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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Harun Yanar, Hasan Huseyin Ayar, Muhammet Demirtas and Gencaga Purcek

This paper aims to investigate the effect of straight phenolic resin content on the fade behavior, frictions and wear characteristics of pre-determined brake pad composite

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of straight phenolic resin content on the fade behavior, frictions and wear characteristics of pre-determined brake pad composite matrix having specific amount of barite (BaSO4), rock wool, Kevlar, graphite and magnetite.

Design/methodology/approach

Different amount of resin ranging between 16 and 20 wt. per cent were added by changing only the filler (barite) content of composite matrix. Subsequently, friction and wear behavior of the composite samples were analyzed using a special pin-on-disc type test system developed for brake pad sample. The worn surfaces were investigated by SEM and three-dimensional (3D) surface profilometer.

Findings

The average coefficient of friction (CoF) of composite samples and temperature of the disc surface showed a linear increase with decreasing the resin content. The sample having 20 wt. per cent resin showed the minimum wear rate with smooth worn surface. But the amount of fade is quite high in that sample. Decreasing resin content decreased the fade formation, and the composite with 16 per cent resin brought about the minimum fade formation. As the fade formation is unwanted in brake pad applications, the composite with 16 wt. per cent resin was proposed as the most appropriate one considering the performance parameters related to friction and wear.

Originality/value

This paper optimizes the resin content of composite brake pad materials to achieve the best combination of its tribo-performance and mechanical properties and provides valuable information for scientists and engineers working in that area.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Jenarthanan M.P., Karthikeyan Marappan and Giridharan R.

The need for seeking alternate materials with increased performance in the field of composites revived this research, to prepare and evaluate the mechanical properties of…

Abstract

Purpose

The need for seeking alternate materials with increased performance in the field of composites revived this research, to prepare and evaluate the mechanical properties of e-glass and aloe vera fiber-reinforced with polyester and epoxy resin matrices.

Design/methodology/approach

The composites are prepared by hand layup method using E-glass and aloe vera fibers with length 5-6 mm. The resin used in the preparation of composites was epoxy and polyester. Fiber-reinforced composites were synthesized at 18:82 fiber–resin weight percentages. Samples prepared were tested to evaluate its mechanical and physical properties, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, hardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Findings

SEM analysis revealed the morphological features. E-glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite exhibited better mechanical properties than other composite samples. The cross-linking density of monomers of the epoxy resin and addition of the short chopped E-glass fibers enhanced the properties of E-glass epoxy fiber-reinforced composite.

Originality/value

This research work enlists the properties of e-glass and aloe vera fiber-reinforced with polyester and epoxy resin matrices which has not been attempted so far.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Vivekanandan D., Sakthivel M., Srinivasa Moorthy S. and Ajith Arul Daniel S.

In this study, TiO2 is used to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite material containing agave Americana fiber and polyester resin.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, TiO2 is used to enhance the mechanical properties of the composite material containing agave Americana fiber and polyester resin.

Design/methodology/approach

Agave Americana fiber was first treated with 5% of NaOH, and the composition of treated and untreated fiber was kept constant, whereas the particulate and resin were alternatively used. The handlay method is used to fabricate the composite plates. The morphology of the composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Findings

The composite was composed of 30% treated agave Americana, 10% of TiO2 particulates and 60% of a polyester resin for better and enhanced mechanical properties.

Practical implications

The composite can be used for aero-structural components, automobile components and other areas where light-weight components are required.

Originality/value

A new type of agave Americana fiber with TiO2 and polyester resin composite was fabricated and investigated.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Navin Kumar, Ravinderjit Singh Walia and Surjit Angra

The purpose of this study is to develop jute-glass hybrid fibre reinforced polyester-based bio-composites using an indigenously developed pultrusion set-up and to present…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop jute-glass hybrid fibre reinforced polyester-based bio-composites using an indigenously developed pultrusion set-up and to present a detailed discussion on their mechanical characterization.

Design/methodology/approach

The work was carried out to observe the hybridization effect of natural and synthetic fibres in combination with hybrid fillers loading mainly on strength and other properties. The used hybrid fillers were a combination of 9 Wt.% of carbon black%, 6 Wt.% of eggshell ash powder and 6 Wt.% of coconut coir ash powder. A lab-based developed pultrusion set-up was used to develop these hybrid GJFRP composites of 1,500 mm length. The developed composites were tested for tensile strength, compressive strength and impact strength.

Findings

The maximum tensile, compressive and impact strength obtained are 88.37 MPa, 56.13 MPa and 731.91 J/m from 9 Wt.%, 9 Wt.% and 0 Wt.% of hybrid fillers loading, respectively. Breaking energy was found maximum as 7.31 J in hybrid glass-jute hybrid fibre reinforced plastic composites with no filler loading and it was observed that filler loading was decreasing the impact strength of developed hybrid composites. Shrinkage and its variations in the diameter of the finally developed cylindrical shape composites were observed after cooling and solidification. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the internal cracks, bonding of fibres and resin, voids, etc.

Originality/value

Development of hybrid filler based novel eco-friendly bio-composites and its experimental investigation on the impact strength, tensile strength and compressive strength has not been attempted yet.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Yingjie Qiao, Xiaodong Wang, Xiaohong Zhang and Zhipeng Xing

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preparation and the flexural property of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) filled resin-matrix composites, which have been…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preparation and the flexural property of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) filled resin-matrix composites, which have been widely applied in deep-sea fields.

Design/methodology/approach

The composites with different contents of HGMs from 47 to 57 Wt.% were studied. The voids in syntactic foams and their flexural properties were investigated.

