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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Mohammad M. Rahman, Ziad Saghir and Ioan Pop

This paper aims to investigate numerically the free convective heat transfer efficiency inside a rectotrapezoidal enclosure filled with Al2O3–Cu/water hybrid fluid. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate numerically the free convective heat transfer efficiency inside a rectotrapezoidal enclosure filled with Al2O3–Cu/water hybrid fluid. The bottom wall of the cavity is uniformly heated, the upper horizontal wall is insulated, and the remaining walls are considered cold. A new thermophysical relation determining the thermal conductivity of the hybrid nanofluid has been established, which produced results those match with experimental ones.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations are solved using the finite element method of Galerkin type. The simulated results in terms of streamlines, heat lines and isotherms are displayed for various values of the model parameters, which govern the flow.

Findings

The Nusselt number, friction factor and the thermal efficiency index are also determined for the pertinent parameters varying different ratios of the hybrid nanoparticles. The simulated results showed that thermal buoyancy significantly controls the heat transfer, friction factor and thermal efficiency index. The highest thermal efficiency is obtained for the lowest Rayleigh number.

Practical implications

This theoretical study is significantly relevant to the applications of the hybrid nanofluids electronic devices cooled by fans, manufacturing process, renewable energies, nuclear reactors, electronic cooling, lubrication, refrigeration, combustion, medicine, thermal storage, etc.

Originality/value

The results showed that nanoparticle loading intensified the rate of heat transfer and thermal efficiency index at the expense of the higher friction factor or higher pumping power. The results further show that the heat transmission in Al2O3–Cu/water hybrid nanofluid at a fixed value of intensified $\phi_{hnf}$ compared to the Al2O3/water nanofluid when an amount of higher conductivity nanoparticles (Cu) added to it. Besides, the rate of heat transfer in Cu/water nanofluid declines when the lower thermal conductivity Al2O3 nanoparticles are added to the mixture.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Ubaidullah Yashkun, Khairy Zaimi, Anuar Ishak, Ioan Pop and Rabeb Sidaoui

This study aims to investigate the flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid through an exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet along with mixed convection and Joule…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid through an exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet along with mixed convection and Joule heating. The nanoparticles alumina (Al2O3) and copper (Cu) are suspended into a base fluid (water) to form a new kind of hybrid nanofluid (Al2O3-Cu/water). Also, the effects of constant mixed convection parameter and Joule heating are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriate similarity transformations. The transformed nonlinear ODEs are solves using the bvp4c solver available in MATLAB software. A comparison of the present results shows a good agreement with the published results.

Findings

Dual solutions for hybrid nanofluid flow obtained for a specific range of the stretching/shrinking parameter values. The values of the skin friction coefficient increases but the local Nusselt number decreases for the first solution with the increasing of the magnetic parameter. Enhancing copper volume fraction and Eckert number reduces the surface temperature, which intimates the decrement of heat transfer rate for the first and second solutions for the stretching/shrinking sheet. In detail, the first solution results show that when the Eckert number increases as 0.1, 0.4 and 0.7 at λ = 1.5, the temperature variations reduced to 10.686840, 10.671419 and 10.655996. While in the second solution, keeping the same parameters temperature variation reduced to 9.750777, 9.557349 and 9.364489, respectively. On the other hand, the results indicate that the skin friction coefficient increases with copper volume fraction. This study shows that the thermal boundary layer thickness rises due to the rise in the solid volume fraction. It is also observed that the magnetic parameter, copper volume fraction and Eckert number widen the range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists.

Practical implications

In practice, the investigation on the flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid past an exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with mixed convection and Joule heating is crucial and useful. The problems related to hybrid nanofluid have numerous real-life and industrial applications, such as microelectronics, manufacturing, naval structures, nuclear system cooling, biomedical and drug reduction.

Originality/value

In specific, this study focuses on increasing thermal conductivity using a hybrid nanofluid mathematical model. The novelty of this study is the use of natural mixed convection and Joule heating in a hybrid nanofluid. This paper can obtain dual solutions. The authors declare that this study is new, and there is no previous published work similar to the present study.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Aneela Bibi, Hang Xu, Qiang Sun, Ioan Pop and Qingkai Zhao

This study aims to carry out an analysis for flow and heat transfer of a new hybrid nanofluid over a vertical flat surface embedded in a saturated porous medium with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to carry out an analysis for flow and heat transfer of a new hybrid nanofluid over a vertical flat surface embedded in a saturated porous medium with anisotropic permeability at high Rayleigh number. Here the hybrid nanofluid is considered as the working fluid, with different kinds of small particles in nanoscale being suspended.

