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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Fon Sim Ong, Kok Wei Khong, Ken Kyid Yeoh, Osman Syuhaily and Othman Mohd. Nor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of atmospherics and affective state on shoppers’ in-store behaviour using the two approaches in structural equation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of atmospherics and affective state on shoppers’ in-store behaviour using the two approaches in structural equation modelling (SEM), i.e. Frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Shoppers’ affective state was tested for its mediating effect on in-store shopping behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The final sample consists of 382 respondents who were drawn from shoppers at selected apparel stores in six of the most popular shopping malls around Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). A frequentist approach to SEM is common among researchers and offers generally an analysis of the relationships between multiple latent variables and constructs. Alternatively, the Bayesian SEM (BSEM) approach stems from the diffusion of the model’s posterior distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. More specifically, this technique is inherently more flexible and substantive in determining parameter estimates as compared to the more conventional, the frequentist approach to SEM.

Findings

The results show the mixed effects of atmospheric cues in retail setting on shoppers’ affective state. More specifically, the positive direct effect of atmospheric cues (music) on in-store behaviour was confirmed while other atmospheric cues (colour and store layout) were found to be fully mediated by affective state. The Bayesian approach was able to offer more distinctive results complementing the frequentist approach.

Research limitations/implications

Although the current sample size is adequate, it will be interesting to examine how a bigger sample size and different antecedents of in-store behaviour in retailing can affect the comparison between the frequentist approach in SEM and BSEM.

Practical implications

The authors found that a combination of well-designed store atmospherics and layout store can produce pleasurable effects on shoppers resulting in positive affective state. This study found that results from both frequentist and Bayesian approaches complement each other and it may be beneficial for future studies to utilise both approaches in SEM.

Originality/value

This paper met the aim to compare the approaches in SEM and the need to consider both approaches on in-store shopping environment. Overall, the authors contend that the Bayesian approach to SEM is a potentially viable alternative to frequentist SEM, especially when studies are conducted under dynamic conditions such as apparel retailing.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 118 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Nikoletta-Theofania Siamagka, George Christodoulides and Nina Michaelidou

The extant literature highlights the significant role of brand perceptions in buying behavior and brand equity. Despite the importance of brand perceptions and the…

1410

Abstract

Purpose

The extant literature highlights the significant role of brand perceptions in buying behavior and brand equity. Despite the importance of brand perceptions and the proliferation of online brands, research in an online context is still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by investigating the effect of positive and negative comparative affective states (online vs offline) on online brand perceptions. Consistent with existing evidence, highlighting the role of culture on brand perceptions and affective states, this research is conducted in a cross-national setting to identify the stability of the hypothesized relationships among countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses consumer survey data from five countries (UK, USA, Australia, Canada and China). After imposing metric and factor variance invariance, we used multi-group CFA to test the hypotheses regarding the impact of positive and negative comparative affective states on online brand perceptions across the five countries in the sample.

Findings

The results show that positive comparative affective states have a significant and positive impact on online brand perceptions across the countries studied, although the impact size varies by country. The findings also show that negative comparative affective states, which are context-specific and not induced by any particular brand, have no effect on online brand perceptions across the country samples.

Practical implications

Managers can use the findings reported in this research to inform their branding strategies. For instance, managers may focus on triggering feelings of comfort online as these lead to more favorable online brand perceptions rather than on supressing feelings of caution, as the latter do not directly impact online brand perceptions.

Originality/value

The study builds on and extends the recent work of Christodoulides et al. (2013) by focussing on online brand perceptions and looking into the role of affective states in a cross-national setting.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Jessica Zeiss and Joseph Chapman

The purpose of this study is to collect data that allows researchers to capture both affective and cognitive buy-in influenced by both product and product strategy targets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to collect data that allows researchers to capture both affective and cognitive buy-in influenced by both product and product strategy targets.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of 13 salesperson interviews followed the cluster and axial coding of grounded theory interview protocol.

