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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Christopher J. L. Cunningham

This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of

Abstract

This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of the chapter is to provide a resource and starting point to occupational health and stress researchers who may be interested in religion/spirituality. A review of critical religion/spirituality concepts is provided, along with a discussion of how religion/spirituality can be integrated into common occupational stress theories and reconciled with commonly studied variables within this domain. A series of future research directions involving religion/spirituality and occupational health and stress are ultimately presented.

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The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Charles G. Leathers and J. Patrick Raines

Because belief in a supernatural agent with extraordinary power is rooted in psychology, Veblen's instinct psychology was the essential basis for his evolutionary…

Abstract

Purpose

Because belief in a supernatural agent with extraordinary power is rooted in psychology, Veblen's instinct psychology was the essential basis for his evolutionary economics of religion. The innate behavioral traits that Veblen called instincts in human nature are now recognized in evolutionary psychology as domain-specific mechanism that evolved as adaptations to enable human survival and reproduction. The authors aim to explain how the modern evolutionary psychology of religion provides a modern psychological basis for Veblen's evolutionary economics of religion.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors review how Veblen's theory of an evolved human nature of instincts was applied to explain the origins of religion in primitive societies and remained a resilient force despite evolutionary erosion of institutional religion as science advanced. Second, the authors note how evolutionary psychology explains the origins of religion in terms of the functioning of domain-specific psychological mechanisms that evolved as adaptations for purposes other than religion.

Findings

The similarities between Veblen's instinct psychology and the explanation of religion as by-products of domain-specific psychological mechanisms are sufficient to allow the conclusion that the evolutionary psychology of religion provides a modern psychological basis for Veblen's evolutionary economics of religion.

Originality/value

An evolutionary economics of religion has a great social value if it provides credible explanations of both the origins of religious belief and innate tendency for religious belief to continue even as science refutes elements of religious doctrines. With a modern psychological basis, Veblen's evolutionary economics of religion accomplishes that purpose.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

David C. Wyld, Sam D. Cappel and Daniel E. Hallock

Years ago, Henry D. Lloyd defined religion as being the “conscience in action.” The concept of religion is one which is indeed completely individualised in both…

Abstract

Years ago, Henry D. Lloyd defined religion as being the “conscience in action.” The concept of religion is one which is indeed completely individualised in both perspective and importance. However, as Bailey (1983) observed, the very basis for theology lies in the explanatory power of religion when examined through the perspective of psychology. Byron (1988) saw a theological basis to the functions of management and entrepreneurship, linking these activities to the religious duty of stewardship.

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Management Research News, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

James E. King and Martha R. Crowther

After a history of mostly ambivalence and neglect, organization‐focused research has shown a steadily growing interest in religiosity and spirituality over the past…

Abstract

After a history of mostly ambivalence and neglect, organization‐focused research has shown a steadily growing interest in religiosity and spirituality over the past decade. While organizational scholars have been slower to incorporate religion and spirituality into their research, psychologists have progressed enough to have a well‐developed specialty area, the psychology of religion. This paper delves into the psychology of religion literature by presenting and discussing existing measures, their construction and specific purposes. This paper seeks to encourage, hearten and assist those who are beginning to explore religion and spirituality in the organizational studies.

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Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2014

Gary R. Weaver and Jason M. Stansbury

Religious institutions can affect organizational practices when employees bring their religious commitments and practices into the workplace. But those religious…

Abstract

Religious institutions can affect organizational practices when employees bring their religious commitments and practices into the workplace. But those religious commitments function in the midst of other organizational factors that influence the working out of employees’ religious commitments. This process can generate varying outcomes in organizational contexts, ranging from a heightened effect of religious commitment on employee behavior to a negligible or nonexistent influence of religion on employee behavior. Relying on social identity theory and schematic social cognition as unifying frameworks for the study of religious behavior, we develop a theoretically informed approach to understanding how and why the religious beliefs, commitments and practices employees bring to work have varying behavioral impacts.

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Religion and Organization Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-693-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Michele Pinelli and Mara Einstein

This paper aims to offer a marketing perspective to the multidisciplinary debate on whether religion is expanding, declining or resurging in contemporary and allegedly…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer a marketing perspective to the multidisciplinary debate on whether religion is expanding, declining or resurging in contemporary and allegedly secular society. Specifically, it examines the “secularization hypothesis”, which predicts that religion tends to lose its central role in people’s lives as secular reasoning spreads and scientific knowledge accumulates.

Design/methodology/approach

Borrowing from psychology literature, the authors identify the psychological and social needs satisfied by religion and in doing so uncover its functions. They then discussed whether religion can be claimed to be functionally obsolete.

