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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Oliver Krammer, Tareq I. Al-Ma’aiteh, Balazs Illes, David Bušek and Karel Dušek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of different viscosity models (Cross and Al-Ma’aiteh) and different printing speeds on the numerical results (e.g. pressure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of different viscosity models (Cross and Al-Ma’aiteh) and different printing speeds on the numerical results (e.g. pressure over stencil) of a numerical model regarding stencil printing.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite volume model was established for describing the printing process. Two types of viscosity models for non-Newtonian fluid properties were compared. The Cross model was fitted to the measurement results in the initial state of a lead-free solder paste, and the parameters of a Al-Ma’aiteh material model were fitted in the stabilised state of the same paste. Four different printing speeds were also investigated from 20 to 200 mm/s.

Findings

Noteworthy differences were found in the pressure between utilising the Cross model and the Al-Ma’aiteh viscosity model. The difference in pressure reached 33-34% for both printing speeds of 20 and 70 mm/s and reached 31% and 27% for the printing speed of 120 and 200 mm/s. The variation in the difference was explained by the increase in the rates of shear by increasing printing speeds.

Originality/value

Parameters of viscosity model should be determined for the stabilised state of the solder paste. Neglecting the thixotropic paste nature in the modelling of printing can cause a calculation error of even approximately 30%. By using the Al-Ma’aiteh viscosity model over the stabilised state of solder pastes can provide more accurate results in the modelling of printing, which is necessary for the effective optimisation of this process, and for eliminating soldering failures in highly integrated electronic devices.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Tareq I. Al-Ma’aiteh and Oliver Krammer

The purpose of this paper is to present the establishment of a computational fluid dynamics model for investigating different non-Newtonian rheological models of solder pastes by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the establishment of a computational fluid dynamics model for investigating different non-Newtonian rheological models of solder pastes by simulating solder paste viscosity measurement. A combined material model was established which can follow the measured, apparent viscosity values with lower error.

Design/methodology/approach

The model included a parallel plate arrangement of rheometers. The diameter of the plate was 50 mm, whereas the gap between the plates was 0.5 mm. Only one quarter of the plate was modelled to enable using fine enough mesh, while keeping the calculation time low. Non-Newtonian properties were set using user defined function in Ansys, based on the Cross and Carreau–Yasuda material models. The viscosity values predicted by the mathematical models were compared to measured viscosity values of different types of solder pastes.

Findings

It was found that the Cross model predicts the apparent viscosity with a relatively high error (even approximately 50 per cent) at lower shear rates, whereas the Carerau–Yasuda model has higher errors at higher shear rates. The application of the proposed, combined model can result in a much lower error in the apparent viscosity between the calculated and measured viscosity values.

Originality/value

The error of Cross and Carreau–Yasuda material models has not been investigated yet in details. The proposed, combined material model can be applied for subsequent simulations via the described UDF, e.g. in the numerical modelling of the stencil printing. This can result in a more accurate modelling of the stencil printing process, which is inevitable considering the printing of solder paste for today fine-pitch, small size components.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2017

Oliver Krammer, László Jakab, Balazs Illes, David Bušek and Ivana Beshajová Pelikánová

The attack angle of stencil printing squeegees with different geometries was analysed using finite element modelling.

Abstract

Purpose

The attack angle of stencil printing squeegees with different geometries was analysed using finite element modelling.

Design/methodology/approach

A finite element model (FEM) was developed to determine the attack angle during the stencil printing. The material properties of the squeegee were included in the model according to the parameters of steel AISI 4340, and the model was validated by experimental measurements. Two geometric parameters were investigated; two different unloaded angles (45° and 60°) and four overhang sizes of the squeegee (6, 15, 20 and 25 mm).

Findings

It was found that the deflection of the blade is nearly homogenous along the length of the squeegee. This implies that the attack angle does not change significantly along the squeegee length. The results showed significant differences between the initial and the attack angle. For example, the angle of the squeegee with 15 mm overhang size and with 60° initial angle decreased by more than 5° for a specific squeegee force of 0.3 N/mm; resulting in an attack angle of 53.4°.

Originality/value

The attack angle during the printing is considerably lower than the initial angle as a result of the printing force. The papers, which were dealing with the numerical modelling of the stencil printing presumed that the squeegees were having their initial angle. This could have led to invalid numerical results. Therefore, we decided to investigate the attack angle during stencil printing for squeegees with different initial geometries to enhance the numerical modelling of stencil printing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Oliver Krammer, Bertalan Varga and Karel Dušek

This paper aims to present a new method to calculate the appropriate volume of solder paste necessary for the pin-in-paste (PIP) technology. By the aid of this volume calculation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new method to calculate the appropriate volume of solder paste necessary for the pin-in-paste (PIP) technology. By the aid of this volume calculation, correction factors have been determined, which can be used to correct the solder fillet volume obtained by an explicit expression.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on calculating the optimal solder fillet shape and profile for through-hole (TH) components with given geometrical sizes. To calculate this optimal shape of the fillet, a script was written in Surface Evolver. The volume calculations were performed for different fillet radiuses (0.4-1.2 mm) and for different component lead geometries (circular and square cross-sections). Finally, the volume obtained by the Evolver calculations was divided by the volume obtained by an explicit expression, and correction factors were determined for the varying parameters.

