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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Mehdi Dehghani, Mahdi Ahmadi, Alireza Khayatian, Mohamad Eghtesad and Mehran Yazdi

The purpose of this paper is to present a vision-based method for the kinematic calibration of a six-degrees-of-freedom parallel robot named Hexa using only one Universal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a vision-based method for the kinematic calibration of a six-degrees-of-freedom parallel robot named Hexa using only one Universal Serial Bus (USB) camera and a chess pattern installed on the robot's mobile platform. Such an approach avoids using any internal sensors or complex three-dimensional measurement systems to obtain the pose (position/orientation) of the robot's end-effector or the joint coordinates.

Design/methodology/approach

The setup of the proposed method is very simple; only one USB camera connected to a laptop computer is needed and no contact with the robot is necessary during the calibration procedure. For camera modeling, a pinhole model is used; it is then modified by considering some distortion coefficients. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters and the distortion coefficients are found by an offline minimization algorithm. The chess pattern makes image corner detection very straightforward; this detection leads to finding the camera and then the kinematic parameters. To carry out the calibration procedure, several trajectories are run (the results of two of them are presented here) and sufficient specifications of the poses (positions/orientations) are calculated to find the kinematic parameters of the robot. Experimental results obtained when applying the calibration procedure on a Hexa parallel robot show that vision-based kinematic calibration yields enhanced and efficient positioning accuracy. After successful calibration and addition of an appropriate control scheme, the robot has been considered as a color-painting prototype robot to serve in relevant industries.

Findings

Experimental results obtained when applying the calibration procedure on a Hexa parallel robot show that vision-based kinematic calibration yields enhanced and efficient positioning accuracy.

Originality/value

The enhanced results show the advantages of this method in comparison with the previous calibration methods.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Yanbing Ni, Biao Zhang, Wenxia Guo and Cuiyan Shao

The purpose of this paper is to develop a means of the kinematic calibration of a parallel manipulator with full-circle rotation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a means of the kinematic calibration of a parallel manipulator with full-circle rotation.

Design/methodology/approach

An error-mapping model based on the space vector chain is formulated and parameter identification is proposed based on double ball-bar (DBB) measurements. The measurement trajectory is determined by the motion characteristics of this mechanism and whether the error sources can be identified. Error compensation is proposed by modifying the inputs, and a two-step kinematic calibration method is implemented.

Findings

The simulation and experiment results show that this kinematic calibration method is effective. The DBB length errors and the position errors in the end-effector of the parallel manipulator with full-circle rotation are greatly reduced after error compensation.

Originality/value

By establishing the mapping relationship between measured error data and geometric error sources, the error parameters of this mechanism are identified; thus, the pose errors are unnecessary to be measured directly. The effectiveness of the kinematic calibration method is verified by computer simulation and experiment. This proposed calibration method can help the novel parallel manipulator with full-circle rotation and other similar parallel mechanisms to improve their accuracy.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2019

Dianjin Zhang, Guangyu Zhang and Longqiu Li

This paper aims to provide a simple and flexible calibration method of parallel manipulators for improving the position accuracy only using partial pose information.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a simple and flexible calibration method of parallel manipulators for improving the position accuracy only using partial pose information.

Design/methodology/approach

The overall idea of this method is to use BP neural network to fit the relationship between calibration parameters and measurement parameters and then adjust calibration parameters according to measurements.

Findings

The calibration method significantly improves the position accuracy of the six-axis parallel manipulator. Simulation shows that the accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of positions consisted of samples to train BP neural network, and when the position number is increased, the descent velocity of fitting error is decreased.

Originality/value

The method is general for various parallel mechanisms and simple for measurement process. It can be applied to the calibration of various mechanisms without analyzing the mathematical relationship between measurements and calibration parameters. The measurement parameters can be flexibly selected to simplify measurement process, which saves calibration cost and time.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Nicolas Andreff, Pierre Renaud, Philippe Martinet and Franc¸ois Pierrot

Presents the kinematic calibration of an H4 parallel prototype robot using a vision‐based measuring device. Calibration is performed according to the inverse kinematic…

Abstract

Presents the kinematic calibration of an H4 parallel prototype robot using a vision‐based measuring device. Calibration is performed according to the inverse kinematic model method, using first the design model then a model developed for calibration purpose. To do so, the end‐effector pose (i.e. position and orientation) has to be measured with the utmost accuracy. Thus, first the practical accuracy of the low‐cost vision‐based measuring system is evaluated to have a precision in the order of magnitude of 10μ_it;m and 10−3° for a 1,024×768 pixel CCD camera. Second, the prototype is calibrated using the easy‐to‐install vision system, yielding a final positioning accuracy of the end‐effector reduced from more than 1cm down to less than 0.5mm. Also provides a discussion on the use of such a method on commercial systems.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Ahmed Joubair, Mohamed Slamani and Ilian A. Bonev

