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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Jonathan Spiteri and Philip von Brockdorff

The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of transboundary air pollutants, particularly those related to urban traffic, on health outcomes. The importance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of transboundary air pollutants, particularly those related to urban traffic, on health outcomes. The importance of focusing on the health implications of transboundary pollution is due to the fact that these emissions originate from another jurisdiction, thus constituting international negative externalities. Thus, by isolating and quantifying the impact of these transboundary air pollutants on domestic health outcomes, the authors can understand more clearly the extent of these externalities, identify their ramifications for health and emphasise the importance of cross-country cooperation in the fight against air pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ panel data regression analysis to look at the relationship between emissions of transboundary air pollution and mortality rates from various respiratory diseases among a sample of 40 European countries, over the period 2003–2014. In turn, the authors use annual data on transboundary emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), together with detailed data on the per capita incidence of various respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors consider a number of different regression equation specifications and control for potential confounders like the quality of healthcare and economic prosperity within each country.

Findings

The results show that transboundary emissions of PM2.5 are positively and significantly related to mortality rates from asthma in our sample of countries. Quantitatively, a 10% increase in PM2.5 transboundary emissions per capita from neighbouring countries is associated with a 1.4% increase in the asthma mortality rate within the recipient country or roughly 200 deaths by asthma per year across our sample.

Originality/value

These findings have important policy implications for cross-country cooperation and regulation in the field of pollution abatement and control, particularly since all the countries under consideration form a part of the UN's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), a transnational cooperative agreement aimed at curtailing such pollutants on an international level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Sumit Kumar Gautam, R. Suresh, Ved Prakash Sharma and Meena Sehgal

The purpose of this paper is to assess the exposure of cooks in rural India (55 households) to the indoor air pollution levels emitted from burning of different fuels…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the exposure of cooks in rural India (55 households) to the indoor air pollution levels emitted from burning of different fuels, i.e. cow dung, wood, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and propane natural gas(PNG) kerosene for cooking purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Indoor air quality was monitored during cooking hours in 55 rural households to estimate the emissions of PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, VOCs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While, PM10 and PM2.5 were monitored using personal dust samplers on quartz filter paper, CO and VOCs were monitored using on line monitors. The PM10 and PM2.5 mass collected on filter papers was processed to analyse the presence of PAHs using GC.

Findings

Results revealed that cow dung is the most polluting fuel with maximum emissions of PM10, PM 2.5, VOCs, CO, NO2 and Benzene followed by wood and kerosene. Interestingly kerosene combustion emits the highest amount of PAHs. Emissions for all the fuels show the presence of carcinogenic PAHs which could be a serious health concern. The composition of LPG/PNG leads to reductions of pollutants because of better combustion process. LPG which is largely propane and butane, and PNG which is 90 per cent methane prove to be healthier fuels. Based on the results, the authors suggest that technological intervention is required to replace the traditional stoves with improved fuel efficient stoves.

Practical implications

The prevailing weather condition and design of the kitchen in these rural houses severely affect the concentration of pollutants in the kitchen as winter season combined with inadequate ventilation leads to reduced dispersion and accumulation of air pollutants in small kitchens.

Originality/value

The present study provides a detailed analysis of impact of widely‐used cooking practices in India. Even today, countries such as India rely on biomass for cooking practices exposing the cooks to high level of carcinogenic pollutants. Further, women and girls are the most threatened group as they are the primary cooks in these rural Indian settings. Based on the results, the authors suggest that technological as well as policy intervention is required to replace the traditional stoves with improved fuel efficient stoves.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Shankar Reddy Kolle and Shankarappa H. Thyavanahalli

The purpose of this paper is to analyze research works on air pollution published in 2005-2014 and indexed in Web of Science Core Collection.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze research works on air pollution published in 2005-2014 and indexed in Web of Science Core Collection.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of research publications on “air pollution” from the Web of Science Core Collection database were collected with following search strategy: publications with terms “Air contaminat*”, “Air pollut*”, “pollut* air” or “contaminat* air” in their titles for the period of 2005-2014 were collected. A total of 4,424 articles were published on air pollution during the period of 2005-2014, and the data were used for creation of database in Microsoft Excel for the analysis purpose. Bibliometric analysis techniques were applied wherever necessary.

