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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Krunoslav Arbanas, Mario Spremic and Nikolina Zajdela Hrustek

The objective of this research was to propose and validate a holistic framework for information security culture evaluation, built around a novel approach, which includes…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research was to propose and validate a holistic framework for information security culture evaluation, built around a novel approach, which includes technological, organizational and social issues. The framework's validity and reliability were determined with the help of experts in the information security field and by using multivariate statistical methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework was constructed upon a detailed literature review and validated using a range of methods: first, measuring instrument was developed, and then content and construct validity of measuring instrument was confirmed via experts' opinion and by closed map sorting method. Convergent validity was confirmed by factor analysis, while the reliability of the measuring instrument was tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient to measure internal consistency.

Findings

The proposed framework was validated based upon the results of empirical research and the usage of multivariate analysis. The resulting framework ultimately consists of 46 items (manifest variables), describing eight factors (first level latent variables), grouped into three categories (second level latent variables). These three categories were built around technological, organizational and social issues.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the body of knowledge in information security culture by developing and validating holistic framework for information security culture evaluation, which does not observe information security culture in only one aspect but takes into account its organizational, sociological and technical component.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Jen‐Her Wu and Yu‐Min Wang

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is now considered to be the price of entry for running a business. However, ERP systems are complex and expensive, and the decision to…

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8263

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is now considered to be the price of entry for running a business. However, ERP systems are complex and expensive, and the decision to install an ERP system necessitates a choice of mechanisms for determining whether ERP is needed and, once implemented, whether it is successful. User satisfaction is one evaluation mechanism for determining system success. This study develops a reliable and valid instrument for measuring ERP ultimate‐user satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Initial ERP system characteristics and the implementation context were investigated. Some previously validated instruments were selected for examination using rigorous interview techniques. A modified version was developed and pre‐tested. The instrument was then used to administer a test to 264 Taiwanese users that interact directly with an ERP system.

Findings

The results suggest a ten‐item instrument to measure three components of ultimate‐user satisfaction in an ERP environment: ERP project team and service, ERP product, and user knowledge and involvement.

Originality/value

This study has conducted a rigorous scale development procedure to establish a reliable and valid instrument for measuring ERP ultimate‐user satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Zhihai Zhang, Ab Waszink and Jacob Wijngaard

From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), 11 constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring

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3862

Abstract

From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), 11 constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring these constructs was developed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and validated using data from 212 Chinese manufacturing companies. Various methods were employed for this test and validation. Comparisons between this instrument and the three other quality management instruments were made. It was concluded finally that the instrument presented in this paper was reliable and valid. Researchers will be able to use this instrument for developing quality management theory. Industrial practitioners will be able to use this instrument to evaluate their TQM implementation so as to target improvement areas.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Raili Moilanen

Aims first, to develop an instrument for a holistic analysis of learning organizations; and second, to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. The framework…

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4939

Abstract

Aims first, to develop an instrument for a holistic analysis of learning organizations; and second, to test the validity and reliability of this instrument. The framework developed was mainly influenced by the work of Mike Pedler, Tom Boydell and John Burgoyne, Peter M. Senge as well as Chris Argyris and Donald A. Schön. Analyses eight existing diagnosis tools. The Learning Organization Diamond Tool was based on a concept of a learning organization regarded as a structure of related elements. Data consisting of 691 answers were gathered from 25 Finnish organizations in 1998. After analysis the reliability of the instrument was measured with Cronbach’s alpha. Cronbach’s alphas for the elements of the tool varied between 0.5141 and 0.8617. Validity of the tool was established by presenting the process as a chain of phases from theory to statements. Comparison between the tool developed and other tools presented in this article yields somewhat contradictory findings, because the purposes of the instruments differ. The tool developed here aims to create a holistic picture for further analysis and discussions and to serve as an internal tool for development. More tailored instruments should be developed for more specific purposes. The article is aimed at an audience involved in learning organizations and their development.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Khahan Na-Nan, Jamnean Joungtrakul, Ian David Smith and Ekkasit Sanamthong

To develop and validate an instrument to measure the problems associated with performance appraisal.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop and validate an instrument to measure the problems associated with performance appraisal.

