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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Mark C. Johlke and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of this paper is to extend Zablah et al.’s (2012) findings regarding the proper way to treat customer orientation (CO) to the study of CO among B-B salespeople…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend Zablah et al.’s (2012) findings regarding the proper way to treat customer orientation (CO) to the study of CO among B-B salespeople in one of the most important emerging economies, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors of this study hired a professional market research firm based in Chennai, a large metropolitan city in Southern India, to manage data collection. The authors used a competing models approach to test the relationship between constructs.

Findings

CO among frontline employees operating in one of the largest emerging economies is best treated as a psychological construct that is both directly and indirectly related to performance via its ability to reduce stress and improve engagement. This finding strengthens the view of CO as a universal human work value and, more broadly, that such values operating across different cultural setting do exist. In addition, external customer mindset appears to offer a superior means to measure CO than does the widely used CO component of the SOCO scale. This conclusion is based not only upon the fact that it conceptually corresponds with the psychological nature of CO, but also that in this initial examination it exhibits a greater ability to explain employee job performance.

Originality/value

Managers who are able to screen and hire employees with greater CO work values should experience improved performance outcomes and also less customer ambiguity and greater satisfaction among their frontline employees. Since CO proscribes the proper way to deal with customers, greater levels of CO beliefs would counteract customer ambiguity among frontline employees operating in any environment. Accordingly, when filling frontline positions, managers should actively seek out employees who earnestly embrace the role of taking care of customers. Managers are advised to not only emphasize on salespeople whose foremost role is to take care of their customers but also to find ways to familiarize them with their products and to provide them with information regarding customer characteristics such as their background, the relationship history (especially past service and product failures), and unique preferences.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Mertcan Tascioglu, Jacqueline Kilsheimer Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of the study is to investigate consumers’ perceptions of status motivations on retailers’ sustainability efforts and whether collectivism and materialism…

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2858

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate consumers’ perceptions of status motivations on retailers’ sustainability efforts and whether collectivism and materialism moderate this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research methodology using survey data was used. Data were collected by administering questionnaires from millennial respondents (n = 386) from the USA and Turkey.

Findings

The results show that cultural value (collectivism) and materialism can serve as moderators of the effects of status motivation and sustainability. The findings indicate that the link between status motivation and sustainability perceptions (both environmental and social sustainability) is stronger for more collectivist consumers. In terms of materialism, while it did not moderate the relationship between status motivation and perceptions of environmental sustainability, it did moderate the relationship between status motivation and perceptions of social sustainability, particularly the uniqueness aspect of materialism.

Research limitations/implications

The stronger link between status motivation and both environmental and social sustainability for collectivists suggests that the bandwagon effect may be impacting their need for status. The stronger link between status motivation and social sustainability for those more materialistic suggests that their need for status may be more impacted by a snob effect as they want to appear unique. The use of college students is a limitation of this study, and future research needs to explore a wider range of age groups to determine if there are generational differences. Additionally, future research could examine other cultural dimensions such as power distance and masculinity versus femininity.

Practical implications

Findings from this research provide insights for retailers, especially those targeting the status and luxury market when developing their sustainability plans. An interest in sustainability may aid consumers in meeting their need for status, particularly for those status consumers who are more collectivist, as a means to fit in with their group. For more materialistic consumers, retailers may want to focus more on unique social sustainability efforts that are more publicly noticeable.

Social implications

Social sustainability, a topic not studied as frequently as environmental sustainability, has significant implications for consumers. The findings suggest that the link between status motivation and social sustainability is stronger for collectivists, suggesting a bandwagon effect. Additionally, the authors find that the link between status motivation and social sustainability is stronger for materialists, particularly the uniqueness dimension of materialism, suggesting a snob effect.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in the exploration of how status motivation impacts consumers’ perceptions of retailers’ environmental and social sustainability efforts and if these relationships are moderated by collectivism and materialism. Few studies have examined social sustainability, especially in terms of culture.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Jacqueline Kilsheimer Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

This paper aims to test the relationship between millennials’ status motivation and their ecologically conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) and the mediating role of culture…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the relationship between millennials’ status motivation and their ecologically conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) and the mediating role of culture influencing this effect.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel of millennials was surveyed using established scales to measure their status motivation, cultural values and ECCB.

Findings

The findings demonstrate status motivation has a positive effect on millennials’ ECCB. The findings indicate that the cultural values of collectivism, power distance and masculinity mediate the relationship between status motivation and ECCB.

