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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Nikoletta-Theofania Siamagka, George Christodoulides and Nina Michaelidou

The extant literature highlights the significant role of brand perceptions in buying behavior and brand equity. Despite the importance of brand perceptions and the…

1410

Abstract

Purpose

The extant literature highlights the significant role of brand perceptions in buying behavior and brand equity. Despite the importance of brand perceptions and the proliferation of online brands, research in an online context is still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by investigating the effect of positive and negative comparative affective states (online vs offline) on online brand perceptions. Consistent with existing evidence, highlighting the role of culture on brand perceptions and affective states, this research is conducted in a cross-national setting to identify the stability of the hypothesized relationships among countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses consumer survey data from five countries (UK, USA, Australia, Canada and China). After imposing metric and factor variance invariance, we used multi-group CFA to test the hypotheses regarding the impact of positive and negative comparative affective states on online brand perceptions across the five countries in the sample.

Findings

The results show that positive comparative affective states have a significant and positive impact on online brand perceptions across the countries studied, although the impact size varies by country. The findings also show that negative comparative affective states, which are context-specific and not induced by any particular brand, have no effect on online brand perceptions across the country samples.

Practical implications

Managers can use the findings reported in this research to inform their branding strategies. For instance, managers may focus on triggering feelings of comfort online as these lead to more favorable online brand perceptions rather than on supressing feelings of caution, as the latter do not directly impact online brand perceptions.

Originality/value

The study builds on and extends the recent work of Christodoulides et al. (2013) by focussing on online brand perceptions and looking into the role of affective states in a cross-national setting.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2021

Jan Klostermann, Chris Hydock and Reinhold Decker

In recent years, brands have increasingly engaged in corporate political advocacy (CPA; also termed brand activism or corporate sociopolitical activity) by taking…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, brands have increasingly engaged in corporate political advocacy (CPA; also termed brand activism or corporate sociopolitical activity) by taking positions on polarizing sociopolitical issues. Recent experimental research suggests that consumers respond to CPA based on its alignment with their own values, and that it typically induces an overall negative response. This study aims to provide additional insights by exploring consumer brand perceptions following CPA.

Design/methodology/approach

An event study of 106 CPA events and weekly consumer brand perception data was conducted. A regression model was used to investigate the moderating effects of CPA effort, concurrence and the strength of the online protests evoked by the CPA.

Findings

The results show that CPA had a negative effect on consumers’ brand perceptions and that the effect was stronger for customers relative to non-customers. The negative effect was attenuated by CPA concurrence and amplified by effort. Additionally, online protests were driven by the CPA effort and had a strong negative effect on brand perception. Online protests were stronger in the past, and, in turn, the negative effects of CPA on brand perceptions have slightly weakened in recent years.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the role of online protests following CPA and distinguishing consumer and customer responses. This study also provides converging evidence of the moderating effects of effort and concurrence identified in previous studies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Geoffrey J. Simmons

To derive an applicable conceptual framework of branding via the internet form; to show how that framework can, by organising and integrating current knowledge, assist…

15619

Abstract

Purpose

To derive an applicable conceptual framework of branding via the internet form; to show how that framework can, by organising and integrating current knowledge, assist marketing planners in the development of successful internet‐based branding strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework presented here derives from a thorough analytical and critical review of the literature on branding in the conventional and virtual marketing environments.

Findings

There are three key themes in the mainstream branding literature, supplemented in the proposed framework by a fourth research stream self‐evidently relevant to internet‐based branding. It is clear that the resulting four main elements of the framework are strongly interrelated in the practice of brand management in the online environment.

Practical implications

The “Four Pillars of i‐Branding” should be of intellectual interest and practical value to marketing planners and those advising them, providing a more systematic approach to the understanding and application of branding, online.

Originality/value

The literature of “i‐Branding” is at present at a formative stage, with limited integration among its themes. The framework described here provides the basis for the rational formulation and implementation of branding strategies, applying internet‐based tools to the tasks of marketing communication and customer relationship‐building in particular.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

George Christodoulides, Nina Michaelidou and Nikoletta Theofania Siamagka

The role of affective states in consumer behaviour is well established. However, no study to date has examined online affective states empirically as a basis for…

2150

Abstract

Purpose

The role of affective states in consumer behaviour is well established. However, no study to date has examined online affective states empirically as a basis for constructing typologies of internet users and for assessing the invariance of clusters across national cultures. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Four focus groups were carried out with internet users to adapt a set of affective states identified from the literature to the online environment. An online survey was then designed to collect data from internet users in four Western and four East Asian countries.