Design/methodology/approach

The generalized homogenous model is introduced to describe the behaviors of hybrid nanofluid. Within the framework of the boundary layer approximations, the governing equations embodying the conservation equations of total mass, momentum and thermal energy are reduced to a set of fully coupled ordinary differential equations via relevant scaling transformations. A flow stability analysis is performed to examine the behavior of convective heat energy. Accurate solutions are obtained by means of a very efficient homotopy-based package BVPh 2.0.

Findings

Results show that the linear correlations of physical quantities among the base fluid and its suspended nanoparticles are adequate to give accurate results for simulation of behaviors of hybrid nanofluids. Heat enhancement can be also fulfilled by hybrid nanofluids. A flow stability analysis suggests the heat-related power index m > −1/3 for satisfying the increasing behavior of convective heat energy.

Originality/value

Free convection of a hybrid nanofluid near a vertical flat surface embedded in a saturated porous medium with anisotropic permeability is investigated for the first time. The simplified hybrid nanofluid model is proposed for describing nanofluid behaviors. The results of this proposed approach agree well with those given by the traditional hybrid nanofluid model and experiment. It is expected that, by using different combinations of various kinds of nanoparticles, the new generation of heat transfer fluids can be fabricated, which possess similar thermal-physical properties as regular nanofluids but with lower cost.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Nilankush Acharya, Suprakash Maity and Prabir Kumar Kundu

Hybrid nanofluids are of significant engrossment for their considerable heat transport rate. The steady flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducted hybrid

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid nanofluids are of significant engrossment for their considerable heat transport rate. The steady flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducted hybrid nanofluid is considered over a rotating disk under a magnetic field. Titanium oxide (TiO2) and ferrous (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles are used with their physical properties and water is considered as host liquid. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how hydrothermal integrity varies for hybrid nanosuspension over a spinning disk in the presence of magnetic orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations with boundary conditions are transformed by similarity transformations and then solved numerically with RK-4 method. A comparison of linear and nonlinear thermal radiation for the above-mentioned parameters is taken and the efficiency of nonlinear radiation is established, the same over nanofluid and hybrid nanofluid is also discussed. Heat lines are observed and discussed for various parameters like magnetic field, concentration, suction and injection parameter, radiation effect and Prandtl number.

Findings

Suction and increasing nanoparticle concentration foster the radial and cross-radial velocities, whereas magnetization and injection confirm the reverse trend. The rate of increment of radial friction is quite higher for the usual nanosuspension. The calculated data demonstrate that the rate for hybrid nanofluid is 8.97 percent, whereas for nanofluid it is 15.06 percent. Double-particle suspension amplifies the thermal efficiency than that of a single particle. Magnetic and radiation parameters aid the heat transfer, but nanoparticle concentration and suction explore the opposite syndrome. The magnetic parameter increases the heat transport at 36.58 and 42.71 percent for nonlinear radiation and hybrid nanosuspension, respectively.

Originality/value

Nonlinear radiation gives a higher heat transport rate and for the radiation parameter it is almost double. This result is very significant for comparison between linear and nonlinear radiation. Heat lines may be observed by taking different nanoparticle materials to get some diverse result. Hydrothermal study of such hybrid liquid is noteworthy because outcomes of this study will aid nanoscience and nanotechnology in an efficient way.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Emine Yağız Gürbüz, Halil İbrahim Variyenli, Adnan Sözen, Ataollah Khanlari and Mert Ökten

Heat exchangers (HEXs) are extensively used in many applications such as heating and cooling systems. To increase the thermal performance of HEXs, nano-sized particles…

Abstract

Purpose

Heat exchangers (HEXs) are extensively used in many applications such as heating and cooling systems. To increase the thermal performance of HEXs, nano-sized particles could be added to the base working fluid which can improve the thermophysical properties of the fluid. In addition, further improvement in the thermal performance of nanofluids can be obtained by using two or more different nanoparticles which are known as hybrid nanofluids. This paper aims to improve the thermal efficiency of U-type tubular HEX (THEX) by using CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation has been used to model THEX with various configurations. Also, CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid has been experimented in THEX in two various modes including parallel (PTHEX) and counter flow (CTHEX) regarding to the numerical findings. Hybrid nanofluids have been prepared in two particle concentrations and compared with CuO/water nanofluid at the same concentrations and also with water.

