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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Pianpian Yang and Qingyu Zhang

This research aims to investigate how consumers’ authentic pride versus hubristic pride affects different construal levels of mind-sets and subsequent product evaluation…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate how consumers’ authentic pride versus hubristic pride affects different construal levels of mind-sets and subsequent product evaluation by activating local versus global cognitive appraisal tendencies. Furthermore, this research also examines how lay theories impact the effects of pride on construal levels and how power moderates the effect of hubristic versus authentic pride on product preferences varying in construal levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on cognitive appraisal and construal level theories, this research conducts eight experimental studies to test the hypotheses with an ANOVA, bootstrap analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. The details of the experiments are presented in the paper.

Findings

The results show that people feeling authentic (hubristic) pride dominantly adopt a lower (higher) level of construal, and consequently put more weight on feasibility over desirability (desirability over feasibility) attributes. Authentic pride’s inclination to appeal behavior-specific appraisals triggers local appraisal tendencies and bestows lower construal levels, whereas hubristic pride’s inclination to connect the entire self triggers global appraisal tendencies and confers higher construal levels. Incremental (vs entity) theorists are likely to attribute the pride experience to their efforts (traits), and thus feel authentic (hubristic) pride. Furthermore, the product preferences of people experiencing authentic vs hubristic pride depend on their power state.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding the importance of this research, it is worthwhile to note some of its limitations to encourage future research. First, eight studies in the lab were conducted, but no real behavior study was conducted. Although there is a high correlation between the results of lab studies and those of real behavior studies, the authors encourage future researches to elicit the consumers’ pride in the actual consumption situation using a real behavior study. Furthermore, this research mainly focuses on pride, and does not examine other positive emotions, e.g. happiness. Therefore, the authors encourage future research to examine other positive emotions.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that it is appropriate to use construal levels to match consumers’ pride types. In fact, marketers can induce hubristic pride or authentic pride in ads by simply using words or sentences (“feeling proud because of your hard work” or “feeling proud, you are so superior and remarkably unique”), and present either higher- or lower-level construal of desired behaviors to improve advertising effects.

Originality/value

The research contributes to literature by documenting how hubristic/authentic pride can affect distinct construal levels via activating global/local appraisal tendencies. And this research thoroughly illustrates the mechanism by which hubristic/authentic pride activates global versus local appraisal tendencies. More importantly, this research finds how lay theories affect construal level given a pride experience and it also corroborates the moderating effects of power in the proposed relationship, which establish the boundary conditions of the effects of prides on construal levels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Nicole Hartley and Teegan Green

Service encounters are becoming increasingly virtual through the infusion of computer-mediated technologies. Virtual services separate consumers and service providers both…

Abstract

Purpose

Service encounters are becoming increasingly virtual through the infusion of computer-mediated technologies. Virtual services separate consumers and service providers both spatially and temporally. With the advent of virtual services is the need to theoretically explain how service separability is psychologically perceived by consumers across the spectrum of computer-mediated technologies. Drawing on construal-level theory, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a theoretical framework depicting consumer’s construal of spatial and temporal separation across a continuum of technology-mediated service virtuality.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two studies: first, to investigate consumers’ levels of mental construal associated with varying degrees of service separation across a spectrum of technology-mediated services; second, to empirically examine consumer evaluations of service quality in response to varying degrees of spatial and temporal service separation. These relationships were tested across two service industries: education and tourism.

Findings

Consumers mentally construe psychological distance in response to service separation and these observations vary across the spectrum of service offerings ranging from face-to-face (no psychological distance) through to virtual (spatially and temporally separated – high psychological distance) services. Further, spatial separation negatively affects consumers’ service evaluations; such that as service separation increases, consumers’ service evaluations decrease. No such significant findings support the similar effect of temporal separation on customer service evaluations. Moreover, specific service industry-based distances exist such that consumers responded differentially for a credence (education) vs an experiential (tourism) service.

Originality/value

Recent studies in services marketing have challenged the inseparability assumption inherent for services. This paper builds on this knowledge and is the first to integrate literature on construal-level theory, service separability, and virtual services into a holistic conceptual framework which explains variance in consumer evaluations of separated service encounters. This is important due to the increasingly virtual nature of service provider-customer interactions across a diverse range of service industries (i.e. banking and finance, tourism, education, and health care). Service providers must be cognisant of the psychological barriers which are imposed by increased technology infusion in virtual services.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Miriam McGowan, Louise May Hassan and Edward Shiu

Consumers usually respond favourably to ingroups but negatively to dissociative groups and products linked to dissociative groups, termed the dissociative group effect…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers usually respond favourably to ingroups but negatively to dissociative groups and products linked to dissociative groups, termed the dissociative group effect. Despite important implications for branding, advertising and celebrity endorsement, little is known about how to attenuate the effect. This paper aims to introduce a mechanism which attenuates the dissociative group effect by drawing on construal level theory.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach was used which included two-part between-subjects designs.

Findings

High identifiers prefer products linked to their ingroup over ones linked to a dissociative group, however, the opposite is true for low identifiers. The difference in preference is attenuated for high and low identifiers when they are placed in an abstract mind-set. The underlying mechanism of this effect is similarity focus.

