Search results

1 – 10 of 72
Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Muhammad Anwar ul Haq, Muhammad Usman, Nazar Hussain and Zafar-uz-Zaman Anjum

This study aims to compare the entrepreneurial activity in China and Pakistan based on these factors: fear of failure, perceived capabilities, perceived opportunities, and…

1074

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the entrepreneurial activity in China and Pakistan based on these factors: fear of failure, perceived capabilities, perceived opportunities, and knowledge of other entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the data from global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM). In this study, the authors use the cross-sectional data for survey year 2010, both for China and Pakistan. The authors employed the sequential logistic regression model in order to predict the likelihood of involvement in entrepreneurial activity.

Findings

Chinese are not significantly influenced by their fear of failure to engage in entrepreneurial activity. Gender is also not a significant predictor of entrepreneurial activity in China. In Pakistan, perception of opportunities does not significantly predict whether to involve in entrepreneurial activity or not, while other factors do. Gender is a significant predictor of entrepreneurial activity in Pakistan.

Originality/value

Previously literature is lacking in this kind of a unique comparison based upon GEM data evidence. There are many lessons for Pakistan in this study. There is a need to create awareness among people about the fruits of self-employment. Government should create a conducive environment for doing business. Efforts should be made to enhance the women participation in business.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Iskandar Waini, Anuar Ishak, Ioan Pop and Roslinda Nazar

This paper aims to examine the Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid flow over a shrinking sheet in the presence of the magnetic field and dust particles.

110

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid flow over a shrinking sheet in the presence of the magnetic field and dust particles.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations for the two-phase flow of the hybrid nanofluid and the dust particles are reduced to ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. Then, these equations are solved using bvp4c in MATLAB software. The bvp4c solver is a finite-difference code that implements the three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula. The numerical results are gained for several values of the physical parameters. The effects of these parameters on the flow and the thermal characteristics of the hybrid nanofluid and the dust particles are analyzed and discussed. Later, the temporal stability analysis is used to determine the stability of the dual solutions obtained as time evolves.

Findings

The outcome shows that the flow is unlikely to exist unless satisfactory suction strength is imposed on the shrinking sheet. Besides, the heat transfer rate on the shrinking sheet decreases with the increase of . However, the increase in and lead to enhance the heat transfer rate. Two solutions are found, where the domain of the solutions is expanded with the rising of, and. Consequently, the boundary layer separation on the surface is delayed in the presence of these parameters. Implementing the temporal stability analysis, it is found that only one of the solutions is stable as time evolves.

Originality/value

The dusty fluid problem has been widely studied for the flow over a stretching sheet, but only limited findings can be found for the shrinking counterpart. Therefore, this study considers the problem of the dusty fluid flow over a shrinking sheet containing Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid with the effect of the magnetic field. In fact, this is the first study to discover the dual solutions of the dusty hybrid nanofluid flow over a shrinking sheet. Also, further analysis shows that only one of the solutions is stable as time evolves.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Nurul Amira Zainal, Roslinda Nazar, Kohilavani Naganthran and Ioan Pop

According to the previous research, bioconvection has been recognized as an important mechanism in current engineering and environmental systems. For example, researchers exploit…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the previous research, bioconvection has been recognized as an important mechanism in current engineering and environmental systems. For example, researchers exploit this mechanism in modern green bioengineering to develop environmentally friendly fuels, fuel cells and photosynthetic microorganisms. This study aims to analyse how this type of convection affects the flow behaviour and heat transfer performance of mixed convection stagnation point flow in alumina-copper/water hybrid nanofluid. Also, the impact of a modified magnetic field on the boundary layer flow is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

By applying appropriate transformations, the multivariable differential equations are transformed into a specific sort of ordinary differential equations. Using the bvp4c procedure, the adjusted mathematical model is revealed. Once sufficient assumptions are provided, multiple solutions are able to be produced.

Findings

The skin friction coefficient is declined when the nanoparticle concentration is increased in the opposing flow. In contrast, the inclusion of aligned angles displays an upward trend in heat transfer performance. The presence of several solutions is established, which simply leads to a stability analysis, hence verifies the viability of the initial solution.

Originality/value

The current findings are unique and novel for the investigation of mixed bioconvection flow towards a vertical flat plate in a base fluid with the presence of hybrid nanoparticles.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2023

Imen Khelil, Hichem Khlif and Imen Achek

The purpose of this study is to provide a timely synthesis of the empirical literature focusing on the economic consequences of money laundering, as this topic has been gaining…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide a timely synthesis of the empirical literature focusing on the economic consequences of money laundering, as this topic has been gaining momentum among policymakers and academic researchers due to its adverse effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical studies are collected by consulting accounting and finance journals in diverse digital sources (e.g. Science Direct, Blackwell, Taylor and Francis, Springer, Sage and Emerald). Key words used to identify relevant papers include “money laundering” and “anti-money laundering regulations,” with specific focus on the economic consequences. Our search strategy includes 24 published papers over the period of 2018–2023.