Findings

The numerical simulation results showed that adding fins and also using hybrid nanofluid can increase heat transfer rate in HEX. However, adding fins cannot be a good option in U-type THEX with lower diameter because it increases pressure drop notably. Experimental results of this work illustrated that using Al2O3-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid in the THEX improved thermal performance significantly. Maximum enhancement in overall heat transfer coefficient of THEX by using CuO-Al2O3/water nanofluid in 0.5% and 1% concentrations achieved as 9.5% and 12%, respectively.

Originality/value

The obtained findings of the study showed the positive effects of using hybrid type nanofluid in comparison with single type nanofluid. In this study, numerical and experimental analysis have been conducted to investigate the effect of using hybrid type nanofluid in U-type HEX. The obtained results exhibited successful utilization of CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid type nanofluid in HEX. Moreover, it was observed that thermal performance analysis of the nanofluids without any experiment can be done by using numerical method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Rusya Iryanti Yahaya, Norihan M. Arifin, Roslinda Nazar and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this paper is to study the flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid, Cu–Al2O3/water, past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet. The effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid, Cu–Al2O3/water, past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are considered here.

Design/methodology/approach

Similarity transformations are used to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations. A MATLAB solver called the bvp4c is then used to compute the numerical solutions of equations (12) to (14) subject to the boundary conditions of equation (15). Then, the effects of various physical parameters on the flow and thermal fields of the hybrid nanofluid are analyzed.

Findings

Multiple (dual) solutions are found for the basic boundary layer equations. A stability analysis is performed to see which solutions are stable and, therefore, applicable in practice and which are not stable. Besides that, a comparison is made between the hybrid nanofluid and a traditional nanofluid, Cu/water. The skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number of the hybrid nanofluid are found to be greater than that of the other nanofluid. Thus, the hybrid nanofluid has a higher heat transfer rate than the other nanofluid. However, the increase in the shrinking parameter reduces the velocity of the hybrid nanofluid.

Originality/value

The present results are original and new for the study of the flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in Cu–Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2018

Mohammad Yousefi, Saeed Dinarvand, Mohammad Eftekhari Yazdi and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this paper is to investigate analytically the steady general three-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an aqueous titania-copper hybrid nanofluid past a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate analytically the steady general three-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an aqueous titania-copper hybrid nanofluid past a circular cylinder that has a sinusoidal radius variation.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the analytic modeling of hybrid nanofluid is presented, and using appropriate similarity variables, the governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the dimensionless stream function, which is solved by the well-known function bvp4c from MATLAB.

Findings

The current solution demonstrates good agreement with those of the previously published studies in the special cases of regular fluid and nanofluids. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influences of the titania and copper nanoparticle volume fractions and also the nodal/saddle indicative parameter on flow and heat transfer characteristics. Here, the thermal characteristics of hybrid nanofluid are found to be higher in comparison to the base fluid and fluid containing single nanoparticles. An important point to note is that the developed model can be used with great confidence to study the flow and heat transfer of hybrid nanofluids.

Originality/value

Analytic modeling of hybrid nanofluid is the important originality of present study. Hybrid nanofluids are potential fluids that offer better heat transfer performance and thermophysical properties than convectional heat transfer fluids (oil, water and ethylene glycol) and nanofluids with single nanoparticles. In this investigation, titania (TiO2, 50 nm), copper (Cu, 20 nm) and the hybrid of these two are separately dispersed into the water as the base fluid and analyzed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Emad H. Aly and Ioan Pop

The purpose of this study is to present both effective analytic and numerical solutions to MHD flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present both effective analytic and numerical solutions to MHD flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a hybrid nanofluid with suction/injection and convective boundary conditions. Water (base fluid) nanoparticles of alumina and copper were considered as a hybrid nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

Proper-similarity variables were applied to transform the system of partial differential equations into a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations. Exact analytical solutions were then presented for the dimensionless stream and temperature functions. Further, the authors introduce a very nice analytic and numerical solutions for both small and large values of the magnetic parameter.

