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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Rui Lv, Linbo Qing, Yanmei Yu, Xiaohai He and Qiangyu Zeng

The first purpose of this paper is to propose a scalable video coding scheme providing flexibility in video transmission, especially under wireless environment. The second…

Abstract

Purpose

The first purpose of this paper is to propose a scalable video coding scheme providing flexibility in video transmission, especially under wireless environment. The second purpose is to analyze the problem of lengthening the key frame interval in distributed video coding (DVC), and propose an approach to improve the rate‐distortion (RD) performance of DVC for long group‐of‐frames (GOF) size.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed scheme, a base layer is first obtained from an H.264 coder. When a DVC coder is then used to code the enhancement layer, information in processing the base layer is extracted and analyzed to make multiple side‐information available and reduce error accumulation for DVC coding, thus further improving the performance of the DVC coder.

Findings

By dividing video into base and enhancement layers, the combined video coding architecture enables a flexible video transmission. In addition, several methods are used to improve the RD performance in DVC coding. Simulation shows that the proposed scheme outperforms non‐scalable DVC for long GOF size.

Originality/value

Prediction from the decoding loop in base layer encoder largely reduces enhancement layer spatial redundancy. Multiple side‐information provides better estimation for DVC reconstruction. Long prediction loop is more reliable because error accumulation is effectively compensated.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Christos Grecos and Qi Wang

The interdisciplinary nature of video networking, coupled with various recent developments in standards, proposals and applications, poses great challenges to the research…

Abstract

Purpose

The interdisciplinary nature of video networking, coupled with various recent developments in standards, proposals and applications, poses great challenges to the research and industrial communities working in this area. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial and survey on recent advances in video networking from an integrated perspective of both video signal processing and networking.

Design/methodology/approach

Detailed technical descriptions and insightful analysis are presented for recent and emerging video coding standards, in particular the H.264 family. The applications of selected video coding standards in emerging wireless networks are then introduced with an emphasis on scalable video streaming in multihomed mobile networks. Both research challenges and potential solutions are discussed along the description, and numerical results through simulations or experiments are provided to reveal the performances of selected coding standards and networking algorithms.

Findings

The tutorial helps to clarify the similarities and differences among the considered standards and networking applications. A number of research trends and challenges are identified, and selected promising solutions are discussed. This practice would provoke further thoughts on the development of this area and open up more research and application opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Not all the concerned video coding standards are complemented with thorough studies of networking application scenarios.

Practical implications

The discussed video coding standards are either playing or going to play indispensable roles in the video industry; the introduced networking scenarios bring together these standards and various emerging wireless networking paradigms towards innovative application scenarios.

Originality/value

The comprehensive overview and critiques on existing standards and application approaches offer a valuable reference for researchers and system developers in related research and industrial communities.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Dimitris N. Kanellopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial and survey on recent advances in multimedia networking from an integrated perspective of both video networking and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial and survey on recent advances in multimedia networking from an integrated perspective of both video networking and building digital video libraries. The nature of video networking, coupled with various recent developments in standards, proposals and applications, poses great challenges to the research and industrial communities working in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an insightful analysis for recent and emerging multimedia applications in digital video libraries and on video coding standards and their applications in digital libraries. Emphasis is given on those standards and mechanisms that enable multimedia content adaptation fully interoperable according to the vision of Universal Multimedia Access vision.

Findings

The tutorial helps elucidate the similarities and differences among the considered standards and networking applications. A number of research trends and challenges are identified, and selected promising solutions are discussed. This practice would needle further thoughts on the development of this area and open-up more research and application opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

The paper does not provide methodical studies of networking application scenarios for all the discussed video coding standards and Quality of Service (QoS) management mechanisms.

Practical implications

The paper provides an overview of which technologies/mechanisms are being used broadly in networking scenarios of digital video libraries. The discussed networking scenarios bring together video coding standards and various emerging wireless networking paradigms toward innovative application scenarios.

Originality/value

QoS mechanisms and video coding standards that support multimedia applications for digital video libraries need to become well-known by library managers and professional associations in the fields of libraries and archives. The comprehensive overview and critiques on existing standards and application approaches offer a valuable reference for researchers and system developers in related research and industrial communities.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Jung Eun Lee and Song-Yi Youn

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of craftsmanship content and social distance embedded in the craftsmanship content on luxury brand experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of craftsmanship content and social distance embedded in the craftsmanship content on luxury brand experiences, perceived luxury and brand purchase intentions using a social media video.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a single factor (close social distance vs great social distance vs control group) using a between-subjects experimental design. The social distance was manipulated by the presence (i.e. a close social distance) or absence (i.e. a great social distance) of a consumer scene in a craftsmanship video shown on social media. The control group watched a video with non-craftsmanship content. Then, brand experience, perceived luxury and purchase intentions were measured.