Findings

Based on a cluster analysis, six cross‐national market segments are identified and labelled “Positive Online Affectivists”, “Offline Affectivists”, “On/Off‐line Negative Affectivists”, “Online Affectivists”, “Indistinguishable Affectivists”, and “Negative Offline Affectivists”. The resulting clusters discriminate on the basis of national culture, gender, working status and perceptions towards online brands.

Practical implications

Marketers may use this typology to segment internet users in order to predict their perceptions towards online brands. Also, a standardised approach to e‐marketing is not recommended on the basis of affective state‐based segmentation.

Originality/value

This is the first study proposing affective state‐based typologies of internet users using comparable samples from four Western and four East Asian countries.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Guida Helal, Wilson Ozuem and Geoff Lancaster

A phenomenon that has revolutionized society is the technological millennial approach to communication. Social media has matured into a prime channel for regular…

10701

Abstract

Purpose

A phenomenon that has revolutionized society is the technological millennial approach to communication. Social media has matured into a prime channel for regular interactions and development of brand–customer relationships that enrich a social identity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how this affects business communications.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized a social constructivist perspective, adopting an inductive and embedded case study strategy.

Findings

Drawing on the social identity theory, this paper examines how evolving social media platforms have impacted on brand perceptions in the fashion apparel and accessories industries. Fashion brandsonline presence provide a platform for customers to supplement social identity based on associations with brands, and ultimately this can shape brand perceptions among customers through promised functional and symbolic benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The paper investigates a specialized marketing activity in the UK. A broader internationally based study would add strength to these findings.

Practical implications

The paper focuses on theoretical and managerial implications and proffers significant roles that social media and identity may play in keeping up with the design and development of marketing communications programs.

Social implications

Multinational corporations have embraced internet technologies and social media in adopting platforms that their brands can use to contribute content to followers.

Originality/value

In total, 30 potential participants, drawn from diverse backgrounds, were contacted via social networking sites, e-mails and telephone. In total, 22 agreed to participate and their mean age was 26. An open-ended questionnaire allowed for elaboration, providing appropriate responses for a second interviewing phase. Four industry professionals were recruited through the researchers’ personal networks to participate in in-depth interviews that sought to investigate the significance of social media as a marketing tool from an industry perspective.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Noreen Siddiqui, Antonia O’Malley, Julie C. McColl and Grete Birtwistle

Examines the Web sites of online fashion retailers. It evaluates the role of the Internet as a distribution channel and in particular discusses issues of Web page design…

17313

Abstract

Examines the Web sites of online fashion retailers. It evaluates the role of the Internet as a distribution channel and in particular discusses issues of Web page design. Retailer and consumer views within the fashion sector are explored in a three‐stage qualitative research process. This research highlights the differences in retail and consumer perception of fashion Web sites. While retailers are satisfied by their online offer they lack an understanding of consumer needs. Consumers are disappointed in the lack of service and product provision provided by fashion Web sites. Areas of concern include overall Web page design, level of interactivity, absence of information about fashion trends and inconsistency across Web sites.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Violetta Wilk, Geoffrey Norman Soutar and Paul Harrigan

Despite an increasing interest in online brand advocacy (OBA) and the importance of online brand conversations, OBA’s conceptualization, dimensionality and measurement are…

1470

Abstract

Purpose

Despite an increasing interest in online brand advocacy (OBA) and the importance of online brand conversations, OBA’s conceptualization, dimensionality and measurement are unclear, which has created confusion. This paper aims to answer calls from researchers and practitioners for a better understanding and measurement of OBA. The development and validation of a parsimonious and practical OBA scale is outlined in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-methods, multi-stage approach was followed to develop a parsimonious OBA scale. From an initial pool of 96 items obtained from qualitative research and from items used in prior general brand advocacy scales, a test-retest reliability study is followed. Academic judges were consulted to verify dimensionality, followed by two separate online surveys to further purify the scale and assess criterion-related validity. Programs including SPSS, AMOS and WarpPLS were used.

Findings

This research extends the knowledge of OBA by developing and testing a parsimonious and practical 16-item, four-dimensional OBA scale. Unlike previous attempts to measure OBA, this study suggested OBA as a multidimensional construct with four dimensions (i.e. brand defense, brand information sharing, brand positivity and virtual positive expression). Further, this study showed that OBA is conceptually different from consumer–brand engagement and electronic word-of-mouth.