Findings

The results showed that the explicit expression underestimates the fillet volume necessary for the PIP technology significantly (15-35 per cent). The correction factors for components with circular leads ranged between 1.4 and 1.59, whereas the correction factors for square leads ranged between 1.1 and 1.27. Applying this correction can aid in depositing the appropriate solder paste volume for TH components.

Originality/value

Determining the correct volume of solder paste necessary for the PIP technology is crucial to eliminate the common soldering failure of TH components (e.g. voiding or non-wetted solder pads). The explicit expression, which is widely used for volume calculation in this field, underestimates the necessary volume significantly. The new method can correct this estimation, and can aid the industry to approach zero-defect manufacturing in the PIP technology.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Attila Geczy, Daniel Straubinger, Andras Kovacs, Oliver Krammer, Pavel Mach and Gábor Harsányi

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach on investigating critical current densities in the solder joints of chip-size surface mounted device (SMD) components. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach on investigating critical current densities in the solder joints of chip-size surface mounted device (SMD) components. The investigation involves a numerical approach and a physical validation with selected track-to-pad connections and high current loads (CXs).

Design/methodology/approach

During the investigations, shape of solder fillets was calculated in Surface Evolver, and then the current densities were calculated accordingly in the given geometry. For the verification, CX tests were performed on joints at elevated temperatures. The joints were qualified with X-ray microscopy, cross-section analysis and shear tests.

Findings

This study ascertained that the inhomogeneity in current density depends on the track-to-pad structure of the joint. Also this study found that the heavy CX decreases the mechanical strength, but the degradation does not reach the level of electromigration (EM)-induced voiding.

Practical implications

The heavy CX significantly affects joint reliability and the results point out to EM-induced failure-limitations on printed circuit board (PCB)-based assemblies due to the thermomechanical weakness of the FR4 material.

Originality/value

The experiments investigate current density from a novel aspect on more frequently used small-scale components with different track-to-pad configurations – pointing out possible failure sources.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Attila Geczy, Daniel Nagy, Balazs Illes, Laszlo Fazekas, Oliver Krammer and David Busek

The paper aims to present an investigation of heating during vapour phase soldering (VPS) on inclined printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. The PCB is a horizontal rectangular…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present an investigation of heating during vapour phase soldering (VPS) on inclined printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. The PCB is a horizontal rectangular plate from the aspect of filmwise condensation with a given inclination setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the measurement of temperature distribution on the PCBs with a novel setup immersed in the saturated vapour space. The measuring instrumentation is optimized to avoid and minimize vapour perturbing effects.

Findings

The inhomogeneity of the heating is presented according to the lateral dimensions of the PCB. The inclination improves temperature uniformity, improves heat transfer efficiency; however, a minor misalignment may affect the flow and result in uneven heating.

Practical implications

The results can be implemented for practical improvements in industrial ovens with the use of intended inclination. The improvements may consequently point to more efficient production and better joint quality.

Originality/value

The novel method can be used for deeper investigation of inclination during and can be complemented with numerical calculations. The results highlight the importance of precise PCB holding instrumentation in VPS ovens.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Daniel Straubinger, István Bozsóki, Balazs Illes, Oliver Krammer, David Bušek and Attila Geczy

The paper aims to present an investigation on heat transfer in a vapour phase soldering (VPS) oven, focusing on the differences of horizontally and vertically aligned Printed…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present an investigation on heat transfer in a vapour phase soldering (VPS) oven, focusing on the differences of horizontally and vertically aligned Printed Circuit Board (PCB) surfaces. The investigation can help develop a better understanding of the process and provide information for future modelling of the process.

Design/methodology/approach

For the investigations, flame retardant grade 4 (FR4) PCB plates and sealed plate–based boxes were immersed into saturated vapour of an experimental oven. The temperature and resulting heat transfer coefficients were analysed according to the sample boxes and the surface orientations. In addition, the boxes’ vapour consumption was investigated with pressure measurements.

Findings

The horizontal top- and bottom-side heating shows very similar results. In addition, the sides of a box were heated in a manner similar to the top and the bottom sides, but there was a slight increase in the heat transfer coefficient because of the vertical wall alignment. The pressure measurements reveal the dynamic changes in vapour after immersion of the boxes.

