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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Christin Mellner, Göran Kecklund, Michiel Kompier, Amir Sariaslan and Gunnar Aronsson

Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life…

Abstract

Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep. Drawing from a sample of Swedish professional workers (N = 3,846), a theoretical model was proposed testing the inter-relationships between boundaryless work in time and space, weekly work hours, psychological detachment, sleeping problems and sleep duration using a structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings showed that working boundlessly in time, that is spread out during the working day and week, was directly associated with both long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. In contrast, working boundlessly in space, that is at several different places, was inversely associated with weekly work hours and had no association with psychological detachment. Psychological detachment, in turn, was directly associated with sleeping problems and inversely associated with sleep duration. Sleeping problems were inversely associated with sleep duration. Employees with long weekly work hours had a low degree of sleeping problems. There was also no association between long weekly work hours and sleep duration. These findings contradict earlier research, however, we interpret these findings as that if one works a great deal but is able to mentally detach from work-related feelings and thoughts during free time, then sleep will not be hampered because perseverative cognitions associated with prolonged biological activation will have been interrupted. As such, psychological detachment can be regarded as the mechanism that mediates the relationships between working ‘anytime’ and long weekly work hours, and sleep. It was concluded working boundlessly in time increases the likelihood for long weekly work hours and lack of psychological detachment. Hence, employees working ‘anytime – all the time’ run the risk of ‘always being on’ resulting in disturbed sleep.

Details

New Ways of Working Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-303-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Soohyun Lee, Zhiqing E. Zhou, Julan Xie and Hao Guo

Work-related use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) after hours can be potentially detrimental to employee well-being. In the current study, we examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Work-related use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) after hours can be potentially detrimental to employee well-being. In the current study, we examine whether psychological detachment mediates the link between work-related use of ICTs after hours and fatigue and whether affective commitment exacerbates this mediated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected two waves of data from 295 employees in Vietnam, with 51% being female and an average age of 37.81 years old (SD = 7.93).

Findings

Work-related use of ICTs after hours was positively related to employees' fatigue via psychological detachment. The negative relationship between work-related use of ICTs after hours and psychological detachment was stronger for employees with higher affective commitment.

Practical implications

Organizations are encouraged to set policies and procedures to reduce work-related use of ICTs after hours to protect employee health; when work-related use of ICTs after hours is necessary, organizations should provide employees, especially those with higher affective commitment, with resources and strategies to better detach from this experience.

Originality/value

Our findings contribute to the understanding of how work-related use of ICTs after hours might adversely affect employee well-being through psychological detachment and that more committed employees can be more affected in this process.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Debjani Ghosh, Tomoki Sekiguchi and Yuka Fujimoto

The purpose of this paper is to develop an additional perspective on when and why intrinsic motivation predicts employee engagement by presenting a contextual boundary of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an additional perspective on when and why intrinsic motivation predicts employee engagement by presenting a contextual boundary of psychological detachment in relation to the relationship between intrinsic motivation, employee creativity and employee engagement of workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 288 full-time Japanese workers using an online survey. The study used a bootstrap method (Preacher and Hayes, 2008) to test mediation, and a Hayes method (2013) to test moderation and a first-stage moderated mediation model.

Findings

Employee creativity mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee engagement, and the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity was moderated by psychological detachment. Additionally, the indirect effect of intrinsic motivation on employee engagement via creativity was moderated by psychological detachment.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design may have limited the empirical inferences; however, the proposed model was based on robust theoretical contentions, and the study included an unrelated “marker variable” (neuroticism) as an effective means of identifying common method variance (CMV), thus mitigating the limitation of the design.

Practical implications

This study has shown that intrinsically motivated employees who practice psychological detachment from work achieve higher creativity and stronger employee engagement.

Originality/value

Based on the unconscious thought theory (UTT), job demand resource theory (JD-R), recovery processes (i.e. effort-recovery model) and self-determination theory (SDT), this paper adds to the literature by demonstrating the mediating and moderating mechanisms driving intrinsic motivation and employee engagement relationship.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Christin Mellner

Modern working life is characterized by increased expectations for employees to be available to deal with work issues outside regular work hours and by using new…

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Abstract

Purpose

Modern working life is characterized by increased expectations for employees to be available to deal with work issues outside regular work hours and by using new communication technology. This implies more individual freedom in organizing work in time and space, but also places increased demands on employees to manage the boundaries between work and personal life. This, in turn, can be expected to be crucial to their ability to mentally detach from work during free time. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether individual perceptions of boundary control moderate the impact of after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use during off-work hours on psychological detachment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study population comprised 2,876 gainfully employed professionals from four large organizations in both the public and private sector, representing various businesses and occupations. Univariate correlations and multiple, linear hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed.