Findings

The results showed that the voids quantity increased because of the increment of HGM content, whereas the exural strength and the exural modulus decreased. The fracture mechanism of the composites was also investigated by scanning electron microscope, which indicated that the composites failed by the crack extending through the microspheres.

Research limitations/implications

The advantages of HGMs with similar hollow spheres will be further investigated in a future research.

Practical implications

Results demonstrated that the properties of the composite might be tailored for specific application conditions by changing the HGM volume fraction.

Originality/value

The HGM filled resin-matrix composite materials have their unique properties and significant application potential. In this work, the resin-HGM composites were synthesized by mechanically mixing defined quantities of HGMs into epoxy resin, by which a kind of syntactic foams with good flexural properties could be obtained.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Filip Górski, Wiesław Kuczko, Radosław Wichniarek and Adam Hamrol

This paper aims to study strength properties and accuracy of a new type of composites, in which matrix is manufactured additively, whereas infill is a polyurethane resin

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study strength properties and accuracy of a new type of composites, in which matrix is manufactured additively, whereas infill is a polyurethane resin. The process of manufacturing these composites is invented and patented by authors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a method of manufacturing composites, which was then used to build samples for tensile and bending tests (according to ISO 572 and ISO 178 standards), as well as measurements of accuracy.

Findings

It was found that the method of composite manufacturing designed by the authors allows obtaining both stronger and cheaper parts in comparison with the traditional acrylonitrile butadiene styrene FDM parts.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited to static tests only, and no dynamic tests were performed on the manufactured samples. The accuracy analysis is only a basic one.

Practical implications

Developed method allows to shorten the FDM process with simultaneous decrease of costs (in professional processes) and increase of strength of obtained products.

Originality/value

Application of composite materials presented in the paper will significantly expand possibilities of using FDM method to manufacture functional, strong parts able to carry higher loads. Application of different combinations of thermoplastic matrix materials with different resin infills will allow to control properties of obtained composites. The solution is currently subject of a patent.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

B.C. Samanta, T. Maity, S. Dalai and A.K. Banthia

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites modified with amine‐terminated poly (ethylene glycol…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites modified with amine‐terminated poly (ethylene glycol) benzoate (ATPEGB) along with their thermal stability.

Design/methodology/approach

ATPEGB prepared from poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weights (200, 400, 600, 4,000 and 20,000) were used as modifiers for glass fibre epoxy composite here. For toughening, 12.5 parts per hundred grams (phr) of epoxy resin of each ATPEGB was added to epoxy and pre‐reacted with it. The impact, tensile and flexural strengths of modified and unmodified composite were characterised and compared for each ATPEGB.

Findings

Modified resin displayed a significant improvement in fracture toughness with glass fibre over unmodified epoxy. The modification caused the formation of oligomer domains having relatively round shapes in the matrix. These oligomer domains led to improved strength and toughness due mainly to the “rubber toughening” effect in the brittle epoxy matrix. The optimum results were obtained for composite modified with ATPEGB‐2 prepared from PEG of molecular weight 400.

Research limitations/implications

In the present context, only 12.5 phr concentration of each ATPEGB was used to modify composite and the composites were made sing three layers of glass fibre. Besides, modification could also be done using other concentrations and more layers of glass fibre could also be used to make composite.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing toughness of epoxy glass fibre composite was novel and finds numerous applications as surface coatings, casting and adhesive onto an intricate structure, etc.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Yuan-Min Lin, Hsuan Chen, Chih-Hsin Lin, Pin-Ju Huang and Shyh-Yuan Lee

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet digital light projection (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Two PCL-based triacrylates, namely, glycerol-3 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-3CL-TA) and glycerol-6 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-6CL-TA) were synthesized from ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolacton monomer in the presence of glycerol and then acrylation was performed using acryloyl chloride. 3D printing resins made of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA, 5% HA and 3% of photoinitiator 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide were then formulated. The surface topography, surface element composition, flexural strength, flexural modulus, cytotoxicity and degradation of the PCL-based scaffolds were then characterized.

Findings

Resin composite composed of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA and 5% (w/w) of HA can be printed by 405 nm DLP 3D printers. The former has lower viscosity and thus can form a more uniform layer-by-layer structure, while the latter exhibited a higher flexural strength and modulus after being printed. Both composite materials are non-cytotoxic and degradable.

Originality/value

This study provides a direction of the formulation of environment-friendly resin composite for DLP 3D printing. Both resin composites have huge potential in tissue engineering applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Mohammad Amin Rahiminia, Masoud Latifi and Mojtaba Sadighi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an innovative transversal tubular braid texture and to study the elastic behavior of its 3 D printed structure comparatively to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an innovative transversal tubular braid texture and to study the elastic behavior of its 3 D printed structure comparatively to 3 D printed longitudinal tubular braid texture (maypole) to be used as reinforcement.

Design/methodology/approach

Regarding the lack of proper machines for the production of the proposed texture, the structure of samples was produced as a tubular lattice braid texture using a 3 D printer with the fused deposition modeling method subsequent to simulation by Rhinoceros software. The produced specimens were composited by polyurethane resin. The composite samples were evaluated by the split disk mechanical test to obtain their hoop stress. The structures of the reinforced composites were theoretically analyzed by ANSYS software.

Findings

The results of the mechanical test and theoretical analysis showed that the composites reinforced with transversal tubular lattice braid have higher strength compared to the composites reinforced with longitudinal ones. This assured that the composite reinforced by transversal tubular lattice braid is reliable to be used as high-performance tube for different applications.

Originality/value

Further work is carried out to produce the innovated complex structure continuously by a specially designed machine and fibrous materials to reinforce tubular composites in an industrial continual process to be applied for high-pressure fluids flows.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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