Practical implications

The findings may help to show differences on different surface orientations, pointing to more precise, explicit and multiphysics simulation results.

Originality/value

The experiments present an aspect of heat transfer coefficient differences in VPS ovens, also highlighting the effect of initial pressure drop inside the workspace of an oven.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Balázs Illés, Barbara Horváth, Attila Géczy, Olivér Krammer and Karel Dušek

The aim of this paper is to present a review of the tin whisker growth phenomena. The study focuses mainly on whisker growth in a corrosive climate when the main inducing factor…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a review of the tin whisker growth phenomena. The study focuses mainly on whisker growth in a corrosive climate when the main inducing factor of the whisker growth is oxidation. The tin whisker phenomenon is still a big challenge in lead-free reflow soldering technology. Modern lead-free alloys and surface finishes with high tin content are considered to be possible sources of whisker development, also the evolution of electronic devices towards further complexity and miniaturization points to an escalation of the reliability risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work was based on a worldwide literature review of the substantial previous works in the past decade, as well as on the results and experience of the authors in this field.

Findings

The effect of corrosion on tin whisker growth has been under-represented in reports of mainstream research; however, in the past five years, significant results were obtained in the field which raised the corrosion phenomena from being a side effect category into one of the main inducing factors. This paper summarizes the most important findings of this field.

Practical implications

This literature review provides engineers and researchers with a better understanding of the role of corrosion in tin whisker growth and the current challenges in tin whisker mitigation.

Originality/value

The unique challenges and future research directions about the tin whisker phenomenon were shown to highlight rarely discussed risks and problems in lead-free soldering reliability.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2019

Dániel Straubinger, Attila Géczy, András Sipos, András Kiss, Dániel Gyarmati, Oliver Krammer, Dániel Rigler, David Bušek and Gábor Harsányi

This paper aims to present a novel approach on investigating critical current densities in the solder joints of chip-size surface-mounted components or device (SMD) components and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a novel approach on investigating critical current densities in the solder joints of chip-size surface-mounted components or device (SMD) components and ball grid array (BGA) lead-free solder joints with the focus of via-in-pad geometries. The investigation involves a numerical approach and a physical validation with selected geometry configurations and high current loads to reveal possible failure sources. The work is a continuation of a previous study.

Design/methodology/approach

Current density was investigated using finite element modeling on BGA joints. Dummy BGA components, 0402 and 0603 zero ohm jumper resistors, were used, both in daisy chain setups on standard FR4 printed circuit boards (PCBs). Respective physical loading experiments were set to find effects of elevated current density at hot zones of the joints. Cross-section analysis, scanning electron microscopy and shear force tests were used to analyze the joints.

Findings

The findings reveal alterations in the joints, while the current loading is not directly affecting the structure. The modeling reveals the current density map in the selected formations with increased current crowding zones. Overall, the degradation does not reach the level of electromigration (EM)-induced voiding due to the limiting factor of the FR4 substrate.

Practical implications

The heavy current load affects joint reliability, but there are limitations of EM-induced failures on PCB-based assemblies due to the thermomechanical weakness of the FR4 material.

Originality/value

The experiments investigate current density from a novel aspect on frequently used BGA surface mounted components with modeling configurations focusing on possible effects of via-in-pad structure.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Oliver Krammer, Péter Martinek, Balazs Illes and László Jakab

This paper aims to investigate the self-alignment of 0603 size (1.5 × 0.75 mm) chip resistors, which were soldered by infrared or vapour phase soldering. The results were used for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the self-alignment of 0603 size (1.5 × 0.75 mm) chip resistors, which were soldered by infrared or vapour phase soldering. The results were used for establishing an artificial neural network for predicting the component movement during the soldering.

Design/methodology/approach

The components were soldered onto an FR4 testboard, which was designed to facilitate the measuring of the position of the components both prior to and after the soldering. A semi-automatic placement machine misplaced the components intentionally, and the self-alignment ability was determined for soldering techniques of both infrared and vapour phase soldering. An artificial neural network-based prediction method was established, which is able to predict the position of chip resistors after soldering as a function of component misplacement prior to soldering.

Findings

The results showed that the component can self-align from farer distances by using vapour phase method, even from relative misplacement of 50 per cent parallel to the shorter side of the component. Components can self-align from a relative misplacement only of 30 per cent by using infrared soldering method. The established artificial neural network can predict the component self-alignment with an approximately 10-20 per cent mean absolute error.

Originality/value

It was proven that the vapour phase soldering method is more stable from the component’s self-alignment point of view. Furthermore, machine learning-based predictors can be applied in the field of reflow soldering technology, and artificial neural networks can predict the component self-alignment with an appropriately low error.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

1 – 10 of 27