Findings

High after-hours availability expectations, high frequency of work-related smartphone use, and low boundary control were associated with poor psychological detachment. Furthermore, boundary control moderated the relationships between both after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use, respectively, and psychological detachment. As such, boundary control mitigated the negative effects of both after-hours availability expectations and work-related smartphone use during leisure on psychological detachment.

Practical implications

Modern work organizations would benefit from introducing availability policies and helping employees reduce their work-related smartphone use outside regular work hours, thus helping them achieve successful boundary control and subsequent psychological detachment.

Originality/value

In a working life characterized by blurred boundaries, employees’ ability to achieve boundary control can be regarded as crucial.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Janet A. Boekhorst, Parbudyal Singh and Ronald Burke

The purpose of this paper is to examine a moderated mediation model that investigated the moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between work…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a moderated mediation model that investigated the moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between work intensity and life satisfaction via emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 149 hospital-based nurses who completed a questionnaire about working conditions and individual outcomes. The data were analyzed using hierarchical moderated regression and bootstrapping techniques.

Findings

The results confirm that work intensity is negatively related to life satisfaction via emotional exhaustion. The results also demonstrate that psychological detachment diminishes the negative influence of emotional exhaustion on life satisfaction. The conditional indirect effect model shows that the indirect relationship between work intensity and life satisfaction is strongest at low psychological detachment.

Research limitations/implications

This research advances our understanding of the negative work and non-work implications associated with work intensity. The key limitation of this research was the cross-sectional data set. HRM researchers should seek to replicate and expand the results with multi-wave data to extend our understanding of the implications of work intensity.

Practical implications

HRM practitioners need to begin implementing measures to address work intensity in order to thwart its negative effects. HRM practitioners need to implement policies and procedures that limit the intensity of work demands to promote positive employee work and non-work outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first study to show that work intensity can influence life satisfaction through emotional exhaustion. Contrary to most recovery research, this research is also among the first to focus on the moderating role of psychological detachment, especially within a conditional indirect effect model.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Jun Xie, Qihai Huang, Zhang Huiying, Yun Zhang and Kangyu Chen

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM) and employee work-to-family conflict (WFC) through employee…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM) and employee work-to-family conflict (WFC) through employee psychological detachment, and the moderating role of employee trait optimism.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model was empirically tested using a sample of 225 two-wave data gathered from five Chinese companies.

Findings

The results revealed that employee psychological detachment mediated the impact of supervisor BLM on employee WFC. Moreover, employee trait optimism buffered the negative relationship between supervisor BLM and employee psychological detachment and the indirect effect of supervisor BLM on employee WFC through employee psychological detachment.

Practical implications

Supervisors should pay more attention to the spillover effect of supervisor BLM on employees’ family life and take some training measures to help employees effectively psychological detach from supervisor BLM.

Originality/value

The findings, therefore, provide a more comprehensive understanding of the adverse effects of supervisor BLM beyond the work domain and the buffering role of employee trait optimism on work–family intervention.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Sabine Sonnentag, Dana Unger and Inga J. Nägel

The purpose of this study is to address the relation between task and relationship conflicts at work and employee well‐being. It seeks to examine psychological detachment

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address the relation between task and relationship conflicts at work and employee well‐being. It seeks to examine psychological detachment from work during off‐job time as a moderator in the relation between conflicts and well‐being.

Design/methodology/approach

In a field study, 291 white‐collar employees completed survey measures of task conflicts, relationship conflicts, psychological detachment from work during off‐job time, and well‐being. Control variables included workload and job control.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that employees experiencing high levels of task conflicts and high levels of relationship conflicts report poorer well‐being. As predicted, psychological detachment from work mitigated the negative relation between relationship conflicts and well‐being. Contrary to expectations, psychological detachment failed to moderate the relation between task conflicts and well‐being.

