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1 – 10 of over 2000

Abstract

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Urban Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-047029-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

F. Franceschini, M. Galetto and D. Maisano

Analysis and comparison of three existing indicators of the air quality: the American air quality index, the French Atmo, and the Italian Indice di Qualità dell'Aria.

Abstract

Purpose

Analysis and comparison of three existing indicators of the air quality: the American air quality index, the French Atmo, and the Italian Indice di Qualità dell'Aria.

Design/methodology/approach

International general and organic regulations to control air quality do not exist yet. Consequently many countries have independently implemented specific indicators to monitor the air pollution and then alert people of resulting health risks. The paper focuses on three of them. Each one is independently presented showing the peculiarities. Therefore, these indicators are compared to identify the features they have in common, as well as those that set them apart, and to figure out which are either restrictive or permissive, and what are their qualities and drawbacks.

Findings

The three mentioned indicators convert the real health risk due to air pollution into numerical information, in different ways. Doing this, they carry out some simplifications or assumptions, which can be questionable. The main difficulty is to understand if the indicators aggregate the different pollutant concentrations consistently with the real effects on human health.

Research limitations/implications

This paper analyses only three specific indicators of the air quality, selected among the existing ones.

Practical implications

Indicators should carefully be analysed to understand if they properly represents the real effects of pollutants on human health. The most critical aspect to consider is the aggregation of the different pollutant concentrations in one information.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the efficacy of representation of some air quality indicators. It discusses if indicators aggregation is consistent with the real effects on human health.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Rui Pitarma, Miguel Lourenço and João Ramos

Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Some of these can be sufficiently characterized through the prediction of the airflow and pollutant

Abstract

Purpose

Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Some of these can be sufficiently characterized through the prediction of the airflow and pollutant distribution patterns. The purpose of this study was to simulate, analyze and compare different locations of known pollutant source inside a ventilated room.

Design/methodology/approach

Computational fluid dynamics modelling approach was used to analyze the prediction of the airflow and pollutant distribution patterns for different locations of known pollutant source inside a ventilated room by mixing ventilation.

Findings

Distinct areas of poor air quality, perfectly identified by concentration fields, were given. The indoor air quality obtained by the different simulated conditions was analyzed and compared.

Research limitations/implications

Pollutant concentration was not measured in the validation experiments (qualitative validation based on the velocity fields).

Practical implications

Once the contaminant concentration fields are calculated based on the source location, the model is very useful to choose the best place to install any pollutant indoor equipment to preserve breathing zones.

Originality/value

Providing an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. The results would be useful for making decisions to optimize the design procedure, such as establish the best location to install polluting equipment, occupied areas and their interdependence with ventilation systems. In addition, this tool also helps to choose the best location and correct set point adjustment for the pollutant sensors.

Details

Facilities, vol. 34 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Jamiu Adetayo Adeniran, Rafiu O. Yusuf, Michael O. Amole, Lukuman Adekilekun Jimoda and Jacob Ademola Sonibare

The introduction of mobile telecommunication services in Nigeria led to the development of base transceiver stations (BTS) across the country. Inadequate power supply from…

Abstract

Purpose

The introduction of mobile telecommunication services in Nigeria led to the development of base transceiver stations (BTS) across the country. Inadequate power supply from the national grid has led to massive use of diesel-fueled back-up generators (BUGs). The purpose of this paper is to attempt to quantify and inform relevant stakeholders about air quality implications of BTS BUGs.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven major telecommunication network operators were identified. Emission factor approach was used to estimate the quantity of important air pollutants such as NOx, CO, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, PAH and TVOC that are emitted from the use of the BUGs based on fuel consumption rate and generators’ capacity. Fuel-based emission inventory and emission factor from the United States Environmental Protection Agency AP-42 and National Pollution Inventory were used to estimate pollutants emission from diesel-powered generators used in the BTS sites and amount of diesel consumed. Land distribution and per capita dose of the estimated pollutants load were calculated.

Findings

The study showed that the deployment of BUGs will lead to increase emissions of these air pollutants. The states that are most affected are Lagos, Kano and Oyo, Katsina and Akwa Ibom states with respective total air pollutants contribution of 9,539.61, 9,445.34, 8,276.46, 7,805.14 and 7,220.70 tonnes/yr.

Originality/value

This study has estimated pollutant emissions from the use of diesel-fueled BUGs in mobile telecommunications BTS sites in Nigeria. The data obtained could assist in policy making.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

P.S. Hui, K.W. Mui and L.T. Wong

It is costly to sample all air pollutants of a general community for continuous indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments. To optimize the resources for IAQ baseline monitoring…

Abstract

Purpose

It is costly to sample all air pollutants of a general community for continuous indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments. To optimize the resources for IAQ baseline monitoring for general facilities management, this study aims to investigate the feasibility of using a simple IAQ index as a screening parameter of a screening test to identify an asymptomatic air‐conditioned office with probable unsatisfactory IAQ.

Design/methodology/approach

The IAQ index is determined from the fractional dose of some representative common indoor air pollutants of unsatisfactory IAQ, either by taking equal importance of the pollutants as a weighting factor or weighted by the regional failure rates with respect to the corresponding air pollutants. Specifically, a database of regional IAQ assessment results of 422 air‐conditioned offices was employed to justify the selected screening levels for the IAQ index.

