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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Stephen Gibb and Mhairi Wallace

The purpose of this paper was to test and explore alignment theory as a guiding principle for human resource development (HRD) by performing an empirical study. HRD…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to test and explore alignment theory as a guiding principle for human resource development (HRD) by performing an empirical study. HRD scholars, professionals and others have adopted or assumed alignment theory to help explain HRD effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Constructs to measure an organisation’s strategic priorities and its HRD practices. A measure of HRD effectiveness was developed. A survey gathered data from 270 employees, managers and HRD staff in a sample of 76 organisations.

Findings

The results show that HRD effectiveness does not vary with alignment as predicted. Forms of partial alignment, or the relations of an “odd couple”, are more strongly associated with HRD effectiveness than high alignment.

Research limitations/implications

The use and integration of both normative measures (Likert scale) and ipsative measures (ranking) is necessary to capture alignment, but this limits the inferential statistics available to test validity and reliability. Qualitative data on case studies would be useful to explore alignment issues in context and depth.

Practical implications

Stakeholders in organisations can use the “odd couple” interpretation of alignment as a fresh way to review and explore the opportunities and challenges of managing HRD effectiveness in an era where a narrowing and retrenchment of provisions is occurring and increasing.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence which raises questions about alignment theory and policies intended to increase alignment. It suggests in the case of HRD, an alternative perspective that validates partial alignment can support effective HRD provisions.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Ingo Husmann, Michael Kleinaltenkamp and Stuart Hanmer-Lloyd

Multi-supplier project networks represent a large part of the business-to-business (B2B) sector as the scope of many projects requires that different providers participate…

Abstract

Purpose

Multi-supplier project networks represent a large part of the business-to-business (B2B) sector as the scope of many projects requires that different providers participate in their development and delivery. This raises the question of how the integration of the resources of the various partners can be shaped successfully. Specifically, the different organizational identities provide institutional frames of reference to the resource-integrating firms. As the organizational identities are typically not harmonious with each other, at least partial misalignments of the institutional setting that shapes the resource integration processes may emerge. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the impact of various organizational identities on the course and outcome of resource integration in project networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper makes use of interpretive phenomenology in conjunction with a qualitative case study approach to access the lived experience of actors of different professional service firms having experienced changes in resource integration in a B2B project network.

Findings

A conceptualization of organizational identity as an institutional context for resource integration is developed and empirically investigated. The findings show a strong impact on the firms’ organizational identities and the actors’ resource integration experience and evaluation. Moreover, the findings provide evidence that, if unmanaged, at least partial misalignment of the institutional arrangements of multi-organizational B2B project network represents a normal and also a stable condition.

Originality/value

As a first conceptualization and empirical analysis of the interplay between organizational identity and resource integration, this paper advances the current understanding of the institutional context for resource integration. It argues for the wider relevance of organizational identity constructs and paves the way for future development.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 20 December 2005

Belinda Robnett

Through an analysis of the leaders of the 1960s Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) this paper highlights the importance of individual identity work, and…

Abstract

Through an analysis of the leaders of the 1960s Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) this paper highlights the importance of individual identity work, and argues for an expanded theoretical treatment of social movement identity processes that takes account of partial identity correspondence (a partial alignment between an individual identity and the movement identity) to include degrees of identity congruence. Actors can embrace a movement, but remain in a state of conflict regarding some dimensions of its identity. Extending James Jasper's ((1997). The art of moral protest: Culture, biography, and creativity in social movements. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) identity classifications, the data suggest that participants engage in identity justification work when incongruence among personal identity (biographical), collective identity (ascribed, i.e. race, gender), and movement identities exist. This work may not reflect the organization's efforts to frame or reframe the movement identity. This study finds that individuals manage incongruence with organizational and tactical movement identities by employing three identity justification mechanisms: (1) personal identity modification of the movement's identity; (2) individual amplification of the common cause dimension of collective identity; and (3) individual amplification of the activist identity through pragmatic politics. Rather than dismantling the past, as Snow and McAdam ((2000). In: S. Stryker, T. J. Owens, & R. W. White (Eds), Self, identity, and social movements (pp. 41–67). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) propose, actors incorporate their biographies as a mechanism to achieve feelings of community and belonging. It is not so much an alignment with the organization's proffered movement identity as it is a reordering of the saliency hierarchy of their identities. Unlike Snow and McAdam's conceptualization of identity amplification, the reordering of an identity hierarchy and the amplification of certain identities is precipitated by the actor's, not the organization's, efforts to align her/his personal identity, collective identity, and movement identities.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-263-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Chengzhi Zhang and Dan Wu

Terminology is the set of technical words or expressions used in specific contexts, which denotes the core concept in a formal discipline and is usually applied in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Terminology is the set of technical words or expressions used in specific contexts, which denotes the core concept in a formal discipline and is usually applied in the fields of machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction and text categorization, etc. Bilingual terminology extraction plays an important role in the application of bilingual dictionary compilation, bilingual ontology construction, machine translation and cross‐language information retrieval etc. This paper aims to address the issues of monolingual terminology extraction and bilingual term alignment based on multi‐level termhood.

