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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Abstract

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Education + Training, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

J. Lau, Y.‐H. Pao, C. Larner, R. Govila, S. Twerefour, D. Gilbert, S. Erasmus and S. Dolot

The reliability of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin plastic quad flat pack (QFP) no‐clean and water‐clean solder joints has been studied by temperature cycling and…

Abstract

The reliability of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin plastic quad flat pack (QFP) no‐clean and water‐clean solder joints has been studied by temperature cycling and analytical analysis. The temperature cycling test was run non‐stop for more than 6 months, and the results have been presented as a Weibull distribution. A unique temperature cycling profile has been developed based on the calculated lead stiffness, elastic and creep strains in the solder joint, and solder data. Also, the thermal fatigue life of the solder joints has been estimated and correlated with experimental results. Furthermore, a failure analysis of the solder joints has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, a quantitative comparison between the no‐clean and water‐clean QFP solder joints has been presented.

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

J. Lau, S. Golwalkar, P. Boysan, R. Surratt, R. Forhringer and S. Erasmus

The reliability of 0.5 mm pitch, 32‐pin thin small outline package (TSOP) solder joints has been studied by experimental temperature cycling and a cost‐effective 3‐D…

Abstract

The reliability of 0.5 mm pitch, 32‐pin thin small outline package (TSOP) solder joints has been studied by experimental temperature cycling and a cost‐effective 3‐D non‐linear finite element analysis. Temperature cycling results have been presented as a Weibull distribution, and an acceleration factor has been established for predicting the failure rate at operating conditions. Thermal fatigue life of the corner solder joints has been estimated based on the calculated plastic strain, Coffin‐Manson law and isothermal fatigue data on solders. A correlation between the experimental and analytical results has also been made. Furthermore, failure analysis of the solder joints has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an optical method. Finally, a quantitative comparison between the Type‐I and Type‐II TSOP solder joints has been presented.

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Circuit World, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

J. Lau, R. Govila, C. Larner, Y.‐H. Pao, S. Erasmus, S. Dolot, M. Jalilian and M. Lancaster

Solvent‐clean and no‐clean mass reflow processes of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin fine pitch quad flat packs (QFPs) are presented. Emphasis is placed on fine…

Abstract

Solvent‐clean and no‐clean mass reflow processes of 0.4 mm pitch, 28 mm body size, 256‐pin fine pitch quad flat packs (QFPs) are presented. Emphasis is placed on fine pitch parameters such as printed circuit board (PCB) design, solder paste selection, stencil design, printing technology, component placement, mass reflow, cleaning and inspection. Furthermore, cross‐sections of component/PCB assemblies from both processes have been thoroughly studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

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Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

J. Lau, S. Leung, R. Subrahmanyan, D. Rice, S. Erasmus and C.Y. Li

In this study, the reliability of solder joints and plated‐through hole copper pads/barrels of pin grid array assemblies under rework condition has been determined by…

Abstract

In this study, the reliability of solder joints and plated‐through hole copper pads/barrels of pin grid array assemblies under rework condition has been determined by fatigue experiments. The cross‐sections of the re‐worked PGA assemblies (before and after fatigue tests) are also provided for a better understanding of the failure mechanisms of the composite structure. Furthermore, the load‐drop curves of the PGA interconnects for up to three reworks are provided for a better estimate of their fatigue life.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Robert J. Nathan, Paul H.P. Yeow and San Murugesan

This paper aims to report on a web usability study and to identify and prioritise key web interface usability factors (WIUFs) for web sites of 36 student‐related online…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on a web usability study and to identify and prioritise key web interface usability factors (WIUFs) for web sites of 36 student‐related online services categorised into three groups: personal services, purchase services and study‐related web sites.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, involving 400 student internet users (SIUs), 12,310 data points were collected and analysed using a multiple linear regression test. Seven WIUFs were tested: use of colour and font (UCF), use of graphics and multimedia (UGM), clarity of goals in web site (CGW), trustworthiness of web site (TOW), interactivity of web site (IOW), ease of web navigation (EWN), and download speed of web site (DSOW).

Findings

The study results reveal that every online service category has a different set of crucial WIUFs. SIUs' web usability preferences were compared with those of general internet users.

Research limitations/implications

The participants were all Malaysians; therefore, generalising the findings to all SIUs will require a confirmatory study with SIUs from other parts of the world.

Practical implications

Web developers can use the results to design usable web sites for specific online service categories.