Findings

Findings show that most studies represent cross-country investigations; the main topics investigated focus on accounting field (e.g. audit fees, real and accrual earnings management), tax evasion, financial stability, sustainability, economic indicators (inflation, economic growth, foreign direct investment) and financial inclusion; and the economic consequences of money laundering have been also examined within banking industry (e.g. banking profitability, banking stability). Reported findings of reviewed studies suggest that money laundering has diverse adverse impacts at the country level (e.g. increased tax evasion, higher inflation rate, less sustainability and foreign direct investments), at the firm level (e.g. increased audit risk and aggressive real and accrual earnings management) and within banking industry through negative impact of money laundering on bank’s loan portfolio quality, stability and profitability.

Practical implications

With respect to policymakers, strengthening anti-money laundering regulations may play a critical role in reducing money laundering activities. Furthermore, financial institutions should implement specific rules dealing with anti-money regulations to ensure adequate compliance and disclosure. Finally, policymakers should be aware about the importance of digital transformation to combat money laundering activities since it facilitates the detection of financial crimes due to their traceability.

Originality/value

The summary of the empirical literature focusing on the economic consequence of money laundering represents a historical record and an introduction for accounting researchers. It also urges them to further explore the economic implications of anti-money laundering disclosure within banking industry.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2023

Muhammad Azeem

Pakistan had never been a place of serious and nuanced debate and contestation of politics of postcolonial critique, that is, the continuity of economic, political, and cultural…

Abstract

Pakistan had never been a place of serious and nuanced debate and contestation of politics of postcolonial critique, that is, the continuity of economic, political, and cultural dependency of newly independent countries (NICs) on ex-colonizers as pointed out by neocolonialism, dependency theory, and postcolonial theory, respectively. Instead, Pakistan is presented by extant liberal academic literature as a “failed nation” and a state dominated by the military and plagued by religious extremism. As opposed to this, through the literary and activists writings of Aziz-ul-Haq, this chapter will try to illustrate how cultural contestation of the nation-building project postindependence from British rule was a lot more complex and interesting in Pakistan. This was so because the nation-building project of Pakistan was, on the one hand, an amalgamation of Indo-Persian, Arab, Indian, and Western colonial and civilizational influences and, on the other hand, entailed suppression of resilient local and national cultures of its constituent nationalities developed over centuries. This was later expressed in ethno-nationalist politics. However, when it came to the politics of the marginalized in the late 1960s, there were important political, theoretical, and literary insights which caused a change in the direction of political practice in Pakistan, which paralleled the politics expressed by writers like Fanon and early Subaltern Studies influenced by the Naxal Movement in India. The contestation and confusion arising from this dialectic also entered Pakistan's literary and cultural sphere. This chapter not only tries to give a different postcolonial critique of the failure of nation-building project in Pakistan but, though at a preliminary level, is an attempt to separate the original postcolonial theory in its radical tradition from contemporary postmodern/poststructuralist postcolonial theory marked with pessimism and resignation.

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2019

Nilankush Acharya, Kalidas Das and Prabir Kumar Kundu

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the influence of multiple slips on MHD Williamson nanofluid flow embedded in porous medium towards a linearly stretching sheet that has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the influence of multiple slips on MHD Williamson nanofluid flow embedded in porous medium towards a linearly stretching sheet that has been investigated numerically. The whole analysis has been carried out considering the presence of nth-order chemical reaction between base fluid and nanoparticles.

Design/methodology/approach

A similarity transformation technique has been adopted to convert non-linear governing partial differential equations into ordinary ones and then they are solved by using both the RK-4 method and Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method. The consequences of multiple slip parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration and heat and mass transfer rates have been demonstrated using tabular and graphical outline.

Findings

The investigation explores that the Nusselt number reduces for escalating behaviour of velocity slip and thermal slip parameter. Fluid’s temperature rises in the presence of generative reaction parameter.

Originality/value

A fine conformity of the current results has been achieved after comparing with previous literature studies. Considering destructive chemical reaction, reduced Nusselt number is found to decrease, but reverse consequence has been noticed in the case of generative chemical reaction. Mass transport diminishes when the order of chemical reaction amplifies for both destructive and generative reactions.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

T. Hayat, R. Naz, S. Asghar and A. Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to study the heat and mass transfer with Soret-Dufour effects for the magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of second grade fluid in the rotating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the heat and mass transfer with Soret-Dufour effects for the magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of second grade fluid in the rotating frame of reference.

Design/methodology/approach

Series solution is obtained by homotopy analysis method.

