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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic…

Abstract

Purpose

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic process-driven approach. Experiential approaches offer the potential to develop the skills and mindset that are required in entrepreneurship. Research has highlighted the critical importance of educator pedagogical competence in the delivery and quality of teaching and learning in further and higher education. Nevertheless, educator narratives and practices are often based on foundations that suggest a lack in the depth of knowledge and understanding of the underlying pedagogic learning theories and practice. This paper brings educational theory and pedagogic practice together in a three-stage framework of the experiential entrepreneurship learning process to support entrepreneurship educators within further and higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and brings together the seminal educational theories and philosophies of constructivism, objectivism, Kolb's (1984) theory of experiential learning, Schön's (1983) reflection-in-action and Mezirow's (1997) theory of transformative learning, to develop a framework which underpins the experiential entrepreneurship learning process.

Findings

This paper develops a three-stage framework which informs the roles of an educator and a learner in experiential entrepreneurship education within further and higher education, based on educational theories and philosophies that inform the learning process.

Practical implications

The developed framework supports the pedagogic competence of educators in the delivery of experiential entrepreneurship education through a deeper understanding of the supporting theory that informs the pedagogic practice. This will provide consolidation to enable educators to maximise the effectiveness of their educational practice (Kaynardağ, 2019) and can increase the legitimacy of entrepreneurship education (Foliard et al., 2018).

Originality/value

This paper meets calls in the literature to provide a closer engagement between educational theory and pedagogic practice to afford guidance as to how educators can navigate some of the different educational theories and philosophies to consolidate the effective delivery of quality experiential entrepreneurship education. Applying seminal educational theories and philosophies to ensure the quality of experiential education can support the legitimacy of experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Soroush Saadat, Aliasghar Aliakbari, Amirreza Alizadeh Majd and Robin Bell

This study investigates the effect of entrepreneurship education in terms of the development of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, on graduate students' entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the effect of entrepreneurship education in terms of the development of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, on graduate students' entrepreneurial alertness and the mediating role of the entrepreneurial mindset.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collected data using questionnaires from graduate students at an Iranian university who had engaged with entrepreneurship education. The questionnaires collected data on the respondent's demographics and adopted previously validated measures to measure entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial alertness and entrepreneurial mindset. Statistical techniques were applied to test validity and structural equation modeling was undertaken to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that entrepreneurship education has a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial alertness and entrepreneurial mindset. In addition, entrepreneurial mindset was found to have a positive and significant role in mediating the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial alertness. This finding highlights the importance of educators seeking to build an entrepreneurial mindset within entrepreneurship education, in addition to developing students' entrepreneurial alertness by focusing on opportunity identification and recognition.

Originality/value

The study addresses a gap in the literature as to the relationship between entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial alertness, and the entrepreneurial mindset, and furthers the understanding of the impact of entrepreneurship education. The results inform educational practice, as ensuring students recognize entrepreneurial opportunities is an important element of venture creation.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Lemun Yatu, Robin Bell and Mark Loon

Entrepreneurship education plays a crucial role in the development of entrepreneurs and the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities in every economy. This paper presents…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education plays a crucial role in the development of entrepreneurs and the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities in every economy. This paper presents the findings of a review of Nigerian entrepreneurship education literature published in 20 journals over a 16-year period. The purpose of this paper is to examine research contributions in the field of entrepreneurship education within the Nigerian context, with the aim of understanding the focus and the different research areas covered by researchers in this area, and to make suggestions that can guide scholars in their future research contributions.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature reviews are recognized methods for conducting evidence-based research. The study adopted a systematic literature review approach, drawing from a computerized search of five selected databases, using predetermined key words by the researchers.

Findings

The main finding of this paper is that related concepts like skills, intention, drive and attitude have been used in expounding discussions on the outcome of entrepreneurship education, but very little has been written on entrepreneurial mindset, which other studies have suggested is a crucial point in the journey of an entrepreneur (Reed and Stoltz, 2011; Neneh, 2012). Furthermore, learning and teaching of entrepreneurship in the Nigerian higher education institutions seem to be more focused on creating awareness about entrepreneurship, as against the experiential approach that scholars have argued to be a prerequisite for developing the next generation of entrepreneurs (Bell, 2015). The study also found that over 80 percent of the reviewed articles are published in journals not ranked or indexed in the ABS journal rankings or the Scopus database.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited since it is based on a review of literature from a selected range of databases, covering a specific time span. This potentially excludes other studies outside this time span. Scholarship in this area and context will benefit greatly when researchers target, choose and engage the higher ranked and more impactful journals as the outlet for their research outputs.