Design/methodology/approach

A method based on multi‐level termhood is proposed. The new method computes the termhood of the terminology candidate as well as the sentence that includes the terminology by the comparison of the corpus. Since terminologies and general words usually have different distribution in the corpus, termhood can also be used to constrain and enhance the performance of term alignment when aligning bilingual terms on the parallel corpus. In this paper, bilingual term alignment based on termhood constraints is presented.

Findings

Experimental results show multi‐level termhood can get better performance than the existing method for terminology extraction. If termhood is used as a constraining factor, the performance of bilingual term alignment can be improved.

Originality/value

The termhood of the candidate terminology and the sentence that includes the terminology is used for terminology extraction, which is called multi‐level termhood. Multi‐level termhood is computed by the comparison of the corpus. Bilingual term alignment method based on termhood constraint is put forward and termhood is used in the task of bilingual terminology extraction. Experimental results show that termhood constraints can improve the performance of terminology alignment to some extent.

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Farheen Fathima Shaik, Upam Pushpak Makhecha and Sirish Kumar Gouda

Increasing digitization has transformed ways of work in modern age. Organizations are increasingly relying on global virtual teams (GVTs) as new forms of working. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing digitization has transformed ways of work in modern age. Organizations are increasingly relying on global virtual teams (GVTs) as new forms of working. However, the challenges of configuration of GVTs have been reported to reduce the levels of employee engagement, especially so in multicultural GVTs. Extant research indicates cultural intelligence as one of the drivers of employee engagement in GVTs, though the nature of this relationship has remained unclear. As there is scarce literature on the nature of this relationship, the purpose of this paper is to examine the linkages between cultural intelligence and employee engagement and the authors explain the findings using the identity lens.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an ethnographic inquiry to understand the nature of the relationship between cultural intelligence and employee engagement.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the inclusionary pressures of non-work identities (national culture) are high in context of GVTs owing to their configuration. However, preferences (alignment or misalignment) of team members either initiate gain cycles or loss cycles, thus effecting the levels of employee engagement. Further, it was found that individual preferences may dynamically change from misalignment toward alignment with improved levels of cultural intelligence among team members of GVTs. The relationship between cultural intelligence and employee engagement has been found to be mediated by trust among team members in GVTs.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to understand the dynamics of this relationship in an organizational GVT context. The authors also propose a unique framework combining cultural intelligence, trust and employee engagement in the context of GVTs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Yaxin Peng, Naiwu Wen, Chaomin Shen, Xiaohuang Zhu and Shihui Ying

Partial alignment for 3 D point sets is a challenging problem for laser calibration and robot calibration due to the unbalance of data sets, especially when the overlap of…

Abstract

Purpose

Partial alignment for 3 D point sets is a challenging problem for laser calibration and robot calibration due to the unbalance of data sets, especially when the overlap of data sets is low. Geometric features can promote the accuracy of alignment. However, the corresponding feature extraction methods are time consuming. The purpose of this paper is to find a framework for partial alignment by an adaptive trimmed strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors propose an adaptive trimmed strategy based on point feature histograms (PFH) coding. Second, they obtain an initial transformation based on this partition, which improves the accuracy of the normal direction weighted trimmed iterative closest point (ICP) method. Third, they conduct a series of GPU parallel implementations for time efficiency.

Findings

The initial partition based on PFH feature improves the accuracy of the partial registration significantly. Moreover, the parallel GPU algorithms accelerate the alignment process.

Research limitations/implications

This study is applicable to rigid transformation so far. It could be extended to non-rigid transformation.

Practical implications

In practice, point set alignment for calibration is a technique widely used in the fields of aircraft assembly, industry examination, simultaneous localization and mapping and surgery navigation.

Social implications

Point set calibration is a building block in the field of intelligent manufacturing.

Originality/value

The contributions are as follows: first, the authors introduce a novel coarse alignment as an initial calibration by PFH descriptor similarity, which can be viewed as a coarse trimmed process by partitioning the data to the almost overlap part and the rest part; second, they reduce the computation time by GPU parallel coding during the acquisition of feature descriptor; finally, they use the weighted trimmed ICP method to refine the transformation.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Lisa Rogan and Ruth Boaden

Principal-agent theory (PAT) has been used to understand relationships among different professional groups and explain performance management between organisations, but is…

Abstract

Purpose

Principal-agent theory (PAT) has been used to understand relationships among different professional groups and explain performance management between organisations, but is rarely used for research within primary care. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether PAT can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care.