Design/methodology/approach

The implementation was in two phases. Phase 1 involved the development and validation of an instrument to measure the problems with performance appraisal. Phase 2 involved the exploration and confirm the construct measurement. Data used in Phase 1 were collected from interviews with administrators and employees in the automotive parts manufacturing industry and five experts. In Phase 2, data were derived from questionnaires sent to 320 employees of automotive parts manufacturers in the Eastern Region of Thailand.

Findings

Problems concerning performance appraisals were classified into two components as problems with the appraisal process and problems with the appraising person. The concepts, theories and interview results that were used to develop the instrument and assess problems with performance appraisals were consistent with the empirical evidence.

Practical implications

The developed instrument may be used to measure problem levels of performance appraisals in organizations with high accuracy and reliability. Findings may be used as guidelines for management to effectively reduce problems with performance appraisals. The instrument may also be used for research measurement of organizational problems concerning performance appraisal.

Social implications

Fairness, transparency and testability are aspects of effective management. Ignorance of problems in performance appraisals may have negative effects on a conducive working atmosphere and behaviors at the personal, group and organizational levels. Therefore, the findings of this study have social implications for the capability to examine fairness in employees' performance appraisals.

Originality/value

The instrument for measuring problems with performance appraisal was developed based on the combination of concepts, theories and interview and questionnaire data. This instrument facilitates human resource officers, managers and organizations in measuring the levels of problems with performance appraisals.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Dubravko Rogale and Zvonko Dragčević

A measuring system for automatic process parameter acquisition in garment sewing operations has been presented. The measuring equipment is based upon the usage of a very…

Abstract

A measuring system for automatic process parameter acquisition in garment sewing operations has been presented. The measuring equipment is based upon the usage of a very powerful portable notebook IBM compatible personal computer, equipped with an AD converter, measuring instruments and adequate software packages for data storing and analysis. Characteristics of measuring instruments and sensors have also been given, together with measuring process description, all connected with two independent video‐camera systems, working in two planes, used for working operation analysis at workplaces in garment sewing operations.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 10 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Firdaus Abdullah

This paper aims to test and compare the relative efficacy of three measuring instruments of service quality (namely Higher Education PERFormance (HEdPERF), SERVPERF and…

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11209

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test and compare the relative efficacy of three measuring instruments of service quality (namely Higher Education PERFormance (HEdPERF), SERVPERF and the moderating scale of HEdPERF‐SERVPERF) within a higher education setting. The objective was to determine which instrument had the superior measuring capability in terms of unidimensionality, reliability, validity and explained variance.

Design/methodology/approach

After a pilot test, data were collected from students in two public universities, one private university and three private colleges in Malaysia between January and March 2004, by the “contact person” route. From a total of 560 questionnaires, 381 were usable: a response rate of 68.0 per cent. This sample of nearly 400,000 students in Malaysian tertiary institutions was in line with the generalized scientific guideline for sample size decisions. Data were subjected to regression analysis.

Findings

A modified five‐factor structure of HEdPERF is put forward as the most appropriate scale for the higher education sector.

Research limitations/implications

Since this study only examined the respective utilities of each instrument within a single industry, any suggestion that the HEdPERF is generally superior would still be premature. Nonetheless, the current findings do provide some important insights into how these instruments of service quality compare with one another.

Practical implications

The single dominant factor on this study is “access”, which has clear implications for institutions' marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This is believed to be the first study of its kind carried out among consumers of the higher education service.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Marietjie Wepener and Christo Boshoff

The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the corporate reputation of large service organizations. The validity of a discipline’s…

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1735

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the corporate reputation of large service organizations. The validity of a discipline’s constructs is a prerequisite for effective theory development and testing. Construct validity thus lies at the very heart of both decision-making and scientific progress in marketing. The use of marketing instruments that do not demonstrate sufficient evidence of construct validity can lead to invalid results, erroneous conclusions and poor decision-making. Despite several attempts to develop an instrument to measure the corporate reputation of service organizations effectively, lingering doubts remain about the construct validity of several published instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from the clients of service organization using an online survey during three waves of data collection and scale purification. Invariance testing in two different service industries confirmed that the final instrument is completely invariant, suggesting that the measurement parameters of the measurement model are the same in both samples.