Research limitations/implications

The same context was used to ensure that the attenuating effect found was not due to contextual factors. However, further studies should replicate the findings in a wider variety of contexts.

Practical implications

This research offers practical recommendations on how to manage multiple customer segments in increasingly diverse marketplaces. By inducing an abstract mind-set in customers, for example, via advertising copy, website architecture or contextual factors such as pitch of the music, marketers can increase the effectiveness of identity-linking marketing for consumers’ high/low in identification.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical studies to evidence the applicability of construal level theory within identity marketing and offers a novel mechanism to attenuate the dissociative group effect. The findings shed new light on how low identifiers relate and respond to identity-linked marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Jeffrey P. Kaleta, Jong Seok Lee and Sungjin Yoo

The purpose of this paper is to focus on a potential tradeoff between security and usability in people’s use of online passwords – in general, complex passwords are secure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on a potential tradeoff between security and usability in people’s use of online passwords – in general, complex passwords are secure and desirable but difficult to use (i.e. difficult to memorize) whereas simple passwords are easy to use, but are insecure and undesirable. Construal level theory (CLT) explains how high vs low construal level causes people to focus on “desirability” vs “feasibility” of an action, which in the research context can translate into the “security” vs “usability” of using passwords.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a series of three laboratory experiments manipulating people’s construal level and investigating its impact on password use.

Findings

The authors found that people who were induced to think at a high construal level created or showed intention to choose stronger passwords relative to people who were induced to think at a low construal level. Furthermore, this effect was also significantly different from the control group who did not receive any experimental treatment. In addition, the authors found that perspective taking targeted at the desirability of creating a strong password further strengthened the effect of a high construal level on intended password choice.

Originality/value

This research makes several contributions to existing literature on password security. First, this research offers CLT as a theoretical lens to explain an individual’s thinking and behavior concerning online password use. Second, this research offers empirical evidence that a high construal level improves users’ password use, a desirable feature for improved security. Third, this research contributes to the literature on how to apply nudging to influence human behavior toward more desirable, stronger, password use. Finally, our research identifies PT as a factor enhancing the positive effect of a high construal level on online users’ password use.

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Edwin Love and Erica Mina Okada

– The purpose of this study is to propose differential marketing tactics for high-quality products versus low-price products by building on construal level theory.

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1880

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose differential marketing tactics for high-quality products versus low-price products by building on construal level theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted, one using students and another using data collected from more than 7,000 online auctions.

Findings

When consumers consider high-quality products, they use more abstract mental models, and when they consider low-price products, they use more concrete mental models. Differentiation based on primary features product is more effective for products that are positioned on quality, while differentiation based on the secondary features is more effective for products that are positioned on price. Also, marketing efforts to attract attention are more effective for products positioned on quality than those positioned on price.

Research limitations/implications

This research focused on how consumers use different mental models for considering high-quality versus low-price product offerings but did not examine whether a given segment/consumer uses different models in considering high-quality versus low-price alternatives.

Practical implications

Managers wishing to reinforce a high-quality position should focus on marketing efforts compatible with consumers’ high level construal by enhancing and highlighting the primary features, and drawing consumers’ attention to their product offerings. Managers wishing to reinforce a low-price positioning should focus on marketing efforts that are compatible with consumers’ low level construal by enhancing and highlighting secondary features.

Originality/value

This research makes an important theoretical link between construal theory and brand positioning.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Marlone D. Henderson and Robert B. Lount

Purpose – We apply theories of physical distance to better understand behavior and judgment in intragroup and intergroup negotiations.Approach – By applying theories of…

Abstract

Purpose – We apply theories of physical distance to better understand behavior and judgment in intragroup and intergroup negotiations.

Approach – By applying theories of physical distance to the domain of intragroup and intergroup negotiations we develop predictions about how large magnitudes of physical distance from in-group and out-group members should affect individuals' trust, interpretation of behavior, and willingness to use negotiation to resolve conflict.

Findings – Based on the current application of physical distance theories, several predictions are made for how increased distance should differentially impact the negotiation process when negotiating with in-group versus out-group members. Notably, it is predicted that because of increased schema-reliance associated with increased physical distance, negotiations with out-groups should have increased challenges.

Implications – The current chapter yields several interesting avenues for future empirical research. Moreover, we propose specific strategies that may be of use in reducing the potential harmful impact of increased physical distance in intergroup negotiations.

Value of the paper – We integrate several theories of physical distance to generate novel predictions for group negotiation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Bo Wu, Dongjin Li and Chubing Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction effect of moral identity and construal level on consumer green consumption and the mediating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction effect of moral identity and construal level on consumer green consumption and the mediating role of pro-environmental self-accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined the hypotheses in two experiment studies. In study 1, the authors measured participants’ chronic individual difference of moral identity and primed construal level. In study 2, the authors primed moral identity and measured chronic individual difference of construal level. The authors also measured pro-environmental self-accountability in these two studies.