Findings

Out of 4,424 articles published on air pollution in different languages, 4,276 articles were in English. The years 2013 and 2014 showed rapid increase in number of articles published, 563 and 638, respectively. The increased number of articles resulted in an increase in number of pages published and references cited in the articles. The articles published in the year 2006 had received more number of citations (12,318), and the average citation per article for the period was 17.59. Environmental Science was the major Web of Science subject category under which a greater number of articles were published. Article entitled as “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect”, published in Journal of The Air & Waste Management Association by Pope and Dockery (2006), was the highest cited article (1,743) for the period, and the top most active journals that published huge number of articles were Atmospheric Environment and Environmental Health Perspective, with 11.79 per cent of the total articles (4,424) published.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study are limited to the journals covered under Web of Science Core Collection database and articles having the following keywords in their titles: “Air contaminat*”, “Air pollut*”, “pollut* air” or “contaminat* air”.

Originality/value

This study would be useful to researchers and policy makers to get an insight into the research trends of air pollution for effective decision-making and formulation of new research proposals.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2020

Howook (Sean) Chang, Chang Huh, Tiffany S. Legendre and John J. Simpson

A growing number of travelers seek well-being when traveling. As concerning about outdoor air pollution in tourism destinations escalates, little is known about indoor air

Abstract

Purpose

A growing number of travelers seek well-being when traveling. As concerning about outdoor air pollution in tourism destinations escalates, little is known about indoor air pollution in hotel guestrooms. The purpose of the present study is to assess particulate matter (PM) pollution in US hotel guestrooms and to provide baseline indoor PM readings in occupied and unoccupied rooms.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of field tests and experiments monitoring PM levels were conducted in the guestrooms overnight – with and without occupants – using the sophisticated, industrial-grade PM-monitoring equipment.

Findings

The results revealed that PM levels were very low when rooms were unoccupied or when guests were asleep. However, unhealthy PM mass concentrations were observed in occupied rooms when guests engaged in physical activity such as showering and walking around or while room attendants cleaned rooms. Among the physical activities, room cleaning caused hazardous indoor PM pollution, reaching 1,665.9 µg/m3 of PM10 and 140.4 µg/m3 of PM2.5 although they tended to be brief.

Research limitations/implications

Leveraging increasing guest demand in well-being is essential for sustainable business and further growth. Indoor air quality must be recognized as an important factor to be controlled for well-being and health of guests and employees. Major hotel brands should take it into consideration as they infuse well-being DNA into their products and culture.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation of PM pollution both in occupied and unoccupied hotel guestrooms in the USA, which reveals unhealthy PM pollution associated with the routine human activities in occupied guestrooms.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Liga Lieplapa and Dagnija Blumberga

The quantitative assessment of environmental effects should be carried out using the indicators that ensure the best objectivity and efficiency of the environmental impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The quantitative assessment of environmental effects should be carried out using the indicators that ensure the best objectivity and efficiency of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process. The aim of this paper is to clarify the effectiveness of the methods used for prognoses of air pollution from roads. The benchmark method proposed in this paper is based on theoretical knowledge and on analysis of data collected from EIA reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper includes a literature review and developing of the benchmark method. This research was based on data dispersion analysis, determination of benchmarks, usage of regression method, as well as confrontation of different methods of determination of air emission concentration used in EIA.

Findings

The simplified model has been designed for determination of concentration of dust emission in the air from motor roads, the building or reconstruction of which is planned. The results indicate that the benchmark method for determination of air pollution with particulate matter PM10 has been elaborated, which can be used for environmental impact evaluation in motor road construction. The method has been elaborated relying on measurement data of existing motor roads and displays a high level of probability of credibility.

Practical implications

The method is simpler and less time‐consuming than the currently used calculation model. It produces a more precise result than the calculation model. It is outstanding and important since the further development of motor road projects can undoubtedly be judged by the results of EIA.

Originality/value

The results of this research provide a rational and comparative approach for finding the methods of determination of the air emission concentration used in EIA in producing the credible outcome. The results reported in the research show existing problems with calculation of emissions from roads. The proposed benchmark method is simple, easy to use and credible.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Apif M. Hajji

This paper aims to present a synergistic approach that combines both construction and environmental expertise to lay the groundwork for a model that can be used to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a synergistic approach that combines both construction and environmental expertise to lay the groundwork for a model that can be used to estimate the productivity rate and emissions from construction equipment activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed estimating tool is developed by combining the productivity rate model from a reliable construction estimating data sources and the calculation algorithm employed by the EPA's NONROAD model. In order to develop productivity models, simple earthwork activities involving bulldozer, excavator, and dump truck were selected.

Findings

The MLR approach proved to be a useful alternative for estimating productivity rate of three pieces of equipment. The MLR models for the productivity rate can explain high percentage of the variability in the data. The models are good to be used as a benchmark for estimating NOX and PM emissions from some certain types of construction equipment performing earthwork activities. The productivity rate from this model (lcy/hr) is used with emission factors (g/hp‐hr) from EPA's NONROAD model to estimate the total emissions.