Findings

It was found that no/unique/two equal/dual physical solutions exist for the investigated boundary value problem. The physically realizable practice of these solutions depends on the range of the governing parameters. For a stretching/shrinking sheet, it was deduced that a hybrid nanofluid works as a cooler on increasing some of the investigated parameters. Moreover, in the case of a shrinking sheet, the first solutions of hybrid nanofluid are stable and physically realizable rather than the nanofluid, while those of the second solutions are not for both hybrid nanofluid and nanofluid.

Originality/value

The present results for the hybrid nanofluids are new and original, as they successfully extend (generalize) the problems previously considered by different authors for the case of nanofluids.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Mohammad Ghalambaz, Mahmoud Sabour, Ioan Pop and Dongsheng Wen

The present study aims to address the flow and heat transfer of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid in a complex shape enclosure filled with a porous medium. The enclosure is…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to address the flow and heat transfer of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid in a complex shape enclosure filled with a porous medium. The enclosure is subject to a uniform inclined magnetic field and radiation effects. The effect of the presence of a variable magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer of hybrid nanofluids in a complex shape cavity is studied for the first time. The geometry of the cavity is an annular space with an isothermal wavy outer cold wall. Two types of the porous medium, glass ball and aluminum metal foam, are adopted for the porous space. The governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer of the hybrid nanofluid are introduced and transformed into non-dimensional form. The actual available thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity data for the hybrid nanofluid are directly used for thermophysical properties of the hybrid nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer of hybrid nanofluid are introduced and transformed into non-dimensional form. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are directly used from the experimental results available in the literature. The finite element method is used to solve the governing equations. Grid check procedure and validations were performed.

Findings

The effect of Hartmann number, Rayleigh number, Darcy number, the shape of the cavity and the type of porous medium on the thermal performance of the cavity are studied. The outcomes show that using the composite nanoparticles boosts the convective heat transfer. However, the rise of the volume fraction of nanoparticles would reduce the overall enhancement. Considering a convective dominant regime of natural convection flow with Rayleigh number of 107, the maximum enhancement ratio (Nusselt number ratio compared to the pure fluid) for the case of glass ball is about 1.17 and for the case of aluminum metal foam is about 1.15 when the volume fraction of hybrid nanoparticles is minimum as 0.2 per cent.

Originality/value

The effect of the presence of a variable magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer of a new type of hybrid nanofluids, MgO-MWCNTs/EG, in a complex shape cavity is studied for the first time. The results of this paper are new and original with many practical applications of hybrid nanofluids in the modern industry.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Ranga Babu J.A., Kiran Kumar K. and Srinivasa Rao S.

This paper aims to present an analytical investigation of energy and exergy performance on a solar flat plate collector (SFPC) with Cu-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid, Cu/water…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an analytical investigation of energy and exergy performance on a solar flat plate collector (SFPC) with Cu-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid, Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids as collector running fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

Heat transfer characteristics, pressure drop and energy and exergy efficiencies of SFPC working on these nanofluids are investigated and compared. In this study, a comparison is made by varying the mass flow rates and nanoparticle volume concentration. Thermophysical properties of hybrid nanofluids are estimated using distinctive correlations available in the open literature. Then, the influence of these properties on energy and exergy efficiencies of SFPC is discussed in detail.

Findings

Energy analysis reveals that by introducing the hybrid nanoparticles in water, the thermal conductivity of the working fluid is enhanced by 17.52 per cent and that of the individual constituents is enhanced by 15.72 and 15.35 per cent for Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively. This resulted in 2.16 per cent improvement in useful heat gain for hybrid nanofluid and 1.03 and 0.91 per cent improvement in heat gain for Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively. In line with the above, the collector efficiency increased by 2.175 per cent for the hybrid nanofluid and 0.93 and 1.05 per cent enhancement for Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively. Exergy analysis elucidates that by using the hybrid nanofluid, exergy efficiency is increased by 2.59 per cent, whereas it is 2.32 and 2.18 per cent enhancement for Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively. Entropy generation is reduced by 3.31, 2.35 and 2.96 per cent for Cu-CuO/water, Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively, as compared to water.

Research limitations/implications

However, this is associated with a penalty of increment in pressure drop of 2.92, 3.09 and 2.74 per cent for Cu-CuO/water, Cu/water and CuO/water nanofluids, respectively, compared with water.

Originality/value

It is clear from the analysis that Cu-CuO/water hybrid nanofluids possess notable increment in both energy and exergy efficiencies to use them in SFPCs.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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