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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Faiza Syed, Malik Shah Zaman Latif, Iftikhar Ahmed, Sadia Bibi, Saif Ullah and Nauman Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Florence Malongane, Lyndy Joy McGaw and Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and (2) the effect of blending bush tea with other known commercial herbal teas.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used to determine moisture and ash contents followed that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Nine minerals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively.

Findings

The results of the study demonstrated that bush tea had a high ash content of 8.01% and special tea (9.23%), while honeybush (1.96%) and rooibos tea (2.17%) exhibited a low ash percentage. The mineral content was higher in bush tea and special tea than in rooibos tea and honeybush tea except for sodium, which was higher in rooibos tea. The blending of bush tea with special tea improved its potassium content from 22,937.00 mg/kg to 23,379.20 mg/kg. Blending bush tea with rooibos tea at a ratio of 25:75 increased the flavonoid content to 12.21 µg/mL.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the nutrients composition cannot be generalized as it is influenced by other factors such as soil type and seasons.

Social implications

Increasing the commercialization of indigenous teas.

Originality/value

The results of the study suggest that bush tea and special tea are nutritionally comparable with South African commercial herbal teas. Thus, the consideration for commercialization of these teas is crucial.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Khalid Hussain, Fengjie Jing, Muhammad Junaid, Qamar Uz Zaman and Huayu Shi

This study aims to investigate the outcomes of customers’ co-creation experience in a realistic and routinely performed co-creation setting, a restaurant. To fulfill this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the outcomes of customers’ co-creation experience in a realistic and routinely performed co-creation setting, a restaurant. To fulfill this purpose, the current study links the branding literature to hospitality research and offers a novel framework by incorporating customers’ co-creation experience, customer brand engagement, emotional brand attachment and customer satisfaction in an integrated research model.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 421 diners at Chinese hotpot restaurants via a self-administered questionnaire. The reliability and convergent and discriminant validities were established through confirmatory factor analysis, and then hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study demonstrates that customers’ co-creation experience with a restaurant brand positively impacts customer brand engagement, emotional brand attachment and customer satisfaction. In addition, current study examines these relational paths at the dimensional level by taking the co-creation experience and customer brand engagement as multidimensional constructs. The resulting in-depth investigation reveals that the hedonic, social and economic experience dimensions of co-creation experience positively influence customer satisfaction, emotional brand attachment and customer brand engagement’s buying, referring, influencing and feedback dimensions.

Practical implications

This study helps relationship and brand managers better understand customer experience in co-creation settings and paves the way for managers to devise engagement strategies.

Originality/value

The current study marks an initial attempt to delineate the outcomes of customers’ co-creation experience in a realistic co-creation setting. Furthermore, the study is first of its kind that investigates the relationship of co-creation experience and customer brand engagement at the dimensional level.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2020

Sohel Mehedi, Habibur Rahman and Dayana Jalaludin

The paper aims to examine the level of agricultural credit by commercial banks and the determinants that influence the commercial banks to the increased level of…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the level of agricultural credit by commercial banks and the determinants that influence the commercial banks to the increased level of agricultural credit through the pressures of the institutional environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selects seventeen sample commercial banks following the market capitalization method and investigates a total of 85 annual reports during the period from 2013 to 2017. The study conducts a pooled regression to conclude the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The present study finding indicates that the average of agricultural credits to total credits is 2.25% among the sample commercial banks. The study finds a positive significant association between board gender diversity, foreign director, management team and agricultural credit. Furthermore, the study has found that the role of the deposit in enhancing agricultural credit is positive. On the other hand, the association between independent directors, profitability and agricultural credits is negative.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on secondary data with five firm-year observations of commercial banks. The study finding is based on commercial banks, so it should not be generalized to non-bank financial institutions.

Practical implications

The study emphasizes policymakers’ attention towards the level of agricultural credit and determinants that influence the level of agricultural credit by commercial banks in emerging markets.

Originality/value

The key contribution of the study is to focus on the reformist role of the determinants in promoting the increased level of agricultural credit in the emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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