Practical implications

The estimating tool proposed in this paper will be an effective means for assessing the environmental impacts of construction activities and will allow equipment owners or fleet managers, policy makers, and project stakeholders to evaluate more sustainable alternatives. The tool will help the contractor to estimate the total expected pollutant emissions for the project, which would be valuable information for a preliminary environmental assessment of the project.

Originality/value

Although there are already methods and models for estimating productivity for construction equipment, there currently is not a means for doing estimates of air pollutant emissions at the same time, particularly for NOX and PM.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

J.A. Sonibare, F.M. Adebiyi, E.O. Obanijesu and O.A. Okelana

The aim of this paper is to better understand the impact of petroleum production facilities on ambient air quality of host airshed.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to better understand the impact of petroleum production facilities on ambient air quality of host airshed.

Design/methodology/approach

Field measurements were taken daily for four consecutive months around petroleum production facilities in the Niger Delta area, of Nigeria, one of the world's important petroleum producing areas. Statistical analysis tool and air quality analytical tool known as the air quality index (AQI) were applied on the field data obtained.

Findings

The mean measured daily concentrations of both carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) between distances 50 and 500 m of petroleum flow stations were of the range 140 – 3400 μg/m3 and 23 – 1250 μg/m3 respectively. The AQI from measured CO concentrations in the study area ranged between 1 and 44, an indication of good AQI category with no known health effects but a need for cautionary statement. Similarly, over 97 percent of the measured concentrations of NO2 were below 0.60 ppm which implies that the AQI of the host environment of the flow stations were below 200 with respect to NO2 thus indicating a good category of air with no health alarm. However, at the 60 m distance around a flow station, the AQI was 210 thus the quality of available air at this point could be described as very unhealthy. Generally the concentrations of CO were higher than NO2 in all the distances from the flow stations and were corroborated with their significant T‐test values. The T‐test results of the relationship between the concentrations of the air pollutants per time of the day, showed that their T‐test values were not significant, indicating that concentrations of these air pollutants were independent of the sampling time. A strong and positive correlation existed between the two air pollutants signifying common sources.

Originality/value

The paper highlights that at 60 m distance around petroleum production facilities, people with respiratory or heart disease, the elderly and children should be prevented from gaining access in the morning without taking necessary precautionary measures against the inhalation of air pollutants.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Robert Bogue

To describe the light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technique and to discuss recent surveys by Environment Canada which have employed a novel scanning LIDAR system, the…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technique and to discuss recent surveys by Environment Canada which have employed a novel scanning LIDAR system, the “RASCAL”, to study air pollution in British Columbia.

Design/methodology/approach

The RASCAL LIDAR system is based on a Nd:YAG laser which emits 0.5 J pulses of IR light at 1,064 nm and green light at 532 nm into the atmosphere at a rate of 20 Hz. The beam is steered by two 24‐inch mirrors and the backscattered signal is detected by a system based on high sensitivity avalanche photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes. The unit is mobile and housed in a small van.

Findings

Surveys with the mobile LIDAR identified and located sources of airborne particulate pollution at various locations in British Columbia. A series of high‐resolution elevation scans revealed the complex vertical structure of aerosol layers above the town of Golden. An outcome of this survey was the introduction of local laws banning wood‐burning stoves in new homes in the region. Further, Saharan sand was identified in the atmosphere in the region for the first time.

Originality/value

The surveys showed that mobile LIDAR can detect and characterise airborne particulate pollution and contribute to an understanding of its dispersion and motion in the atmosphere. It will also aid in assessing the associated risks to human health.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Khursheed Ahmad Wani, K. Mamta and R.J. Rao

The first approach mainly aims at measurement of SPM, SO2 and NO2 from different sources in the Gwalior region and the second and third approach aims at the quantification…

Abstract

Purpose

The first approach mainly aims at measurement of SPM, SO2 and NO2 from different sources in the Gwalior region and the second and third approach aims at the quantification of water and noise quality of the city of Gwalior. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The water analysis was carried out by the standard methods of APHA, 2005 and the air and noise analysis were carried out by the standard procedures of CPCB, New Delhi and published work earlier respectively.

Findings

The water quality in the city was well within the standards, however, the noise and air quality in the city was above the standards set by CPCB, New Delhi.

Originality/value

This is the first approach in the city of Gwalior that related air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. This will lead to the development of a sustainable city, while working to transform the city of Gwalior into a sustainable city.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

F. Brian Pyatt

Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) werecollected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also fromEngland. The bracket fungus was found to be…

Abstract

Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) were collected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also from England. The bracket fungus was found to be an excellent long‐term monitor/accumulator of atmospheric pollutants and collected material arriving by impaction and sedimentation from the atmospheric environment.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

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