Practical implications

The study suggests that employees should be encouraged to disengage mentally from work during leisure time.

Originality/value

This study links research on workplace conflicts with research on recovery processes. It tests the moderator effect of psychological detachment from work on the association between workplace conflicts and well‐being.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Jinnan Wu, Wenjuan Mei, Joseph Ugrin, Lin Liu and Fang Wang

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Chinese college students' social cyberloafing out of class has a curvilinear effect on academic performance and whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Chinese college students' social cyberloafing out of class has a curvilinear effect on academic performance and whether students' levels of psychological detachment and relaxation mediate the effect.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey was used to collect 502 self-reported responses from student Internet users at a large university located in central China.

Findings

The results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between social cyberloafing out of class and academic performance. Two types of effort recovery experience gained from social cyberloafing, psychological detachment and relaxation, mediate that effect. Students' social cyberloafing out of class is positively associated with psychological detachment and relaxation, which in turn, have opposite effects on academic performance.

Practical implications

This study offers novel insights into the effects of social cyberloafing on college students' academic achievement. The findings illustrate how social cyberloafing can serve as a recovery experience and improve academic performance, but it can hinder performance if the cyberloafing is excessive.

Originality/value

This study extends the cyberloafing literature by focusing on Chinese college students' cyberloafing out of class. The study finds that a moderate amount of social cyberloafing out of class can result in psychological detachment, relaxation and improved performance when returning to academic work. However, both too much or too little social cyberloafing can result in difficulty returning to academic work and reduced academic performance. The findings are novel to the cyberloafing literature.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Muhammad Faisal Malik, Qurat-ul-Ain Burhan, Shazia Akhtar and Muhammad Shafiq

The research intended to identify the impact of employee exploitation on knowledge-sharing behavior and withdrawal, not in isolation, but by taking psychological ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

The research intended to identify the impact of employee exploitation on knowledge-sharing behavior and withdrawal, not in isolation, but by taking psychological ownership and psychological detachment as mediating variables. Moreover, the research aims to identify optimism’s moderating role concerning employee exploitation and psychological ownership. The research aims to suggest the management implementation of the human-centric business process and, subsequently, management to obtain maximum output from employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Positivism research philosophy followed by a deductive approach is adopted to meet the objectives of the current study. Survey techniques with a self-administrated questionnaire were used to collect data from employees working in public sector organizations. Moreover, 255 employees with the highest qualification were shortlisted to capture the variables’ impact. Data analysis was done by using SEM-AMOS approaches and obtained structural and path models to test the formulated hypotheses.

Findings

Results suggested that employee exploitation has a significant relationship with withdrawal, and psychological detachment mediates the relationship. The other path suggested the insignificant role of optimism as a moderator in the relationship between employee exploitation and psychological empowerment. However, psychological empowerment fully mediates the relationship between employee exploitation and knowledge-sharing behavior.

Originality/value

A plethora of research is available on employee exploitation; however, the current research is first to capture both positive and negative paths in public sector organizations. It provides clear insights for managers to reformulate and reanalyze their organizational policies to get employees' positive attitudinal and behavioural outcomes.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Muhammad Umer Azeem, Dirk De Clercq and Inam Ul Haq

This study aims to unpack the link between co-worker incivility and job performance, by detailing a mediating role of psychological detachment and a moderating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to unpack the link between co-worker incivility and job performance, by detailing a mediating role of psychological detachment and a moderating role of psychological capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses are tested with three-wave, time-lagged data collected from Pakistani-based employees and their supervisors.

Findings

An important reason that disrespectful co-worker treatment curtails job performance, with respect to both in-role and extra-role work efforts, is that employees detach from their work environment. This mediating role of psychological detachment is less salient to the extent that employees possess high levels of psychological capital.

Practical implications

For organizations, this study pinpoints a key mechanism, a propensity to distance oneself from work, by which convictions that co-workers do not show respect direct employees away from productive work activities. This study also shows how this mechanism can be subdued by ensuring that employees exhibit energy-enhancing personal resources.

Originality/value

This study expands extant research on the dark side of interpersonal co-worker relationships by revealing pertinent factors that explain why and when co-worker incivility can escalate into diminished performance-enhancing activities.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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