Findings

The results showed that the control group perceived less luxury and had lower brand experiences and purchase intentions than the group that watched the video without a consumer scene. In addition, participants who watched the craftsmanship video that included a consumer scene (i.e. a close social distance) had stronger brand experiences than those who watched the video without the scene (i.e. a great social distance). The brand experience increased perceived luxury and purchase intentions.

Originality/value

By manipulating social distance and providing better brand experiences in social media, experiential marketing allows luxury brands to reconcile two apparently incompatible goals: maintaining an exclusive image while increasing purchase intentions.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

H. Kabir, Gholamali C. Shoja and Eric G. Manning

Streaming audio/video contents over the Internet requires large network bandwidth and timely delivery of media data. A streaming session is generally long and also needs a…

Abstract

Streaming audio/video contents over the Internet requires large network bandwidth and timely delivery of media data. A streaming session is generally long and also needs a large I/O bandwidth at the streaming server. A streaming server, however, has limited network and I/O bandwidth. For this reason, a streaming server alone cannot scale a streaming service well. An entire audio/video media file often cannot be cached due to intellectual property right concerns of the content owners, security reasons, and also due to its large size. This makes a streaming service hard to scale using conventional proxy servers. Media file compression using variable‐bit‐rate (VBR) encoding is necessary to get constant quality video playback although it produces traffic bursts. Traffic bursts either waste network bandwidth or cause hiccups in the playback. Large network latency and jitter also cause long start‐up delay and unwanted pauses in the playback, respectively. In this paper, we propose a proxy based constant‐bit‐rate (CBR)‐transmission scheme for VBR‐encoded videos and a scalable streaming scheme that uses a CBRtransmission scheme to stream stored videos over the Internet. Our CBR‐streaming scheme allows a server to transmit a VBRencoded video at a constant bit rate, close to its mean encoding bit rate, and deals with the network latency and jitter issues efficiently in order to provide quick and hiccup free playback without caching an entire media file. Our scalable streaming scheme also allows many clients to share a server stream. We use prefix buffers at the proxy to cache the prefixes of popular videos, to minimize the start‐up delay and to enable near mean bit rate streaming from the server as well as from the proxy. We use smoothing buffers at the proxy not only to eliminate jitter and traffic burst effects but also to enable many clients to share the same server stream. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our streaming scheme.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Robbert-Jan van der Burg, Kees Ahaus, Hans Wortmann and George B. Huitema

Technological developments and new customer expectations of immediacy have driven businesses to adopt on-demand service models. The purpose of this paper is to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological developments and new customer expectations of immediacy have driven businesses to adopt on-demand service models. The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of a range of on-demand services in order to better understand the meaning of “on-demand” and its implications for service management. This enables the on-demand service logic to be applied to other service contexts, where it may add value for customers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study starts with a focused literature review and continues with a multiple case study methodology, as the on-demand service concept is in the early stages of theory development. Seven cases were studied, based on a maximum variation sampling strategy.

Findings

The results show that on-demand services are characterized by three interrelated characteristics: being highly available, responsive and scalable. Analysis further reveals that on-demand services display differences within the conceptual boundaries of these characteristics, i.e. they vary in terms of their availability, responsiveness and scalability.

Originality/value

Drawing on these findings, the study contributes to the service literature by being the first to specifically conceptualize and define the on-demand services concept and reveal three key characteristics that clarify the distinctive nature of this service type. Accordingly, on-demand services are clearly differentiated from other services. Additionally, the paper discusses the variety within on-demand services and develops an on-demand service continuum that gives detailed insights into the conceptual variations within such services.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Carsten Griwodz, Steffen Fiksdal and Pål Halvorsen

Transmitting video over user datagram protocol (UDP) has been considered advantageous because it allows for discarding of packets in favor of retransmissions, and…