Findings

The authors identified four functions of religion: explanatory, relieving, membership and moral. The content of religious doctrines offers consumers of religion unambiguous knowledge, absolute morality and promises of immortality, immanent justice and centrality in the universe. Religion also provides a social identity, through which people can build meaningful connections with others in the community and with their own history.

Originality/value

A change in the role of religion would be highly relevant for consumer research because religious ideologies shape consumption practices, social relations, products and brands. The authors observe that the content of religious answers is so well-crafted around human psychology that the explaining, relieving and moral functions of religion have not lost reliability. However, cultural change has weakened religion’s ability to gratify human psychology through social identity and meaningful socialization, which led to the marketization of religion, the rise of spirituality and the intensification of socialization around consumption.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Silke Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of religion in psychiatry and psychotherapy and it introduces a context-oriented approach to religion.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of religion in psychiatry and psychotherapy and it introduces a context-oriented approach to religion.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for a selective literature review to highlight significant issues with regard to mainstream psychology.

Findings

It provides a short summary on the historical neglect and exclusion from clinical practice and shows how religion was integrated into the mainstream of psychotherapy and psychiatry. A quantitative and universalistic approach to religion is dominant. The widespread approach to religious coping by Pargament is presented as well as related findings with regard to religion and mental health.

Research limitations/implications

The paper includes implications for the development of a context-oriented inclusion of religion and encourages for associated empirical research.

Originality/value

With a critical inclusion of contexts, professionals may stay alerted to the issue that health and disorders are not ontological facts but contain moral codes of a current society. It takes the social context and unequal power relations as the starting point for a partisan cooperation with the affected persons.

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International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Marta Helena de Freitas and Benedito Rodrigues dos Santos

The purpose of this paper is to address the relations between religiosity and mental health (MH) among the immigrants living in Brasília, as per the perceptions of MH…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the relations between religiosity and mental health (MH) among the immigrants living in Brasília, as per the perceptions of MH service professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

It is grounded in empirical qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with 12 professionals – six psychiatrists and six psychologists working in MH services throughout Brasília. The experiences and perceptions of these professionals were analysed in the light of phenomenological assumptions, and temporally situated in the historical context of the construction of Brazil’s capital city.

Findings

Results show that these professionals recognize the importance of immigrant support services paying attention to issues of religiosity connected to those of MH, in spite of never having received training on the theme in their qualification course work. They are critical of the oppressive aspects of some religions, but recognize the predominance of positive effects of religiosity.

Research limitations/implications

Albeit exploratory by nature, and with a limited number of study subjects, the study opens the way for more in-depth investigations of this rarely addressed MH issue and recommends its application to greater numbers of professionals and other contexts.

Practical implications

The results can contribute to the MH policy decision-making processes for the immigrant population in Brasília and also for training the professionals working in providing care for this population.

Social implications

To contribute to the development of a new MH model in which professionals can adopt a more open posture in regard to the traditional pathologizing models used to address the question of religious phenomena.

Originality/value

Albeit exploratory in nature, this study makes a contribution by opening the way for the issue of religiosity and its impacts on MH to become the object of more in-depth investigations conducted from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective, targeting greater numbers of MH professionals and extended to other internal and external migratory contexts.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Bert Schreurs, Hetty van Emmerik, Nele De Cuyper, Tahira Probst, Machteld van den Heuvel and Eva Demerouti

Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as…

Abstract

Purpose

Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact in predicting burnout and change-oriented behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted moderated structural equation modeling on survey data from a sample of 238 employees confronted with organizational change.

Findings

Results were largely consistent with the “religion as a demand” hypothesis: religion exacerbated rather than buffered the negative effects of job insecurity, so that the adverse impact of job insecurity was stronger for highly religious employees than for employees with low levels of religiousness. Religious employees appear to experience more strain when faced with the possibility of job loss.

Originality/value

The results of this study challenge and extend existing knowledge on the role of religion in coping with life stressors. The dominant view has been that religion is beneficial in coping with major stressors. The results of this study, however, suggest otherwise: religion had an exacerbating rather than a buffering effect on the relationship between job insecurity and outcomes.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Brandon Randolph-Seng, Brandt A. Smith and Andrea Slobodnikova

Although organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is widely known to have a positive ethical impact in work organizations, the causal antecedents that influence the…

Abstract

Although organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is widely known to have a positive ethical impact in work organizations, the causal antecedents that influence the likelihood of such behaviors among employees is understudied. We addressed this gap by examining the influence of visual images of people on relevant work-related behavior in a work-like setting using the theoretical frame of the social identity perspective. We found that students in a university setting, who were exposed to religious-themed student images, exhibited slower helping behaviors toward the organization than those who were exposed to organizational-themed student images. The results of the current study provide the first-known experimental confirmation of organizational identity as a causal antecedent of OCB.

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