Research limitations/implications

This study looked at responses from one generation, millennials, in one country, the USA.

Practical implications

Status motivation can impact ECCB and cultural values mediate this relationship. Status motivation can directly impact ECCB, as well as work positively through the cultural values of collectivism and power distance and negatively through masculinity.

Social implications

The results suggest ECCB for status-motivated millennials is driven by both status motivation and their collectivism, power distance and masculinity. To encourage millennials’ ECCB, public policymakers and marketers should emphasize the social influences of sustainable behaviors and how these behaviors make them stand out from others who are not sustainable and target those who view women as equal to men.

Originality/value

This research examines how millennials’ status motivations impact their ecologically conscious behaviors both directly and through the mediating role of cultural values. This research contributes by answering the call for looking at the influence of cultural values on environmental behaviors. It offers a possible reason for the mixed findings previously in the literature regarding status and sustainability by illustrating status motivations may work both directly and through cultural values in influencing ECCB. Thus, it is one of the first studies to demonstrate culture’s mediating effect in the area of sustainability.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Tim Reisenwitz, Rajesh Iyer, David B. Kuhlmeier and Jacqueline K. Eastman

The purpose of this paper is to extend earlier research on mature consumers and their internet use by examining how mature consumers' use of the internet is impacted by…

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5855

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend earlier research on mature consumers and their internet use by examining how mature consumers' use of the internet is impacted by their nostalgia proneness, innovativeness, and risk aversion.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a convenience sample (n=374) of respondents who were 65 years of age or older. Several scales were used to measure the constructs of interest to the research, all of which have been used in earlier research.

Findings

Results revealed that those seniors with higher levels of nostalgia proneness used and accessed the internet less, purchased less online, had less online experience and felt less comfortable using the internet. There is also support for the impact of innovativeness on mature consumers' internet use, frequency, online purchases, experience, comfort level with the internet, and satisfaction with the internet. In terms of risk aversion, seniors with more online experience report a lower level of risk aversion to the internet than other mature consumers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to determine if these results can be replicated with a national random sample. Additionally, research is needed to determine what factors increase seniors' experience with the internet.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that seniors are becoming an increasingly more viable segment for internet marketers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Shyam B. Bhandari and Rajesh Iyer

Business failures during the economic recession of 2008‐2010 years were unusually high in the USA. The purpose of this paper is to build a new model to predict business…

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5835

Abstract

Purpose

Business failures during the economic recession of 2008‐2010 years were unusually high in the USA. The purpose of this paper is to build a new model to predict business failure, using mostly cash flow statement based measures as predictor variables and discriminant analysis technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' data matrix consisted of 100 firms and seven predictor variables. A total of 50 “failed” firms were matched with 50 non‐failed firms according to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code and size. Financial statement data for the year prior to failed year were pulled from COMPUSTAT database. Seven predictor variables were selected, namely Operating cash flow divided by current liabilities, Cash flow coverage of interest, Operating cash flow margin, Operating cash flow return on total assets, Earning quality, Quick ratio and Three‐year sales growth. The SPSS‐19 software was used to perform discriminant analysis (DA).

Findings

The DA model classified 83.3 percent of original grouped cases correctly. The cross‐validated approach (jackknife or leave‐one‐out method) correctly classified 79.5 percent of cases. The chi‐square test of Wilks' lambda was significant at 0.000 level which means the model as a whole performed very well in predicting business failure.

Originality/value

This study is unique in many respects. First, the sample companies are not industry specific. They come from more than 20 different two‐digit SIC codes, which means the authors' model is very generic in nature. Second, the seven predictor variables (financial ratios) they selected are logically justified; these are not an outcome of step‐wise procedure. Third, most of the predictor variables use operating cash flow information from the cash flow statement. Fourth, all the failed firms in the authors' test sample are from the most recent, 2008‐2010, period.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Timothy Reisenwitz and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between two age cohorts within the baby boomer group, younger baby boomers (born between 1956‐1965) and older baby…

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8869

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between two age cohorts within the baby boomer group, younger baby boomers (born between 1956‐1965) and older baby boomers (born between 1946‐1955), based on various behavioral variables. It is postulated that, even though this group is exceedingly large in number, there are more similarities than differences among its younger and older members.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample was a convenience sample and consisted of 295 respondents who were in the 40‐58 age category. A questionnaire was administered with scales that were well established and that have been used in previous research.