Originality/value

The research offers a simpler alternative to measure web usability and to determine which WIUFs are crucial for a specific online service category with consideration of the users' role. This study overcomes some weaknesses of previous studies, i.e. small sample size, no consideration of product‐task relationship, no specific customer group and cumbersome procedures.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

W. Engelmaier and B. Fuentes

Alloy 42 and, similarly, Kovar were developed to provide metallic feed‐throughs from the interior of ceramic components to the exterior. The low coefficient of thermal…

Abstract

Alloy 42 and, similarly, Kovar were developed to provide metallic feed‐throughs from the interior of ceramic components to the exterior. The low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of ceramic needs to be almost matched by the feed‐through metal to allow reliable hermetically sealed connections. For this purpose these alloys have served very well. However, because of its wide‐spread use for military applications, for which component hermeticity has been required, as well as because of the easier attachment of low‐CTE die to low‐CTE lead frames, Alloy 42 has found its way into plastic components with often disastrous results. When surface mount solder joints connect materials with different CTEs, global thermal expansion mismatches result. Also, if the materials to which the solder bonds have CTEs that differ from the CTE of solder, local thermal expansion mismatches result. These thermal expansion mismatches are the cause of most SM solder joint failures. Alloy 42 and Kovar not only cause significant global and local thermal expansion mismatches, but are inherently more difficult to solder because of the low solubility of nickel and iron, the main constituents of these alloys, in tin. Pull tests of solder joints show that under the best of circumstances a solder joint that includes an Alloy 42 or Kovar surface is only half as strong as one made to copper surfaces.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Suzanne Amaro, Cristina Barroco and Joaquim Antunes

This study aims to apply the concept of brand love to a destination and investigate its antecedents and consequences. It also explores the moderating effects of time…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply the concept of brand love to a destination and investigate its antecedents and consequences. It also explores the moderating effects of time elapsed since the establishment of the destination brand love relationship on the outcomes of destination brand love.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 5,511 valid responses were obtained from an online survey distributed among former international students from the Erasmus program of the European Union. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypotheses.

Findings

Destination brand love was found to have a significant impact on electronic word of mouth (eWOM), WOM, WOM intensity, recommendation and revisit intention. Moderation analysis revealed that the amount of time elapsed since the establishment of the destination brand love relationship did not affect these outcomes. Moreover, destination image and the Erasmus experience had a positive effect on destination brand love.

Practical implications

Destination marketers should focus on enhancing the Erasmus experience and on improving destination image perception, as these factors help develop destination brand love. Marketers should also be aware that this relationship has long-lasting effects.

Originality/value

This study adds to the sparse literature on brand love in relation to a destination. This gives the first results for the importance of Erasmus students to the promotion of a host country. It also contributes to the question of how long the brand love relationship can last.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Martina G. Gallarza, Teresa Fayos, Rosa Currás, David Servera and Francisco Arteaga

Since universities adopted a “Student as Customer” approach, student consumer behavior is a field of study which has become crucial. In the European higher education area…

Abstract

Purpose

Since universities adopted a “Student as Customer” approach, student consumer behavior is a field of study which has become crucial. In the European higher education area, more understanding is needed on International students, and more precisely on Erasmus students. The purpose of this paper is to validate a multidimensional scale to assess Erasmus students’ value expectations (i.e. expected value) on the basis of costs and benefits in their choices as consumers of an academic experience abroad.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey conducted on a sample of 192 students from 50 universities show the role of functional, social and emotional values along with costs of time and effort in the perceived value of an Erasmus experience.

Findings

After validating the five scales, the results show that social and emotional are the aspects were students’ expected value dimensions are the highest, as the Erasmus experience is expected to enrich their studies and enable them to boost their self-confidence, while functionally helping them to find a job in the future. Concerning the sacrifices, the Erasmus experience has a high cost with regard to effort, time and energy, but students are willing to go through it: an Erasmus stay is seen as a good investment, whose benefits will be reaped in the long run.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper comes from the scope and the target: a multidimensional trade-off approach to the expected value of the Erasmus experience. Other works have already depicted the educational experience through the value concept, but none, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, has measured expected value on the pre-purchase phase for Erasmus students.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 October 2005

Jeroen Huisman, Anneke Luijten-Lub and Marijk van der Wende

This chapter tries to explain the impact of the European Commission's ERASMUS programme on national higher education policies of 18 European countries. Based on an…

Abstract

This chapter tries to explain the impact of the European Commission's ERASMUS programme on national higher education policies of 18 European countries. Based on an analysis of the literature on Europeanisation and policy impact, it is hypothesised that the impact will be very modest, but that there may be indirect impacts and differences in impact across countries dependent on institutional features of the higher education system. The empirical findings support the hypothesis: ERASMUS certainly has increased policy-makers’ awareness of the importance and possible consequences of further internationalisation. Nevertheless, ERASMUS has a more profound effect on higher education institutions and students. In addition, policy-makers have been much more influenced regarding their internationalisation policies by the Sorbonne and Bologna Declarations. There are some noteworthy differences between the countries that relate to specific domestic characteristics (e.g. language and colonial history).

Details

International Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-244-3

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