Practical implications

At a time when efforts are being made to address socioeconomic issues like poverty and unemployment through mainstream training in entrepreneurship education, this paper provides a better understanding of the state of research in this context, by highlighting the potential gaps as to where research investigation is needed for better policy formulation and guiding future research.

Originality/value

There are limited studies that focus on the issue of entrepreneurial mindset in entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. Overall, this paper identifies an important gap in the literature that warrants future research.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Robin Bell

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the relative importance of four key entrepreneurial characteristics identified in the literature (proactiveness, attitude to risk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the relative importance of four key entrepreneurial characteristics identified in the literature (proactiveness, attitude to risk, innovativeness and self-efficacy) in predicting students’ entrepreneurial intention (EI) across a range of faculties offering different subjects at a UK higher education institution (HEI). This approach will help to identify whether there are variations across the faculties in the predictors of EI. This enables recommendations to be made with regard to the development of educational delivery and support to encourage and develop the specific predictors of EI within the different subject areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a 40-item questionnaire to obtain information on students’ demographics, entrepreneurial characteristics and EI, based on a five-point Likert-type scale. Principle component analysis, correlation analysis and multiple hierarchical regression analysis are used to analyse the data from 1,185 students to develop models which predict EI for each of the six faculties.

Findings

Individual models which predict EI are developed for each of the six faculties showing variations in the makeup of the predictors across faculties in the HEI. Attitude to risk was the strongest predictor in five of the six faculties and the second strongest predictor in the sixth. The differences, together with the implications, for educational approaches and pedagogy are considered.

Originality/value

This research breaks down the level of analysis of EI to the individual faculty level in order to investigate whether different entrepreneurial characteristics predict EI in different academic disciplines across a UK HEI. This enables entrepreneurship educational approaches to be considered at a faculty level rather than a one size fits all approach.

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Robin Bell and Thanh Trung Pham

The transfer of knowledge has been identified as an important part of the family business succession process. This paper examines the knowledge transfer process from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The transfer of knowledge has been identified as an important part of the family business succession process. This paper examines the knowledge transfer process from the founder to the successor to understand and model the factors that influence the knowledge transfer process in the Vietnamese family business context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts an inductive qualitative approach, conducting face-to-face semi-structured interviews with five father-son succession pairs. The interviews with founders and successors, ten in total, formed the basis of five case studies. The cases were all at an advanced stage of the process of business knowledge transfer and family business succession.

Findings

A contextualized model was developed, highlighting the main factors that influence the knowledge transfer process from the founder to the successor in a Vietnamese family business context. This model identifies the influence of factors, some of which are not commonly presented in western family business literature. These include the importance of the role of the mother in mediating the relationship quality between the founder and the successor and the successor pursuing education and external work experience to improve their cognitive and reflective abilities. The need for the affinity between family members is also highlighted as important.

Originality/value

In Vietnam, most family-run businesses are still under the control of the founder. This research provides insight into the succession process in Vietnam. This research addresses calls for further exploration into the factors that influence the transfer of knowledge in the family business succession process and to research this process in a collectivist society, both of which remain under-researched.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Robin Bell and Peng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected from 24 focus groups of educators who had been tasked with embedding constructivist entrepreneurship education into their teaching and curriculum, at four different vocational colleges situated in four different provinces in China. The data were coded and analysed for emerging themes using a process of bottom-up thematic analysis.

Findings

A range of concerns were identified from the focus groups and these could be divided into five main challenges, which were the role of the educator in the constructivist learning process and their ability to control the process; the educators perceived student reaction to the process and their engagement with it; the time and technology required to deliver the process; the link between the learning and industry; and the educators’ perception of the requirements to meet internal expectations.

Research limitations/implications

This research explores the educators’ perceptions of the challenges they face in developing and delivering active and experiential constructivist entrepreneurship education. Whilst these concerns may impact how the educators’ approach the task, these concerns are only perceived, as the educators’ have not yet implemented the introduction of constructivist entrepreneurship education when other challenges may become evident.

Originality/value

Encouragement by the Chinese Government to develop and deliver constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education has resulted in a number of tensions and challenges. Entrepreneurship education in China is still relatively young and under researched and this research contributes to the literature by exploring the challenges that educators face in developing and delivering constructivist entrepreneurship education in Chinese vocational colleges.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

René Schmidt, Robin Bell and Vessela Warren

This research identifies the forms of tacit knowledge frequently requested in the job descriptions of knowledge workers in a multinational automotive manufacturer's…

Abstract

Purpose

This research identifies the forms of tacit knowledge frequently requested in the job descriptions of knowledge workers in a multinational automotive manufacturer's product development department. It then explores how and why the most requested forms of tacit knowledge are used in practice to achieve organizational goals.

