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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Florian Holzmayer and Sascha L. Schmidt

Professional football clubs have increasingly initiated two corporate diversification strategies to enfold growth opportunities besides traditional income sources: business…

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Abstract

Purpose

Professional football clubs have increasingly initiated two corporate diversification strategies to enfold growth opportunities besides traditional income sources: business diversification and international diversification. Empirical findings from management and sport management literature provide inconclusive evidence on these strategies' financial performance effects, necessitating further research. The purpose of this article is therefore to investigate how both corporate diversification strategies affect the financial performance of professional football clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

A 15-year panel data set of English Premier League (EPL) clubs is examined, many of which have employed corporate diversification strategies. Measures for related business diversification (RBD) and unrelated business diversification (UBD) as well as international diversification are established from management literature. Based on fixed effects regression models, their effects on clubs' revenues and profitability are then examined.

Findings

U-shaped effects from RBD on revenues and profitability are found, but no effects from UBD. These findings empirically support the theoretically appealing superiority of RBD over UBD and, with increasing levels of RBD, over a focused strategy in management literature. With international diversification, an inverted U-shaped effect on revenues is identified.

Research limitations/implications

Despite focusing only on the EPL, these findings provide new evidence of non-linear financial performance effects from corporate diversification strategies adding to (sport) management literature and setting the stage for future research on these strategies in professional football.

Practical implications

These findings have significant implications for club managers' strategic growth opportunities such as new business models or geographic markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically examine the financial effects of corporate diversification strategies in the football market context.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Sebastian Merten, Sascha L. Schmidt and Mathieu Winand

The aim of this study is to identify organisational capabilities (OC) for a successful digital transformation (DT) and associated structures of internal teams to orchestrate and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to identify organisational capabilities (OC) for a successful digital transformation (DT) and associated structures of internal teams to orchestrate and support DT.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative, qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 82 executives from 43 diverse National Football Associations (NFA) spread across five continents was conducted.

Findings

The results show that organisational culture, strategic sensitivity, up-to-date ICT-infrastructure, a digitally skilled workforce, leadership support, knowledge management and internal DT-teams are important capabilities to enable successful DT.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the different levels of maturity of digitalisation and the financial constraints, not every NFA intends or is able to assign a full-time staff member exclusively to digital issues. Therefore, the most appropriate person was interviewed in each NFA.

Practical implications

Adapting an organisational culture to the requirements of the digital age is one of the most important steps in implementing DT. It is equally important for the leadership to form the strategic framework and enable the necessary training of employees to improve the results of the digitalisation processes.

Originality/value

This is the first study investigating NFA's DT from a worldwide perspective, identifying the most important factors for successful DT-processes.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Daniel Hoegele, Sascha L. Schmidt and Benno Torgler

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of superstars (and other factors) on football fans’ attraction to competition (i.e. disloyal behavior).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of superstars (and other factors) on football fans’ attraction to competition (i.e. disloyal behavior).

Design/methodology/approach

A proprietary data set including archival data on professional German football players and clubs as well as survey data of more than 900 football fans is used. The hypotheses are tested with two-sample mean-comparison t-tests and multivariate probit models.

Findings

This study provides evidence that superstars both attract new fans and contribute to the retention of existing fans. While the presence of superstars, team loyalty and team identification prevent football fans from being attracted to competition, the team's recent performance seems to have no effect. Fans who select their favorite player from a competing team rather choose superstars, young players, players who are known for exemplary behavior and defenders.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to existing research by expanding the list of antecedents of disloyalty and by being the first to employ independent, quantitative data for the assessment of superstar characteristics in the context of team loyalty.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Matthias Brauer and Sascha L. Schmidt

The purpose of this research is to explore the potential role and the measurement of the effectiveness of boards of directors in strategy formulation and implementation – two

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the potential role and the measurement of the effectiveness of boards of directors in strategy formulation and implementation – two aspects that have so far been left largely unaddressed by corporate governance research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on insights from strategy process literature, the paper suggests that, by ensuring consistency between resource allocation processes and the firm's intended strategy, boards could fulfil a meaningful role in strategy implementation. The proposed outside‐in analysis of resource allocation decisions is illustrated by a single case study of a major Swiss pharmaceutical company.

Findings

The proposed approach enables corporate governance scholars to look at how boards fulfil their role in strategy implementation from a perspective similar to that of financial analysts. It might thus be suited to complement existing methods in empirical corporate governance research.

Practical implications

The presented outside‐in analysis of resource allocation decisions helps board members to prevent role conflicts with executive management. In addition, boards may benefit from an analysis of implementation consistency, because it enables them to detect weak early warning signals of strategic divergence that require early intervention.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the discussion of alternative methods for exploring strategy issues in corporate governance research. The suggested approach outlines a potential new vantage point to investigate board involvement in strategy implementation in the event that action research is not feasible. The tentative findings from the case study put forward a set of indicators for measuring the effectiveness of boards in guiding strategy implementation.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Steffen Merkel, Sascha L. Schmidt and Dominik Schreyer

The purpose of this paper is to explore the future of professional soccer by 2025. Scientific foresight studies on this industry do not yet exist despite its current position at a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the future of professional soccer by 2025. Scientific foresight studies on this industry do not yet exist despite its current position at a crossroads: toward further exploitation of profit potential? Or clear commitment to the traditional European Model of Sport?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a Delphi-based scenario study. In total, 62 high-level experts from sport, business, and society evaluated the probability of occurrence, impact, and desirability of 15 future projections over at least two rounds. The resulting 5,940 quantitative judgments and 670 qualitative comments were condensed into probable scenarios and surprising wildcards.