The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method developed to improve the absolute accuracy of a novel three degrees‐of‐freedom planar parallel robot. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method developed to improve the absolute accuracy of a novel three degrees‐of‐freedom planar parallel robot. The robot is designed for the precise alignment of semiconductor wafers and, even though its complete workspace is slightly larger, the accuracy improvements are performed within a target workspace, in which the positions are on a disc of 170 mm in diameter and the orientations are in the range ±17°.

Design/methodology/approach

The calibration method makes use of a single optimization model, based on the direct kinematic calibration approach, while the experimental data are collected from two sources. The first source is a measurement arm from FARO Technologies, and the second is a Mitutoyo coordinate measurement machine (CMM). The two sets of calibration results are compared.

Findings

Simulation confirmed that the model proposed is not sensitive to measurement noise. An experimental validation on the CMM shows that the absolute accuracy inside the target workspace was improved by reducing the maximum position and orientation errors from 1.432 mm and 0.107°, respectively, to 0.044 mm and 0.009°.

Originality/value

This paper presents a calibration method which makes it possible to accurately identify the actual robot's base frame (base frame calibration), at the same time as identifying and compensating for geometric errors, actuator offsets, and even screw lead errors. The proposed calibration method is applied on a novel planar robot, and its absolute accuracy was found to improve to 0.044 mm.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Yuzhe Liu, Jun Wu, Liping Wang, Jinsong Wang, Dong Wang and Guang Yu

The purpose of this study is to develop a modified parameter identification method and a novel measurement method to calibrate a 3 degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel tool…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a modified parameter identification method and a novel measurement method to calibrate a 3 degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel tool head. This parallel tool head is a parallel mechanism module in a five-axes hybrid machine tool. The proposed parameter identification method is named as the Modified Singular Value Decomposition (MSVD) method. It aims to overcome the difficulty of choosing the algorithm parameter in the regularization identification method. The novel measurement method is named as the vector projection (VP) method which is developed to expand the measurement range of self-made measurement implements.

Design/methodology/approach

Newton Iterative Algorithm based on Least Square Method is analyzed by using the Singular Value Decomposition method. Based on the analysis result, the MSVD method is proposed. The VP method transforms the angle measurement into the displacement measurement by taking full advantage of the ability that the 3-DOF parallel tool head can move in the X – Y plane.

Findings

The kinematic calibration approach is verified by calibration simulations, a Rotation Tool Center Point accuracy test and an experiment of machining an “S”-shaped test specimen.

Originality/value

The kinematic calibration approach with the MSVD method and VP method could be successfully applied to the 3-DOF parallel tool head and other 3-DOF parallel mechanisms.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Wenmin Chu, Xiang Huang and Shuanggao Li

With the improvement of modern aircraft requirements for safety, long life and economy, higher quality aircraft assembly is needed. However, due to the manufacturing and…

Abstract

Purpose

With the improvement of modern aircraft requirements for safety, long life and economy, higher quality aircraft assembly is needed. However, due to the manufacturing and assembly errors of the posture adjustment mechanism (PAM) used in the digital assembly of aircraft large component (ALC), the posture alignment accuracy of ALC is difficult to be guaranteed, and the posture adjustment stress is easy to be generated. Aiming at these problems, this paper aims to propose a calibration method of redundant actuated parallel mechanism (RAPM) for posture adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the kinematics model of the PAM is established, and the influence of the coupling relationship between the axes of the numerical control locators (NCL) is analyzed. Second, the calibration method based on force closed-loop feedback is used to calibrate each branch chain (BC) of the PAM, and the solution of kinematic parameters is optimized by Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC). Third, the uncertainty of kinematic calibration is analyzed by Monte Carlo method. Finally, a simulated posture adjustment system was built to calibrate the kinematics parameters of PAM, and the posture adjustment experiment was carried out according to the calibration results.

Findings

The experiment results show that the proposed calibration method can significantly improve the posture adjustment accuracy and greatly reduce the posture adjustment stress.