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows a sequential mixed-methods approach to quantify the most frequently requested forms of tacit knowledge within internal job descriptions and then explores how and why this tacit knowledge is used. The first stage applies manifest content analysis to internal job descriptions to highlight the epitomes of tacit knowledge to identify the most frequently requested forms of tacit knowledge. The second stage employs semi-structured interviews to explore the use of the most frequently requested forms of tacit knowledge in practice.

Findings

The research indicated that the organization most frequently requested tacit knowledge in the form of skills and experience in the job descriptions of knowledge workers in the product development department. When the use and application of tacit knowledge in the form of skills were further explored in practice, it was found that tacit knowledge-based socially-focused skills were used, which was underpinned by the need to bring people together and align them towards a common goal to make things work; by enabling people to work together as a team; by developing and using networks; and acting as a required resource to support the development and integration in product development. Tacit knowledge in the form of experience was applied through the application of personally obtained experience to enhance development work by acting as a pacemaker for increasing efficiency and a sense of upcoming issues.

Originality/value

This work addresses the paucity of studies identifying tacit knowledge in large organizations and meets calls to investigate the processes and activities related to tacit knowledge in specific contexts.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Peng Liu and Robin Bell

This paper aims to investigate four successful Chinese ICT enterprises to determine what initiated their business-model innovations and the process they went through by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate four successful Chinese ICT enterprises to determine what initiated their business-model innovations and the process they went through by exploring how they adapted and innovatively renewed four key elements of their business models.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigative and exploratory research adopted a multiple-case-study design exploring four purposively selected successful Chinese ICT enterprises which had all engaged in significant business model innovation since their inception. Data for the case studies were collected through in-depth interviews with the founders and analyses of the companies’ history to gain a detailed account of the evolution of the firms’ business models since their formation.

Findings

The research identified three key initiating factors to business model innovation in the firms studied, namely, constant and rapid product iteration, along with an emergent strategy, leading to business model innovations to take full advantage of the firms’ competitive advantages; a reaction to threats and environmental changes; and an opportunistic behaviour to extend the business model to new markets. The research found that networks were a key factor in the process, including the customer base, financial investors and network collaborators.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to four successful Chinese ICT firms; this in-depth approach means the information may have only limited transferability but provides depth on a burgeoning Chinese sector.

Originality/value

This research addresses the call for more research and a greater understanding of what initiates business model innovation and the process firms go through to develop the key elements of their business models by looking at a purposively selected sample of successful Chinese enterprises in a fast-moving and technologically driven market.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Thanh Trung Pham, Robin Bell and David Newton

Many family businesses do not survive into the second generation. A common reason put forward for this is poor succession planning for the second generation. This paper is…

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Abstract

Purpose

Many family businesses do not survive into the second generation. A common reason put forward for this is poor succession planning for the second generation. This paper is designed with the aim to explore the role of the father in supporting the son’s business knowledge and development in Vietnamese family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopted an inductive qualitative approach using multiple face-to-face semi-structured interviews with five father–son succession pairs. The interview participants were a cross section of Vietnamese family businesses, where the father–son pair was involved in the process of business knowledge transfer and the succession process was at an advanced stage.

Findings

The results suggest that the father plays different roles at different stages of the son’s business knowledge development process. In particular, the father acts as an example during the son’s childhood; a supporter to encourage the son to gain more business knowledge from both formal education and working experience outside the family business; a mentor and trouble-shooter after the son joins the family business as a full-time employee; and as an advisor after the son becomes the leader of the firm.

Originality/value

Most Vietnamese family businesses are still operating under the control of the first generation, and as a result, research into the succession process in Vietnam can help to provide valuable insights. Furthermore, existing research into the role of the predecessor in the whole process from the successor’s childhood until the end of the succession process is ambiguous and requires further research to clarify this research gap.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

R.E. Bell

Robin Hood had clearly now become a serious problem. Previously he had been known for taking from the rich, giving to the poor and fighting against injustice and tyranny…

Abstract

Robin Hood had clearly now become a serious problem. Previously he had been known for taking from the rich, giving to the poor and fighting against injustice and tyranny. Much of the proceeds of his robberies had also gone towards raising a ransom to free Richard the Lionheart from an Austrian dungeon where he had been imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his return home from the Third Crusade. When Richard returned to England, taking back his rightful place on the throne, all had been well for a number of years. However with Richard restored to the throne, Robin had lost his purpose in life. There was no longer any justification for living as an outlaw in Sherwood Forest or for robbing the rich, and so Robin had grown old and disillusioned. After a while, the carriages carrying the King's tax revenues in the Nottinghamshire area had begun to be attacked again. The raids were well planned and executed and the modus operandi bore a distinct resemblance to the raids carried out by Robin's band in the years when they had been outlaws.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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