Findings

With the exception of cognitive age, there were no significant differences between younger and older baby boomers regarding a large number of salient behavioral variables. This conclusion suggests that marketers use caution when applying the widely accepted age segmentation strategy of splitting baby boomers into younger and older boomers.

Originality/value

The results of this study caution the marketer in further dividing the baby boomers group based on cohort segmentation. The results of this study suggest that cohort segmentation is a viable beginning for dividing consumers into groups, but that other demographic and/or psychographic methods need to be considered in subsequent segmentation efforts for baby boomers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Jacqueline K. Eastman and Rajesh Iyer

Despite the growth of the Internet, one area that marketers have not really discussed is the elderly's use of the Internet. Given the rapid growth of this population as…

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10391

Abstract

Despite the growth of the Internet, one area that marketers have not really discussed is the elderly's use of the Internet. Given the rapid growth of this population as well as the potential the Internet holds for them, it is a subject worth consideration. This paper discusses the use of the Internet by a national random survey of elderly consumers and the impact of attitude, innovation, and demographics on their use. This study shows that the elderly consumers have favorable intentions towards using the Internet; most learned to use the Internet on their own; and they preferred to learn more about the Internet if such classes were offered at convenient locations. Those seniors with higher levels of income are more willing to both use the Internet and purchase products online; while education levels positively impacted only Internet use. Finally, this paper provides implications for marketers and suggestions for future research.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Donna J. Cunningham and Rajesh Iyer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changing legal landscape associated with the growth of advertising of prescription drugs directly to the consumer, and…

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1027

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changing legal landscape associated with the growth of advertising of prescription drugs directly to the consumer, and makes recommendations designed to assist advertisers in avoiding legal liability based on those advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the phenomenal growth of DTC advertising since 1997, when a profound change in the FDA regulations took effect. These changes permitted advertisers significantly more flexibility in providing information about the advertised drug directly to the consumer. Since then, however, DTC advertising has repeatedly come under attack. A review of the literature, changing law, and other factors, reveals the primary criticisms of DTC advertising, and its tendency to expose pharmaceutical advertisers to legal liability.

Findings

The paper recounts the development of the law concerning pharmaceutical advertising, and particularly, the application of the Learned Intermediary Rule. Previously, this Rule operated to shield pharmaceutical companies for liability by passing liability on to the physician who wrote the prescription for the drug. Now, that law is changing, with resulting liability for pharmaceutical advertisers.

Practical implications

The study recounts the primary criticisms of DTC advertising, and provides a number of steps that can be taken to help avoid legal liability for pharmaceutical companies that engage in DTC advertising.

Originality/value

The study looks at DTC advertising from both a marketing and a legal perspective, and combines those disciplines to draw conclusions helpful to DTC advertisers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Rajesh Iyer and Mark C Johlke

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model of the antecedents and outcomes of one aspect of customer mind-set (CMS) – external CMS (ECMS) — among front-line…

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1340

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model of the antecedents and outcomes of one aspect of customer mind-set (CMS) – external CMS (ECMS) — among front-line employees. The goal of this paper is to help managers address customer-level orientation by further investigating the external dimension of CMS (referred to as ECMS).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from a sample of front-line employees of a variety of firms located in a mid-sized southeastern US city.

Findings

The results indicate that greater amounts of job autonomy and job satisfaction are positively associated with front-line employee ECMS, while the employee’s global role ambiguity, customer-specific ambiguity and role conflict are negatively associated with ECMS. In turn, front-line employee ECMS is associated with increased work motivation and sales performance.

Research limitations/implications

The data are cross-sectional in nature; so, strictly causal relations cannot be inferred from these results. Also, the sample primarily consists of younger females with less work experience and who are employed at smaller organizations. Therefore, future research should further test these relations in different samples to increase the robustness of the results.

Practical implications

This research utilizes a rich description of the front-line employee’s job attitudes and work characteristics to build a model describing their association with the extent to which the ideas of market orientation have taken hold at the operational level and their relationship with the employee’s motivation and subsequent performance. It shows that both internal and external characteristics are associated with front-line employee ECMS, which itself is very strongly related to desirable job outcomes.

Originality/value

The firm’s financial performance is most directly affected by how well it serves its external customers. However, there has been no research on the role and the consequences of employee ECMS. There are only a few studies (less than five) that have empirically explored the CMS. Therefore, the many potential benefits from a deeper understanding of a market orientation culture and behaviors at the level of the front-line employee remain unclear, particularly in regards to its ECMS dimension.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Downloads
498

Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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