Findings

This study finds two types of buy-in that are uniquely contingent on the target, and for which are influenced by both cognitive and affective states of being. Additionally, it finds that either affective or cognitive states of being can both drive and inhibit salesperson buy-in of either target. While the targets of buy-in appear to be mutually exclusive, the cognitive nature of disconfirming evidence appears to directly inhibit both targets of buy-in while also resulting in negative affect.

Research limitations/implications

Further study that uncovers the causal role of an affective state inhibiting buy-in after the introduction of disconfirming evidence is warranted.

Practical implications

Managerial training and messaging approaches for achieving the two buy-in targets will likely differ or focus on only one type for efficient training.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the simultaneous effects of the two underlying states of cognition and affect on buy-in development. It is found that the two states can influence each other to stunt buy-in. The present study contributes to sales behavior literature by allowing the possibility of a sequence of states that stunt buy-in, positioning simultaneous examination is vital to the conceptualization of buy-in.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

George Christodoulides, Nina Michaelidou and Nikoletta Theofania Siamagka

The role of affective states in consumer behaviour is well established. However, no study to date has examined online affective states empirically as a basis for…

2150

Abstract

Purpose

The role of affective states in consumer behaviour is well established. However, no study to date has examined online affective states empirically as a basis for constructing typologies of internet users and for assessing the invariance of clusters across national cultures. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Four focus groups were carried out with internet users to adapt a set of affective states identified from the literature to the online environment. An online survey was then designed to collect data from internet users in four Western and four East Asian countries.

Findings

Based on a cluster analysis, six cross‐national market segments are identified and labelled “Positive Online Affectivists”, “Offline Affectivists”, “On/Off‐line Negative Affectivists”, “Online Affectivists”, “Indistinguishable Affectivists”, and “Negative Offline Affectivists”. The resulting clusters discriminate on the basis of national culture, gender, working status and perceptions towards online brands.

Practical implications

Marketers may use this typology to segment internet users in order to predict their perceptions towards online brands. Also, a standardised approach to e‐marketing is not recommended on the basis of affective state‐based segmentation.

Originality/value

This is the first study proposing affective state‐based typologies of internet users using comparable samples from four Western and four East Asian countries.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Snehal R. Rathi and Yogesh D. Deshpande

Affective states in learning have gained immense attention in education. The precise affective-states prediction can increase the learning gain by adapting targeted…

Abstract

Purpose

Affective states in learning have gained immense attention in education. The precise affective-states prediction can increase the learning gain by adapting targeted interventions that can adjust the changes in individual affective states of students. Several techniques are devised for predicting the affective states considering audio, video and biosensors. Still, the system that relies on analyzing audio and video cannot certify anonymity and is subjected to privacy problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A new strategy, termed rider squirrel search algorithm-based deep long short-term memory (RiderSSA-based deep LSTM) is devised for affective-state prediction. The deep LSTM training is done by the proposed RiderSSA. Here, RiderSSA-based deep LSTM effectively predicts the affective states like confusion, engagement, frustration, anger, happiness, disgust, boredom, surprise and so on. In addition, the learning styles are predicted based on the extracted features using rider neural network (RideNN), for which the Felder–Silverman learning-style model (FSLSM) is considered. Here, the RideNN classifies the learners. Finally, the course ID, student ID, affective state, learning style, exam score and course completion are taken as output data to determine the correlative study.

Findings

The proposed RiderSSA-based deep LSTM provided enhanced efficiency with elevated accuracy of 0.962 and the highest correlation of 0.406.

Originality/value

The proposed method based on affective prediction obtained maximal accuracy and the highest correlation. Thus, the method can be applied to the course recommendation system based on affect prediction.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Sonia Maria Guedes Gondim and Clara Mutti

This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the results of a study whose general objective is to characterize the affective states experienced in response to different teaching activities used in a workshop for developing entrepreneurial skills. It seeks to answer the following question: how affections and experiential learning strategies interrelate in the development of entrepreneurial skills?

Design/methodology/approach

The study included 126 people enrolled in EMPRETEC, a nine‐day course with a behavioral and experiential approach which aims to develop entrepreneurs' behavioral aspects. The affective states experienced by the participants were assessed on 13 moments during the workshop using the time‐sampling method.

