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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng and Hongyong Yuan

– The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the combined effects of moisture and radiation on thermal protective performance of protective clothing exposed to low level radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sweating manikin, the effect of radiation and moisture on heat and moisture transfer was initially analyzed under the dry manikin with sweating rate of 100 g/(m2h) exposed to 2.5 kW/m2, and then studied at 200 and 300 g/(m2h) exposed to 2 and 3 kW/m2, respectively. Finally, the combined effects of thermal radiation and moisture were predicted by fitting the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity.

Findings

The results show that the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature are affected by the combined effects of moisture and radiation, with two distinctly different trends. Heat loss from the manikin is increasing with the sweating rate, and decreasing with thermal radiation intensity. However, the wet skin surface temperature has an opposite situation.

Originality/value

Two filling equations are given to present the relationships among heat loss and wet skin surface temperature, with the sweating rate and radiation intensity. With these two equations, the heat loss and the wet skin surface temperature when exposed to radiation can be predicted by only measuring the mean radiant and ambient temperatures and controlling the sweating rate.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Shutian Liu and Yongcun Zhang

In this paper, a homogenization‐based multi‐scale method for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of porous materials with radiation is presented, which considers…

Abstract

In this paper, a homogenization‐based multi‐scale method for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of porous materials with radiation is presented, which considers the effect of geometry and distribution of pores. Using homogenization method to solve the pure conductive problem of porous materials with periodic structure, the effective thermal conductivity without considering radiation is predicted, and a temperature field in a local domain of a unit cell is obtained. This temperature field is taken as the good approximation of the real temperature distribution, and the radiative thermal conductivity is obtained. The effect of the microstructure, the distribution and geometry of pores on heat transfer of porous materials is discussed. It is concluded that the dimension of the pores is an important influence factor on the thermal transfer property of porous materials if radiation is considered. Increasing the pore’s dimension enhances the contribution of radiation to the heat transfer property of porous materials. For porous materials with cylindrical and spherical pores, the radiative thermal conductivity is proportional to pore’s diameter.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Zhongxiang Lei, Xiaoming Qian and Xianglong Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to assess the thermal protective performance of firefighter’s clothing by a sweating manikin in low-level radiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the thermal protective performance of firefighter’s clothing by a sweating manikin in low-level radiation.

Design/methodology/approach

A new method and a novel objective index based on measurements of the sweating thermal manikin are proposed to measure the thermal protection performance of firefighter’s clothing under low-level radiation exposure of 3.0 kW/m2. Finally, the effect of thermal insulation on thermal protective performance of firefighter’s clothing was analyzed.

Findings

The results reveal that the new index which used the changing rate of core temperature of the clothed manikin is a vital indicator of the thermal protection performance. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that there is a linear correlation between thermal protection performance of firefighter’s clothing and the thermal insulation.

Originality/value

A new method and a novel objective index are proposed to quantify the thermal protective performance of firefighter’s clothing in low-level radiation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M. Ghassemi and M.H. Hamedi

Natural convection heat transfer combined with radiation heat transfer is used in electronic cooling. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermal loading…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural convection heat transfer combined with radiation heat transfer is used in electronic cooling. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermal loading characteristics of an enclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The goal is to investigate the effect of thermal radiation on thermal and flow characteristics of the cavity. The enclosure lower wall is at constant temperature and the upper wall is adiabatic while there are several discrete heat sources inside the cavity. In addition the effect of parameters such as heating number (Nr), aspect ratio (A), the number of heaters (N), and thermal radiation on the maximum and mean temperature of system, thermal loading characteristics of the system, Nusselt number, and the maximum stream function rate is performed. To solve the governing nonlinear differential equations (mass, momentum, and energy), a finite‐volume code based on Patankar's SIMPLE method is utilized.

Findings

Heat transfer by natural convection solely and it's conjugation with thermal radiation on the thermal and flow characteristics of the system is studied. Also a parametric study illustrating the influence of the heating number, aspect ratio, the number of heaters, and thermal radiation on the maximum and mean temperature of system, thermal loading characteristics of the system, Nusselt number, and the maximum stream function rate is investigated. The results have revealed that the thermal radiation have an important effect on the thermal characteristics of system at low heating numbers.

Research limitations/implications

The relevant governing parameters were: the heating number, Nr from 0.05 to 500, the cavity aspect ratio, A=H/L from 0.1 to 1 and the number of heaters, N, is an odd number ranging from 1 to 19

Practical implications

This work is numerical investigation only but can have engineering application such as electronic cooling, transformers, fusion reactors technology, hot structures, fuel cells, fibrous insulations and solar‐energy drying systems.