Research limitations/implications

Future research is encouraged to validate the OBA scale in various contexts and locations. Researchers can use the new OBA scale to examine potential brand-related antecedents and consequences of OBA.

Practical implications

This study provides brand and marketing practitioners with a better understanding of brand advocacy occurring online. The OBA scale offers clear markers or trademarks that will be useful in assessing any brand’s health online and to track and better manage online brand communications and performance.

Originality/value

This research provides the first empirical investigation of Wilk et al.’s (2018) exploratory insights into OBA. The resulting parsimonious scale has furthered OBA as a new area for academic enquiry and presented practitioners with a practical way of measuring OBA.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 May 2018

Duarte Xara-Brasil, Kavita Miadaira Hamza and Percy Marquina

The purpose of this paper is to analyze customers’ perceptions about brand personality in different cultural environments, checking if the archetypal framework of Mark and…

9623

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze customers’ perceptions about brand personality in different cultural environments, checking if the archetypal framework of Mark and Pearson (2001) applies to different brands across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measured consumers’ perceptions in different cultural contexts through a survey, and received 537 valid questionnaires from Portugal, Brazil, Colombia and Peru, countries that have some similar indicators of cultural proximity. The authors wanted to verify if the words and sentences that respondents related to each brand were coherent with the archetype/brand, and the homogeneity of the results in different cultural contexts.

Findings

Empirical evidence shows that there is proximity between the literature review and the associations – words and sentences – that consumers from different countries make with those brands. This consistency of results is significantly higher for word associations.

Originality/value

Regardless of the results, the perceptions of consumers expressed through the selected words were often diverse and heterogeneous among countries. This could possibly indicate insufficient efforts from global brands toward a coherent brand personality/global-archetypal approach. Therefore, managing brand personality deserves more attention and marketers must understand consumer behavior patterns in different markets.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2177-8736

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Geoff Simmons

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to provide an overview of postmodern marketing in the consumer context, integrating the relevant literature around two…

16101

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to provide an overview of postmodern marketing in the consumer context, integrating the relevant literature around two contrary arguments. Second, it seeks to reveal the potential of the internet as a marketing tool that can address the complexities inherent in postmodern consumer markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a general review.

Findings

This paper reveals that complexity reigns supreme in the postmodern marketing consumer context, with postmodern consumers seeking both individualistic and communal brand experiences. Within this complexity, the paper identifies the internet as an enabling tool, which allows direct, real‐time individualised interaction with postmodern consumers. Further, the internet's ability to provide these consumers with the opportunity to express this individuality within homogeneous groups is also presented.

Practical implications

This paper reveals how the internet can allow an individualised one‐to‐one connection with postmodern consumers to a level unparalleled offline. Correspondingly, the paper also reveals how the internet is precipitating significant new opportunities for marketers to engage in and create enticing experiences for postmodern consumers, who crave the ability to appropriate consumption and brands as a means of individualised self‐expression within homogeneous groups.

Originality/value

This paper provides a contemporary and original overview of the opportunities proffered to marketers by the internet, in dealing with the inherent complexities erupting from within consumer markets in the postmodern era.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Vincent Dutot and François Bergeron

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a framework of small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) strategic orientation (SO) and its impact on social media performance…

5748

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a framework of small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs) strategic orientation (SO) and its impact on social media performance. Moreover, it introduces a new concept, social media orientation (SMO) (composed of sales and business development (SBD) and visibility) to add in the model.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was used and, based on a study of 257 SMEs, analyses were performed. A smartPLS analysis was judged appropriate regarding the sample size.

Findings

Results show that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and customer orientation have a positive influence on SBD which in turn has a positive influence on social media performance. Visibility is positively influenced by EO and has an indirect effect on social media performance. Social media performance is therefore directly influenced by SBD and indirectly by visibility.

Research limitations/implications

The authors complete previous research that called for the introduction of different SO on a same study and go further as the author highlight the role of EO on visibility (and not only on business or performance). A second contribution lies in the conceptualization of SMO (defined here with SBD and visibility) and third in the measurement of social media performance through growth and attention.

Practical implications

SMEs first need to develop their visibility, and then link it to SBD.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to explore SMEs’ SO on social media and proposes a new concept defined as SMO. It gives SMEs future direction on how to perform on these platforms.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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