Findings

The results suggest that the structure of the course favored the predominance of affective states such as joy, excitement, pleasure, and pride (categorized as affective states indicating motivation). Activities similar to real situations (as opposed to fictitious ones) generate greater emotional impact. It was also found that indirect learning activities (less similar to real situations) and interactive (team) activities are associated with lower levels of anxiety.

Research limitations/implications

Being an exploratory study on a particular case, these results cannot be generalized, suggesting the need for further in‐depth studies.

Practical implications

These results are an important guide for instructional planning in contemporary society that values the use of teaching methods that are experiential, collaborative, and encourage learner autonomy.

Originality/value

This paper offers to extend the discussion about emotions in the workplace and specifically their relationship to learning, a subject still little explored in recent literature.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Paul Harvey, Mark J. Martinko and Nancy Borkowski

Building on a recent study of Weiner's (1985a) attribution–emotion–behavior model, we examine the extent to which negative affective states mediate the relationship…

Abstract

Building on a recent study of Weiner's (1985a) attribution–emotion–behavior model, we examine the extent to which negative affective states mediate the relationship between attributions for undesirable outcomes and the ability to justify ethically questionable behaviors. Results of a scenario-based study indicated that causal attributions were associated with affective states and behavioral justification in the general manner predicted. Affective states were not associated with behavior justification, however, indicating that only a direct association between attributions and justification existed. Implications for future research on attributions and emotions are discussed.

Details

Emotions, Ethics and Decision-Making
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-941-8

Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2005

Herman H.M. Tse, Marie T. Dasborough and Neal M. Ashkanasy

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange…

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that Team-member exchange (TMX) influences employee work attitudes and behaviours separately from the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX). In particular, little is known of the effect of LMX differentiation (in-group versus out-group) as a process of social exchange that can, in turn, affect TMX quality. To explore this phenomenon, this chapter presents a multi-level model of TMX in organizations, which incorporates LMX differentiation, team identification, team member affect at the individual level, and fairness of LMX differentiation and affective climate at the group-level. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our model for theory, research, and practice.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2005

Claire E. Ashton-James and Neal M. Ashkanasy

Since its publication in 1996, Affective Events Theory (AET) has come to be regarded as the seminal explanation for structure, causes and consequences of affective

Abstract

Since its publication in 1996, Affective Events Theory (AET) has come to be regarded as the seminal explanation for structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. AET does not, however, elucidate why, how, and when objects and events in the workplace trigger moods and emotions which in turn influence cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Consequently, AET does not yet provide us with a theoretical basis upon which to predict the way in which contextual, cognitive, motivational, or individual factors might moderate the impact of workplace events on affective states and subsequent behavior. In this chapter, we outline the central tenets of AET, and review a model of the processes underlying AET, with a view to understanding individual differences in the manifestation and consequences of affect in the workplace.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Bei Ma and Jing Zhang

Despite manager’s investments in facilitating knowledge sharing, such as hiring employees with lots of knowledge, knowledge hiding remains prevalent in organizations. It…

1037

Abstract

Purpose

Despite manager’s investments in facilitating knowledge sharing, such as hiring employees with lots of knowledge, knowledge hiding remains prevalent in organizations. It may stem from that less attention has been paid to the relationship between perceived overqualification and knowledge hiding. Drawing on emotion theory, this study aims to build a mediation framework to examine effects of perceived overqualification on knowledge hiding via negative emotion state and moderating role of team positive affective tone.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a two-wave survey study among 398 knowledge workers from 106 teams in knowledge-intensive industries and tests the hypotheses by performing a series of hierarchical linear modeling analyzes.

Findings

The results show that a negative emotion state mediates the U-shaped relationship between employees’ perceived overqualification and knowledge hiding behavior. Team positive affective tone moderates the U-shaped relationship between negative emotions and employees’ knowledge hiding behavior.

Originality/value

This study extends current knowledge management literature by introducing perceived overqualification as an individual predictor of employees’ knowledge hiding behavior and revealing the both light and dark sides of perceived overqualification on knowledge hiding, as well as its intervening mechanism. The research findings help practitioners to curb such counterproductive behaviors.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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