Originality/value

The effect of radiation in enclosure with discrete heaters within fluid has not been addressed in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

Mehdi Zare and Sadegh Sadeghi

This study aims to perform a comprehensive investigation to model the thermal characteristics of a coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer in a two-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to perform a comprehensive investigation to model the thermal characteristics of a coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer in a two-dimensional irregular enclosure including a triangular-shaped heat source.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, a promising hybrid technique based on the concepts of blocked-off method, FVM and DOM is developed. The enclosure consists of several horizontal, vertical and oblique walls, and thermal conductivity within the enclosure varies directly with temperature and indirectly with position. To simplify the complex geometry, a promising mathematical model is introduced using blocked-off method. Emitting, absorbing and non-isotropic scattering gray are assumed as the main radiative characteristics of the steady medium.

Findings

DOM and FVM are, respectively, applied for solving radiative transfer equation (RTE) and the energy equation, which includes conduction, radiation and heat source terms. The temperature and heat flux distributions are calculated inside the enclosure. For validation, results are compared with previous data reported in the literature under the same conditions. Results and comparisons show that this approach is highly efficient and reliable for complex geometries with coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer. Finally, the effects of thermo-radiative parameters including surface emissivity, extinction coefficient, scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and conduction-radiation parameter on temperature and heat flux distributions are studied.

Originality/value

In this paper, a hybrid numerical method is used to analyze coupled conduction-radiation heat transfer in an irregular geometry. Varying thermal conductivity is included in this analysis. By applying the method, results obtained for temperature and heat flux distributions are presented and also validated by the data provided by several previous papers.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Yingsi Wu, Kai Yang Thum, Hui Ting Yong, Aleksander Gora, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok and Vitali Lipik

Personal thermal management in functional textiles is in increasing demand for health care, outdoor activity and energy saving. Thus, developing new strategies is highly…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal thermal management in functional textiles is in increasing demand for health care, outdoor activity and energy saving. Thus, developing new strategies is highly desired for radiative cooling and/or heating by manipulation of the transmissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity of the textiles within solar energy and human body heat radiation ranges.

Design/methodology/approach

Inorganic additives including TiO2, Fe2O3, carbon black (CB), graphene and mica were incorporated into polymer films. The inorganic additives' full spectrum properties and thermal responses were comprehensively investigated.

Findings

The CB composite film showed the highest absorptivity over the full solar to human body radiation spectrum. The mica-white (mica-w) (mica coated with TiO2) and mica-red (mica-r) (mica coated with Fe2O3) composites showed the lowest solar energy absorptivity and a strong body heat radiation reflectivity. Furthermore, according to composites' thermal responses to the simulated solar and human body radiations, CB and mica are promising for both cooling and heating when applied in dual-functional thermal management textiles.

Research limitations/implications

Research has limitation related the amount of additives which can be added to textile. When powder is added to polyester yarn, the amount is limited by 2–3%. When powder is added to the composite which is used for printing, the amount of powder is limited by 5%.

Practical implications

A lot of apparel, especially sport apparel, contains prints. Decoration is one part of print application. Now, a lot of companies work under development of different additives, which provide additional properties to apparel. The closest targets for powder added to prints are cooling and heat retention. Quite often, inorganic additives possess dual properties: the inorganic additives may be heat reflective which his needed for heat retention, but may have high-thermal conductivity, which works well for cooling. Human body has complicated mechanism of heat exchange: convection, radiation and moisture evaporations play main role. The same additive may be cooling if there is a contact with skin but may be heating (IR reflective) if placed in the second or third layer. Thus, effect is needed to be studied first before real application.

Originality/value

This work could provide a comprehensive guideline for the rational design and application of thermal management composite textile materials by revealing the full solar to human body radiation performance of a series of inorganic materials.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng and Hongyong Yuan

– The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal insulation of protective clothing with multilayer gaps in low-level heat exposures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the thermal insulation of protective clothing with multilayer gaps in low-level heat exposures.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine different combinations of protective clothing systems with multiple air gaps are used to measure the thermal insulation by a self-designed bench-scale test apparatus in different levels of an external thermal radiation of 2-10 kW/m2. The outside and inside surface temperatures of each fabric layer are also measured to calculate the local thermal insulation of each fabric layer and each air gap.