Abstract

Transmitting video over user datagram protocol (UDP) has been considered advantageous because it allows for discarding of packets in favor of retransmissions, and sender‐controlled timing. Using UDP has been criticized because it allows video streams to consume more than their fair share of bandwidth, which is typically associated with the back‐off behavior of transmission control protocol (TCP). TCP‐friendly algorithms are meant as a middle path. However, UDP delivery to end systems may still be prevented by firewalls or for other reasons, and TCP must be used. This in turn suffers from bandwidth fluctuations. Investigates an architecture that separates the transfer of a video stream over long distances. Considers a proxy server to translate the traffic and two straightforward approaches for the translation of a layered video stream transmission from the TCP‐friendly transport protocol to TCP. Does not expect that one of these two approaches is by itself suited for the task, but investigating them will provide insights into their basic functions and help in discovering appropriate modifications. For the investigation, an experimental approach was used where network behavior and content are emulated.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Ann Marie Wernick, Jillian Marie Conry and Paige Daniel Ware

This study investigates how debrief conversations unfold during virtual coaching sessions that provide embedded opportunities to practice teaching within a mixed reality…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how debrief conversations unfold during virtual coaching sessions that provide embedded opportunities to practice teaching within a mixed reality simulation (MRS). We examine how teacher and coach topical episodes function (agreeing, explaining, clarifying, probing, recapping, reflecting and suggesting) to activate reflection as part of virtual coaching.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and the belief that learning is collaborative and impacts how pre- and in-service teachers construct knowledge, this exploratory case study draws on insights from 15 graduate students (5 pre-service teachers (PSTs) and 10 in-service teachers (ISTs)) who participated in virtual coaching with embedded practice opportunities. Data sources were video recordings and transcripts of 15 virtual coaching sessions, and one-on-one postcoaching interviews. Coding categories were determined through the constant comparative analysis method.

Findings

Findings indicate that an MRS provides an immediate context for reflection, which guided the debrief conversations. Additionally, functions occurred with varying frequency among PSTs and ISTs, and across both groups, probing questions often led directly to reflecting and recapping the shared simulation context.

Research limitations/implications

This study had a small sample (n = 15) and the use of an MRS, while widely used, is not necessarily a scalable practice.

Originality/value

In times of remote teaching, like during corona virus 2019 (COVID-19), opportunities to simulate clinical experiences become vital. With a limited research base, learning how teachers engage with and learn from simulated experiences is a key to creating rich learning opportunities for teachers.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Book part
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Niels Neudecker, Deepak Varma, David Wright and Robert Powell

Advances in technology over recent years made it possible to use machines and artificial intelligence to develop commercially viable solutions for companies to listen to…

Abstract

Advances in technology over recent years made it possible to use machines and artificial intelligence to develop commercially viable solutions for companies to listen to consumers, decode the meaning, and respond accordingly. In parallel, solutions have been developed that are able to automatically track facial expressions of consumers when reacting to a given marketing stimulus.

The authors look at how marketing executives can apply these technologies to generate enhanced customer insights, providing a realistic context for future applications. The focus is on bringing researchers and managers closer to those moments of truth and our ability to understand customer emotions, emotional reaction, everyday language, and ultimately brand engagement.

The chapter covers the application of commercially viable use cases for (1) the automated measurement of emotions through facial coding to optimize advertizing and content, and (2) the use of voice coding technology to design interactive chatbots as an alternative to traditional surveys. In the outlook, the authors describe the potential that these technologies provide for future research and further use cases.

Details

The Machine Age of Customer Insight
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-697-6

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2015

Natalia Ward, Jennifer Lubke and Anne McGill-Franzen

This study explored the impact of integrating digital tools on professional preparation in literacy, specifically an online digital video portal for teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explored the impact of integrating digital tools on professional preparation in literacy, specifically an online digital video portal for teachers’ self-observation of instructional practice.

Methodology/approach

As a design experiment (Bradley & Reinking, 2011), a graduate-level Reading Education course was revisioned for blended learning to accommodate the professional development of practicing teachers in a rural, remote context. This chapter focuses on understanding how teachers experience video as a platform for reflection on and improvement of practice, with implications for those who seek to incorporate digital video into literacy professional development.

Findings

Through video analysis mediated by the use of a self-evaluation guide and a collaborative, online community, teacher-learners reflected on their own and their peers’ pedagogy and language interactions with students. After overcoming initial struggle with watching themselves on the video, the close analysis of clips became a powerful catalyst for professional growth. Teachers’ reflections shifted from outward-directed to inner-directed.

Practical implications

To successfully integrate video analysis in Reading Education practicums and professional development for in-service teachers, consideration should be given to technical as well as pedagogical components. Purposefully building in various scaffolds, for example, technical tutorials, prompts to focus video analysis, and safe platforms for sharing and collaboration, proved to be beneficial for teacher-learners in our courses.

Details

Video Reflection in Literacy Teacher Education and Development: Lessons from Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-676-8

Keywords

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