In visible-light 3DP, light controlling system in cooperate dye with high refractive particles provides better energy distribution and scattering control. High refractive particles, dyes and light exposure time had influenced the surface resolution and mechanical properties of the 3DP products.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Yuan-Min Lin, Hsuan Chen, Chih-Hsin Lin, Pin-Ju Huang and Shyh-Yuan Lee

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet digital light projection (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Two PCL-based triacrylates, namely, glycerol-3 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-3CL-TA) and glycerol-6 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-6CL-TA) were synthesized from ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolacton monomer in the presence of glycerol and then acrylation was performed using acryloyl chloride. 3D printing resins made of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA, 5% HA and 3% of photoinitiator 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide were then formulated. The surface topography, surface element composition, flexural strength, flexural modulus, cytotoxicity and degradation of the PCL-based scaffolds were then characterized.

Findings

Resin composite composed of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA and 5% (w/w) of HA can be printed by 405 nm DLP 3D printers. The former has lower viscosity and thus can form a more uniform layer-by-layer structure, while the latter exhibited a higher flexural strength and modulus after being printed. Both composite materials are non-cytotoxic and degradable.

Originality/value

This study provides a direction of the formulation of environment-friendly resin composite for DLP 3D printing. Both resin composites have huge potential in tissue engineering applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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