Findings

The proposed IAQ index of a screening assessment was used for verifying, respectively, 58 and seven air‐conditioned offices of Hong Kong with satisfactory and unsatisfactory IAQ. The results showed that 57 satisfactory offices and two unsatisfactory offices were correctly identified by the unweighted and weighted IAQ indices respectively. Evaluation of the proposed index in further IAQ improvements of some offices showed that it would be a practical tool for preliminary IAQ screening assessment.

Research limitations/implications

The screening test itself could not identify all the IAQ problems but could identify the office groups with higher risk of unsatisfactory IAQ with reduced effort.

Practical implications

The study shows the usefulness of the proposed IAQ index to identify the unrecognized IAQ problems for air‐conditioned office environments. It could be adopted as a routine screening measure in facility management of which a wide‐ranging set of IAQ measurement is undesired.

Originality/value

This study presents a useful reference for policymakers, building owners and professionals for indoor environmental assessments.

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Abstract

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Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-294-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

B.G. Lopez, S.B. Valdez, K.R. Zlatev, P.J. Flores, B.M. Carrillo and W.M. Schorr

Aggressive environments that enhance indoor corrosion in industrial plants decrease the yielding of electronic equipment, causing electrical failures. The purpose of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Aggressive environments that enhance indoor corrosion in industrial plants decrease the yielding of electronic equipment, causing electrical failures. The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate corrosion rates in metals used in electronic devices as a function of temperature, humidity and the concentrations of some air pollutants in order to predict the optimal conditions preventing or minimizing corrosion.

Design/methodology/approach

Atmospheric pollutants mainly sulphur oxides, penetrating through small crevices and holes into electronic plants in combination with climatic factors such as humidity and heat, promote corrosion. The corrosion rate of the five most used metals in the electronics industry: carbon steel, copper, nickel, silver, and tin, were studied gravimetrically as a function of variations in humidity, temperature and air pollutant concentrations from 2003 to 2005. The samples were exposed in an instrumented boot to indoor conditions and gravimetric measurements were performed together with measurements of the above‐mentioned parameters. Mathematical simulation applying Math Lab software was carried out as well. The ternary diagrams for pollutants, temperature and relative humidity were applied as a useful tool to correlate these parameters in indoor conditions with the corrosion rate of metals applied in the electronics industry.

Findings

The obtained results have shown that the presence of even small concentrations of air pollutants promoted corrosion processes when time of wetness conditions were reached.

Practical implications

The study was carried out in order to minimize the corrosion losses of the electronic plants situated especially in Mexicali City located on a semi‐desert zone in the Northwest of Mexico.

Originality/value

This paper establishes the relationship of variations of pollutants concentration, temperature and the relative humidity with the corrosion rate of metals in indoor conditions in the electronics industry located in the semi‐arid zone of Mexicali. Design was characterized and simulated using the MathLab software.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Sreenivasa Rao Amaraneni, Sarnam Singh and P.K. Joshi

Kolleru Lake, a wetland located in India, is one of the largest natural freshwater lakes and is an important sanctuary for indigenous and migratory birds, particularly in…

Abstract

Kolleru Lake, a wetland located in India, is one of the largest natural freshwater lakes and is an important sanctuary for indigenous and migratory birds, particularly in winter seasons. The lake is located between latitudes 16°32′ and 16°47′N and longitudes 81°05′ and 81°27′E. The lake is connected to the sea through the Upputeru River, at a distance of 60 km. The lake water is mainly used for drinking water, agriculture, fishing and aquaculture purposes. The lake ecosystem is deteriorating due to the industrial, agricultural and aquacultural activities. High volume sampler was used for the collection of air pollutants, namely suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide from the lake at four locations over a period of one year. Water samples were collected from the lake in three seasons in a year over a period of three years and analyzed for water quality parameter, namely total suspended solids, hardness, chloride, sodium, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. The aim of this study is to create the air and water pollution maps of Kolleru Lake using geographic information systems (GIS) for the better management of Kolleru Lake to control the pollution and also to avoid the risk of air and water pollutants on humans, aquatic organisms, birds and plants.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Abstract

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Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Ravindra Kumar, Errampalli Madhu, Anil Maan, Sanjeev Sinha and Nasim Akhtar

The purpose of this paper is to estimate combined exposure factor (CEF) due to impact of different transport-related environmental pollutants, air quality and noise level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate combined exposure factor (CEF) due to impact of different transport-related environmental pollutants, air quality and noise level in Delhi city.

Design/methodology/approach

The Estimation of CEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5) by the boarding and alighting of commuters at Public Transport facility and using motorcycle. With the help of CRRI mobile air pollution monitoring laboratory and previous CRRI reports.

Findings

Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is determined based on the taking weighting factor of pollutant stressor. Results shows average stressor for CO, NO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and noise were 2.79 mg/m3, 331.83, 210.25, 16.70, 241.3883 µg/m3, and 72.5 dB(A), respectively. Similarly for motorcyclist, results shows average stressor for CO, NO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and noise were 5.1 mg/m3, 483, 398, 19.3, 295 µg/m3, and 82.7 dB(A), respectively. The results show higher exposure value for motorcyclist.

Originality/value

Knowledge of exposure factor due to air and noise pollutant for bus commuter in sitting and standing and motorcyclist is not known for Delhi city.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000