Findings

The results reveal that construal level moderates the relationship between moral identity and consumer green consumption, specifically, when consumers are induced a high construal level, moral identity has no effect on consumer green consumption, while when consumers are induced a low construal level, moral identity has a positive effect on consumer green consumption; the interaction of moral identity and construal level on green consumption is mediated by pro-environmental self-accountability.

Research limitations/implications

This research enriches the literature on how to improve consumer green consumption, and thus has some managerial and public policy implications. But the authors only chose students as participants and the dependent measures are also limited. Future research can choose other type of sample and other dependent measures to test the generalization of the conclusion.

Originality/value

Prior literature of green consumption lacks research on mediation mechanism. Due to prior literature gaps, the authors integrate social-cognitive perspective moral identity theory, especially the in-group circle expansion of moral identity, and construal level theory to investigate the moderating effect of construal level on the relationship between moral identity and green consumption and the mediation effect of pro-environmental self-accountability.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Edward Ramirez, Fernando R. Jiménez and Roland Gau

This paper aims to identify and classify consumers’ goals associated with the consumption of environmentally sustainable products. The applicability of such goals to the…

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2446

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and classify consumers’ goals associated with the consumption of environmentally sustainable products. The applicability of such goals to the positioning of environmental products is also tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used 62 laddering interviews to identify a hierarchical map of adoption related goals. Study 2 used a survey design (N = 152 students) to test the effects of construal-goal fit on evaluations of environmental product attributes of a hybrid car. Study 3 involved an online experiment (N = 125 consumer panellists) to test the effects of construal-goal fit on consumers’ willingness to pay a price premium (WTPP) for energy-efficient light bulbs.

Findings

A hierarchical goal map displays consumption goals attainable through environmentally sustainable products. Consumers with a chronic, high-level construal placed more importance on product attributes associated with abstract goals than those with chronic, low-level construal. This effect was stronger for males than for females. Additionally, construal-goal fit increased WTPP.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that marketers consider construal-goal fit to communicate the value of environmentally sustainable products. The results, however, should be replicated in other product categories and across diverse cultural settings.

Originality/value

This paper identifies and classifies the goals related to consumption of environmentally sustainable products. Additionally, it tests the effects of construal-goal fit on evaluations of environmental products, providing insights for marketers seeking to improve their promotional efforts and for public policymakers as they institute demarketing campaigns.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Sevgi Emirza and Alev Katrinli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of leader’s construal level, which is the tendency of the leader to construe things abstractly or concretely, on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of leader’s construal level, which is the tendency of the leader to construe things abstractly or concretely, on leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and the moderating role of relational demography, which is the comparative similarity between supervisor and subordinate in demographic characteristics. The authors hypothesize a positive relationship between leader construal level and the quality of relationship, such that, as the leader’s construal level increases and becomes more abstract, the quality of relationship improves. Furthermore, demographic similarity is expected to moderate the relationship between leader construal level and LMX quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 159 employees with an online questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing.

Findings

Results show that the leader’s construal level is positively associated with LMX quality. Moreover, demographic similarity moderates this relationship such that when subordinate and supervisor have similar demographic characteristics, the effect of leader construal level on LMX is higher.

Originality/value

This study addresses the call for further research on leader-related antecedents of LMX by showing that leader construal level predicts relationship quality. This study also enhances our understanding of how to leverage the construal level in leadership research. Moreover, this study provides a deeper and more integrated understanding regarding the development of LMX relationships by delineating the interactive effect of leader-related features and relational demography.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Prathamesh Kittur and Swagato Chatterjee

Though extant literature has identified goods-based brand image (GBBI) and services-based brand image (SBBI) as drivers of business-to-business (B2B) loyalty, their…

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1072

Abstract

Purpose

Though extant literature has identified goods-based brand image (GBBI) and services-based brand image (SBBI) as drivers of business-to-business (B2B) loyalty, their relative importance has remained unexplored. This study aims to bridge this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have used a retrospective sampling-based methodology to collect data from B2B customers via an offline survey with a sample size of 125 purchase managers.

Findings

The authors found that both GBBI and SBBI have positive relationships with B2B loyalty, with customer satisfaction being the mediator. Using the construal level theory (CLT), the authors argue that the B2B purchase term, vendor–customer relationship strength and physical accessibility of the vendor are associated with the construal level of the purchase context. Further, the authors show that B2B customers give higher importance to GBBI in lower construal level and higher importance to SBBI in higher construal level. The authors have also found the moderated mediation effect of customer satisfaction in GBBI–loyalty and SBBI–loyalty relationships with construal level as moderator.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to extant literature of B2B branding and purchase decision-making by bringing in concepts of CLT. It also extends the literature of the GBBI–SBBI–loyalty relationship by bringing in newer results, which reassure the coexistence of goods-dominant and service-dominant logic in the B2B marketplace.

Practical implications

Important managerial implications have been discussed to help B2B managers in brand building, product–service design and relationship management.

Originality/value

This paper is a pioneer in using the CLT in the B2B purchase contexts. It also provides a theoretical and psychological underpinning of goods–service dilemmas in the B2B context, which is also noble.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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