Findings

Rigorous scale development led to the development of a 19-item instrument that effectively measures a large service organization’s corporate reputation along five dimensions, namely, emotional appeal, corporate performance, social engagement, good employer and service points.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to the measurement of the corporate reputation of large service organizations.

Practical implications

Given the fact that corporate reputation has been described as “the ultimate determinant of competitiveness” by some executives, the outcome of this study is a proposal that large service organizations measure this intangible asset along five dimensions, namely, emotional appeal, corporate performance, social engagement, good employer and service points.

Originality/value

Despite several attempts to do so, a valid and reliable instrument to effectively measure the corporate reputation of service firms (particularly large ones) has remained elusive. After more than two decades after the first attempts at measurement, there are many who now call for improved methodologies and more valid instruments to measure corporate reputation, based on more rigorous theoretical and conceptual development. This study addresses a matter of concern for many managers and academics.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Suleyman M. Yildiz and Ali Kara

HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is…

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2377

Abstract

Purpose

HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales with a much narrower focus may need to be developed for micro levels within a university because of the unique nature of different academic units. The purpose of this paper is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, PESPERF (namely Physical Education and Sports Sciences PERFormance).

Design/methodology/approach

A 30‐item questionnaire on service quality in higher education was developed and tested for unidimensionality, reliability and validity using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In total, 320 physical education and sports sciences students participated in the study in a classroom setting.

Findings

Study results indicate that three dimensions (academic aspects, empathy, and access) capture the determinants of service quality in the School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (PESS).

Research limitations/implications

Sample size, cultural factors and the complex nature of university customers limits one's ability to generalize these results to broader populations.

Practical implications

Through the use of service quality dimensions presented in this study, PESS administrators can successfully measure and monitor service quality perceptions in their institutions. Having identified the areas of service quality improvement priorities, administrators can allocate appropriate resources to encourage continuous service quality improvements.

Originality/value

This paper uses existing literature on service quality and develops an instrument that provides insights into measuring service quality for a specific academic unit within a university.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Dennis Yao Dzansi and Marius Pretorius

The purpose of this paper is to propose an instrument, the Small Enterprise Social Responsibility Inventory (SESRI) for measuring business social responsibility (BSR) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an instrument, the Small Enterprise Social Responsibility Inventory (SESRI) for measuring business social responsibility (BSR) in the African venture setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to use the components of Dzansi's framework to create an instrument for measuring BSR activities of small ventures that operate in rural Africa. The instrument was tested in a rural community in South Africa for validity, reliability, structure, and its ability to predict firm performance given performance of certain BSR activities.

Findings

Through factor analysis of data obtained from 314 small businesses in a rural South African setting, the instrument was found to be valid for measuring small business BSR and identified five factors: expected benefits; community or customer practices; realised or actual benefits; awareness or attitude and performance; and employee practices. Through discriminant analysis, employee practice was found useful for classifying ventures as high or low sales and profit performers, suggesting that information on a firm's BSR related employee practices may be useful predictors of sales and profit.

Research limitations/implications

Firstly, the methodology requires self‐evaluation by the respondents. However, those respondents who reported low levels of BSR activities (and negative growth in sales and performance) also reflected on their own “performance” and recorded it as low signifying some level of realistic reporting. Secondly, there is absence of question items about environmental issues. Thirdly, the sample was taken in a small rural setting, which requires caution when generalising from the results.

Originality/value

This study provides an African context specific measurement instrument for addressing small business BSR. Academics will find it useful in their research efforts. Fund managers will also find it useful for evaluating small business BSR performance. Owners/managers will have a benchmark in performing their social obligations.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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