Findings

Increase in Soret number, Schmidt number and Dufour number, the heat transfer increases and mass transfer decreases. Effects of Prandtl and Eckert numbers are qualitatively similar as they assist the temperature profile and reduce the concentration of species. Increase in the length of the channel versus height increases the temperature profile but decreases the concentration field. Increase in the second grade fluid parameter causes reduction in both the temperature and concentration fields. The heat flux values at the lower plate are smaller than the values at the upper plate, whereas the situation is opposite in the case of mass transfer.

Originality/value

These findings will be useful for the fluid flow in porous channel.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Mangwiro Magodora, Hiranmoy Mondal and Precious Sibanda

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the application of Chebyshev spectral collocation methodology with Gauss Lobatto grid points to micropolar fluid over a stretching or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the application of Chebyshev spectral collocation methodology with Gauss Lobatto grid points to micropolar fluid over a stretching or shrinking surface. Radiation, thermophoresis and nanoparticle Brownian motion are considered. The results have attainable scientific and technological applications in systems involving stretchable materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The model equations governing the flow are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations which are then reworked into linear form using the Newton-based quasilinearization method (SQLM). Spectral collocation is then used to solve the resulting linearised system of equations.

Findings

The validity of the model is established using error analysis. The velocity, temperature, micro-rotation, skin friction and couple stress parameters are conferred diagrammatically and analysed in detail.

Originality/value

The study obtains numerical explanations for rapidly convergent solutions using the spectral quasilinearization method. Convergence of the numerical solutions was monitored using the residual error analysis. The influence of radiation, heat and mass parameters on the flow are depicted graphically and analysed. The study is an extension on the work by Zheng et al. (2012) and therefore the novelty is that the authors tend to take into account nanoparticles, Brownian motion and thermophoresis in the flow of a micropolar fluid.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Y.Y. Lok, N. Amin, D. Campean and I. Pop

To study the steady mixed convection boundary‐layer flow of a micropolar fluid near the region of the stagnation point on a double‐infinite vertical flat plate is studied. The…

Abstract

Purpose

To study the steady mixed convection boundary‐layer flow of a micropolar fluid near the region of the stagnation point on a double‐infinite vertical flat plate is studied. The results of this paper are important for the researchers in the area of micropolar fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

For the case considered the problem reduces to a system of ordinary differential equations, which is solved numerically using the Keller‐box method. This method is very efficient for solving boundary‐layer problems and it can easily be applied to other general situations than that presented in this paper. Any PhD student can learn and apply it very easily.

Findings

Representative results for the velocity, microrotation and temperature profiles, as well as for the reduced skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number have been obtained for the case of strong concentration, Prandtl number of 0.7, some values of the material parameter K and the mixed convection parameter λ(≥0). Both assisting and opposing flow cases are considered. Results for the reduced skin friction coefficient and reduced local Nusselt number as well as for the reduced velocity, temperature and microrotation profiles are given in tables and figures. The obtained results are compared with ones from the open literature and it is found that they are in excellent agreement. The important conclusion is, we have been able to show that for opposing flow solutions are possible are possible only for a limited range of values of the mixed convection parameter λ.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this paper are valid only in the small region around the stagnation point on a vertical surface and they are not applicable outside this region.

Practical implications

The theory of micropolar fluids and also the results of the present paper can be used to explain the characteristics in certain fluids such as exotic lubricants, colloidal suspensions or polymeric fluids, liquid crystals, and animal blood.

Originality/value

The paper is very well prepared, presented and readable. We believe that the results are original and important from both theoretical and application point of views.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Mubashar Riaz Sheikh, Syed Zulfiqar Ali, Abid Hussain, Romana Shehzadi and Muhammad Mahmood Afzal

The purpose of this paper is to observe whether measurement of social capital is an effective tool or can be used as a standard tool for community‐based initiatives (CBI…

790

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to observe whether measurement of social capital is an effective tool or can be used as a standard tool for community‐based initiatives (CBI) evaluation. It also points at the significance of social capital in the health related grass root initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

CBI is an integrated socio‐economic development approach implemented by the organized communities, supported by inter‐sectoral actions for improvement of quality of life and health of the people. Support by WHO's office of Eastern Mediterranean Region, Islamic Republic of Iran implement programmes like basic development needs, healthy cities, healthy villages and women in health and development, that are evaluated during 2005‐2006. Social capital, that includes the networking, sharing norms and cooperation amongst communities, is measured as one of the indicators during the evaluation, by surveying 240 households in three CBI and three control villages, using the World Bank's, Social Development Department's Social Capital Assessment Tool for data collection.

Findings

The evaluation results reveal that the social capital indicators like affiliation percentage; trust reciprocity; and collective action are better in CBI areas than their controls. CBI areas have a better access to public services, are more peaceful, people are more willing to help others and there is less segregation due to income and social status.

Originality/value

The evaluation findings support the use of social capital indicators for investigating the impact and affectivity of CBI for health and development, and underlines the need for their consideration during implementation processes and further investigation.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

1 – 10 of 72