Findings

Two probable scenarios for European professional soccer by 2025 exist: in an extrapolation scenario, clubs will reap long-term gains from fulfilling public demands regarding stadium security, competitive balance, and social engagement. The less likely alternative is an extensive commercialization, including a short-term exploitation of all imaginable income sources, such as virtually augmented stadiums, financial investors, and league-owned broadcasting channels.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are primarily based on qualitative research and an all-German sample. Further studies could incorporate additional quantitative data or might survey an international panel to increase predictive accuracy.

Originality/value

The paper is novel in that it examines a yet unaddressed research gap – the future of professional soccer – with a common scientific foresight method that is already established in sport management research – the Delphi technique.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2023

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Organizations and other entities that achieve digital transformation (DT) become better positioned to meet emerging challenges in the digital age. Different organizational capabilities that include an appropriate organizational culture, a workforce equipped with digital skills, modern ICT infrastructure, effective knowledge management and strong leadership support are critical if DT is to prove successful.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives, strategists and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Philipp Heinemann, Michael Schmidt, Felix Will, Sascha Kaiser, Christoph Jeßberger and Mirko Hornung

The paper aims to assess the potential of aircraft operation from city centres to achieve shortened travel times and the involved aircraft design process.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to assess the potential of aircraft operation from city centres to achieve shortened travel times and the involved aircraft design process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the methodical approach and iterative procedure of the design process. An assessment of potential technologies is conducted to provide the required enhancements to fulfil the constraints following an inner-city operation. Operational procedures were analysed to reduce the noise propagation through flight path optimization. Furthermore, a ground-based assisted take-off system was conceived to lower required take-off field length and to prevent engine sizing just for the take-off case. Cabin design optimization for a fast turnaround has been conducted to ensure a wide utilization spectrum. The results prove the feasibility of an aircraft developed for inner city operation.

Findings

A detailed concept for a 60-passenger single aisle aircraft is proposed for an Entry-Into-Service year 2040 with a design range of 1,500 nautical miles for a load factor of 90 per cent. Although the design for Short Take-off and Landing and low noise operation had to be traded partly with cruise efficiency, a noteworthy reduction in fuel burn per passenger and nautical mile could be achieved against current aircraft.

Practical implications

The findings will contribute to the evaluation of the feasibility and impact of the Flightpath 2050 goal of a 4-h door-to-door by providing a feasible but ambitious example. Furthermore, it highlights possible bottlenecks and problems faced when realizing this goal.

Originality/value

The paper draws its value from the consideration of the overall sizing effects at aircraft level and from a holistic view on an inner-city airport/aircraft concept design for a 4-h door-to-door goal.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Steffen Schmidt, Matthias Limbach, Sascha Langner, Klaus-Peter Wiedmann, Levke Albertsen and Philipp Reiter

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of event-related sports sponsorship and ambushing activity using social media video advertising that aim to affect spectators’ implicit and explicit brand information processing.

Design/methodology/approach

A dual model of brand knowledge is used that considers the implicit and explicit information processing of marketing-induced brand messages. A web study was conducted prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Each participant implicitly and explicitly evaluated either one sponsor brand or one ambush brand before and after watching the video advertisement (within-subject design). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate each change of the pre-post testing scores.

Findings

Implicit and explicit brand associations as well as brand behavior were partially affected by the short contact with the advertisements of sponsor brands and ambush brands. In this regard, the implicit association measurements were more sensitive to reveal changes in the brand knowledge structure than their explicit counterparts. Furthermore, sponsorship advertising was slightly more effective than ambush advertising.

Originality/value

The current exploratory study evaluated for the first time the performance of event-related video advertisements that were originally released on social media of sponsor brands and ambush brands. The findings emphasize the necessary requirement of evaluating the implicit processing in addition to the explicit processing of sponsorship information to ensure a holistic evaluation of consumers’ memory with regard to the effectiveness of a sponsorship activity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Henning Zülch, Moritz Palme and Sébastien Pierre Jost

This study derives a new framework that comprehensively assesses management quality along four dimensions, namely Sporting Success; Financial Performance; Fan Welfare…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study derives a new framework that comprehensively assesses management quality along four dimensions, namely Sporting Success; Financial Performance; Fan Welfare Maximization; and Leadership and Governance. Filled with measurable key performance indicators (KPIs), these dimensions serve the purpose of objectively quantifying the relevant success factors. Ultimately, the performance in all dimensions indicates a football club's management quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies first on a review of the literature in the field of both general management and sports. Second, the authors adapt the balanced scorecard framework to the field of professional football and use a set of KPIs to assess the management quality of the Bundesliga teams over the seasons 2016/17 and 2017/18. Third, the authors validate the relative weights of the four dimensions composing the so-called “Football Management Quality score” (i.e. FoMa Q-Score) using expert interviews.

Findings

Two movements characterize the score development in 2017/18 compared to 2016/17: first, scores appear more contracted than previously. Second, both average and median scores improved, suggesting a general improvement in the management quality within the Bundesliga.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first exploratory study deriving and measuring relevant key criteria for managing football clubs and illustrating the findings in a ranking. The aim of this study is to establish a model that impacts both academia and practice. By utilizing existing management literature and adjusting it to football particularities, the newfound knowledge begins to close the gap in sport management literature.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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