Design/methodology/approach

Purposive sampling was used to identify a range of general practices in the North-west of England. Interviews were carried out with directors, managers and clinicians in commissioning and regional performance management organisations and within general practices, and the data analysed using matrix analysis techniques to produce a case study of performance management.

Findings

There are various elements of the principal-agent framework that can be applied in primary care. Goal alignment is relevant, but can only be achieved through clear, strategic direction and consistent interpretation of objectives at all levels. There is confusion between performance measurement and performance management and a tendency to focus on things that are easy to measure whilst omitting aspects of care that are more difficult to capture. Appropriate use of incentives, good communication, clinical engagement, ownership and trust affect the degree to which information asymmetry is overcome and goal alignment achieved. Achieving the right balance between accountability and clinical autonomy is important to ensure governance and financial balance without stifling innovation.

Originality/value

The principal-agent theoretical framework can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care; although it is likely that only partial goal alignment will be achieved, dependent on the extent and level of alignment of a range of factors.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Christopher Heywood and Monique Arkesteijn

This paper aims to report an analysis of the graphical representations of 14 corporate real estate (CRE) models. It does this to establish the systematic, metatheoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report an analysis of the graphical representations of 14 corporate real estate (CRE) models. It does this to establish the systematic, metatheoretical requirements for modelling CRE alignment which to date have been disguised in a multitude of models.

Design/methodology/approach

This meta study of CRE alignment models used a qualitative hermeneutic method to inductively develop understanding of the models’ constituent parts. Several iterations of graphical and textual analysis were required to do this. Further deductive analysis sought to understand the individual models relative to this new understanding.

Findings

The analysis showed that a total of 12 components have been used to model CRE alignment. These are divided into four Building Blocks: understanding corporate strategy; understanding real estate performance; making real estate strategy; and implementing real estate strategy. While every model’s representation contained the four Building Blocks, few models contained all 12 components, though all contained at least seven. Completeness of representation in this study should not be inferred as equating to effectiveness as an alignment process. Various feedback mechanisms were also evident between the components.

Originality/value

The analysis provides the most complete map of the modelling requirements for CRE alignment. It differs from previous theoretical work on alignment by synthesising a metatheory of alignment representation. By providing a more coherent theory by which to model CRE alignment the metatheory provides a consistent basis on which to investigate and theorise aspects of CRE alignment.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2018

Piera Centobelli, Roberto Cerchione and Emilio Esposito

This paper aims to propose a new three-dimensional (3D) fuzzy logic methodology to evaluate the level of misalignment between an enterprise’s knowledge and the knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a new three-dimensional (3D) fuzzy logic methodology to evaluate the level of misalignment between an enterprise’s knowledge and the knowledge management systems (KMSs) it adopts.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed methodology was implemented by means of a field analysis based on semi-structured face-to-face interviews involving a sample of 61 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in high-tech and/or complex industries.

Findings

The paper highlights that while there is generally a high level of misalignment between an enterprise’s knowledge and the KMSs adopted, there are also a broad variety of behaviours. The paper identifies a taxonomy able to bring together the various types of behaviour associated with how an enterprise’s knowledge is related to KMS selection. Specifically, four behaviour patterns were identified, and the enterprises were then categorised accordingly as being guideposts, practice laggards, tool laggards or latecomers.

Practical implications

The proposed taxonomy provides an operational tool that can be used by enterprises and policy makers alike. The paper shows how enterprises can use this tool to understand which category they belong to and support decision-making to introduce changes leading to improved levels of alignment. Policy makers, on the other hand, can use the proposed taxonomy to identify measures to support the competitiveness of local systems by improving management processes and knowledge sharing among enterprises.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the difficulties that SMEs experience in adopting KMSs that are truly aligned with their knowledge and proposes a methodology to improve alignment.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Raffaella Cagliano and Gianluca Spina

The study of internal and external consistency of manufacturing choices is a central theme in the literature of manufacturing strategy. However, most empirical studies…

Abstract

The study of internal and external consistency of manufacturing choices is a central theme in the literature of manufacturing strategy. However, most empirical studies lack dynamic perspective in facing this problem. This paper explores on an empirical, longitudinal basis the role of strategic priorities and past experience in driving the selection of manufacturing improvement programmes. A completely aligned selection is expected when the choice of the improvement programme is coherent with both the change in manufacturing priorities and the past experience of the programme implementation. Partially aligned and misaligned choices derive from the coherence with only one or none of the two driving factors. Different patterns of selection have been detected that depend both on the programme and on company‐specific factors. Starting from the level of strategic alignment of company’s choices, guidelines are provided in order to manage effectively the process of manufacturing strategy formulation.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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