Originality/value

In this paper, a calibration method based on force feedback is proposed to avoid the deformation of NCL and bracket caused by redundant driving during the calibration process, and RANSAC method is used to reduce the influence of large random error on the calibration accuracy.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Zhihao Wang, Wenliang Chen, Min Wang, Qinghe Xu and Can Huang

The purpose of this study is to improve the position and posture accuracy of posture alignment mechanism. The automatic drilling and riveting machine is an important…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the position and posture accuracy of posture alignment mechanism. The automatic drilling and riveting machine is an important equipment for aircraft assembly. The alignment accuracy of position and posture of the bracket type posture alignment mechanism has a great influence on the operation effect of the machine. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the kinematic calibration.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on analysis of elastic deformation of the bracket and geometric errors of the posture alignment mechanism, an improved method of kinematic calibration was proposed. The position and posture errors of bracket caused by geometric errors were separated from those caused by gravity. The method of reduction of dimensions was applied to deal with the error coefficient matrix in error identification, and it did not change the coefficient of the error terms. The target position and its posture were corrected to improve the error compensation accuracy. Furthermore, numerical simulation and experimental verification were carried out.

Findings

The simulation and experimental results show that considering the influence of the elastic deformation of the bracket on the calibration effect, the error identification accuracy and compensation accuracy can be improved. The maximum value of position error is reduced from 5.33 mm to 1.60 × 10−1 mm and the maximum value of posture error is reduced from 1.07 × 10−3 rad to 6.02 × 10−4 rad, which is superior to the accuracy without considering the gravity factor.

Originality/value

This paper presents a calibration method considering the effects of geometric errors and gravity. By separating position and posture errors caused by different factors and correcting the target position and its posture, the results of the calibration method are greatly improved. The proposed method might be applied to any parallel mechanism based on the positioner.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Yaxin Peng, Naiwu Wen, Chaomin Shen, Xiaohuang Zhu and Shihui Ying

Partial alignment for 3 D point sets is a challenging problem for laser calibration and robot calibration due to the unbalance of data sets, especially when the overlap of…

Abstract

Purpose

Partial alignment for 3 D point sets is a challenging problem for laser calibration and robot calibration due to the unbalance of data sets, especially when the overlap of data sets is low. Geometric features can promote the accuracy of alignment. However, the corresponding feature extraction methods are time consuming. The purpose of this paper is to find a framework for partial alignment by an adaptive trimmed strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors propose an adaptive trimmed strategy based on point feature histograms (PFH) coding. Second, they obtain an initial transformation based on this partition, which improves the accuracy of the normal direction weighted trimmed iterative closest point (ICP) method. Third, they conduct a series of GPU parallel implementations for time efficiency.

Findings

The initial partition based on PFH feature improves the accuracy of the partial registration significantly. Moreover, the parallel GPU algorithms accelerate the alignment process.

Research limitations/implications

This study is applicable to rigid transformation so far. It could be extended to non-rigid transformation.

Practical implications

In practice, point set alignment for calibration is a technique widely used in the fields of aircraft assembly, industry examination, simultaneous localization and mapping and surgery navigation.

Social implications

Point set calibration is a building block in the field of intelligent manufacturing.

Originality/value

The contributions are as follows: first, the authors introduce a novel coarse alignment as an initial calibration by PFH descriptor similarity, which can be viewed as a coarse trimmed process by partitioning the data to the almost overlap part and the rest part; second, they reduce the computation time by GPU parallel coding during the acquisition of feature descriptor; finally, they use the weighted trimmed ICP method to refine the transformation.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Zhaohui Zheng, Yong Ma, Hong Zheng, Yu Gu and Mingyu Lin

The welding areas of the workpiece must be consistent with high precision to ensure the welding success during the welding of automobile parts. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The welding areas of the workpiece must be consistent with high precision to ensure the welding success during the welding of automobile parts. The purpose of this paper is to design an automatic high-precision locating and grasping system for robotic arm guided by 2D monocular vision to meet the requirements of automatic operation and high-precision welding.

Design/methodology/approach

A nonlinear multi-parallel surface calibration method based on adaptive k-segment master curve algorithm is proposed, which improves the efficiency of the traditional single camera calibration algorithm and accuracy of calibration. At the same time, the multi-dimension feature of target based on k-mean clustering constraint is proposed to improve the robustness and precision of registration.

Findings

A method of automatic locating and grasping based on 2D monocular vision is provided for robot arm, which includes camera calibration method and target locating method.

Practical implications

The system has been integrated into the welding robot of an automobile company in China.

Originality/value

A method of automatic locating and grasping based on 2D monocular vision is proposed, which makes the robot arm have automatic grasping function, and improves the efficiency and precision of automatic grasp of robot arm.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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