Findings

The results show that the total thermal insulation of protective clothing under thermal radiation is less than that in normal environments, and the exposed thermal radiation will worsen the total thermal insulation of the multilayer fabric systems. Air gap plays a positive role in the total thermal insulation, and thus provides the enhanced thermal protection. It is also suggested that the local resistance of the air gap closer to the external thermal radiation is more easily affected by the thermal radiation, due to the different heat transfer ways in the fabric system and the external thermal radiation.

Originality/value

Effects of air gap on the thermal insulation of protective clothing, and contribution of the local thermal resistance of each fabric layer and each air gap to the total thermal insulation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Mohammad yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

The purpose of this paper is to find the time dependent thermal creep stress relaxation of a turbine blade and to investigate the effect thermal radiation of the adjacent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the time dependent thermal creep stress relaxation of a turbine blade and to investigate the effect thermal radiation of the adjacent turbine blades on the temperature distribution of turbine blade and creep relaxation.

Design/methodology/approach

For this analysis, the creep flow behavior of Moly Ascoloy in operational temperature of gas turbine in full scale geometry is studied for various thermal radiation properties. The commercial software is used to pursue a coupled fields analysis for turbine blades in view of the structural force, materials kinematic hardening, and steady-state temperature field.

Findings

During steady-state operation, the thermal stress was found to be decreasing, whereas by considering the thermal radiation this rate was noticed to increase slightly. Also by increase of the distance between stator blades the thermal radiation effect is diminished. Finally, by decrease of the blade distance the failure probability and creep plastic deformation decrease.

Research limitations/implications

This paper describes the effect of thermal radiation in thermal-structural analysis of the gas turbine stator blade made of the super-alloy M-152.

Practical implications

Blade failures in gas turbine engines often lead to loss of all downstream stages and can have a dramatic effect on the availability of the turbine engines. There are many components in a gas turbine engine, but its performance is highly profound to only a few. The majority of these are hotter end rotating components.

Social implications

Three-dimensional finite element thermal and stress analyses of the blade were carried out for the steady-state full-load operation.

Originality/value

In the previous works the thermal radiation effects on creep behavior of the turbine blade have not performed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Archana M., Gireesha B.J., Prasannakumara B.C. and Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

The effect of non-linear thermal radiation and variable thermo-physical properties are investigated in the Falkner-Skan flow of a Casson nanofluid in the presence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of non-linear thermal radiation and variable thermo-physical properties are investigated in the Falkner-Skan flow of a Casson nanofluid in the presence of magnetic field. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected bunch of similarity transformations are used to reduce the governing partial differential equations into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resultant equations are numerically solved using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth-order method along with shooting technique.

Findings

The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are evaluated for several emerging physical parameters and are analyzed through graphs and tables in detail.

Research limitations/implications

This study only begins to reveal the research potential and pitfalls of research and publishing on boundary-layer flow, heat and mass transfer of Casson nanofluid past and the moving and static wedge-shaped bodies.

Originality/value

It is found that the presence of non-linear thermal radiation and variable properties has more influence in heat transfer. Furthermore, temperature profile increases as the radiation parameter increases.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Nuno Serra and Viriato Semiao

This paper aims to clarify the necessity of taking into account the commonly neglected radiation in built environments. Ignoring radiation within acclimatized spaces with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the necessity of taking into account the commonly neglected radiation in built environments. Ignoring radiation within acclimatized spaces with moist air, which is a participating medium, can yield inaccurate values of the relevant variables, endangering the Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning design accuracy and leading to energy inefficiencies and discomfort.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses computational fluid dynamics to predict non-isothermal flows with radiation, for both mixing and displacement ventilation strategies. The tool is applied to a lab-scale model (scale 1:30), and the results are compared with experimental data and predictions without radiation. Furthermore, the radiation influence is also assessed at real-scale level, including a parametric study on the effect of the air relative humidity on radiation.

Findings

The paper demonstrates the unequivocal impact of radiation on the flows thermal-kinematics at real-scale: ignoring radiation yields average air temperature differences of 2ºC. This becomes more evident for larger air optical thicknesses (larger relative humidity): changing it from 20 per cent to 50 per cent and 70 per cent yields maximum relative differences of 100 per cent for the velocity components and 0.4ºC for the air temperature. Nevertheless, the results for the lab-scale case are not so conclusive about the effect of moist air radiation on the thermal flow characteristics, but they evidence its impact on the flow kinematics (maximum relative differences of velocity components of 35 per cent).

Originality/value

The paper fulfills an identified need to clarify the relevant effects of air moisture on radiation and on the flow turbulence and thermal-kinematic characteristics for forced convective flows inside built environments.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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