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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Sinchan Biswas, Debabrata Sircar, Adinpunya Mitra and Bratati De

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties and phenol content of methanolic extracts of six white varieties and six purple/brown varieties of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties and phenol content of methanolic extracts of six white varieties and six purple/brown varieties of Indian rice and to find some relationship between the antioxidant properties, phenolic content in the varieties analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Methanolic extracts of different rice varieties were analyzed for their superoxide radical scavenging activity, 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating properties. The extracts were analyzed for determination of total phenol content, anthocyanin content, oryzanol content. Phenolic acids were determined by HPLC.

Findings

All the rice varieties (white and purple/brown) showed activity in a dose‐dependent manner. Free phenolic acids, e.g. protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, p‐coumaric acid (PCA), ferulic acid and sinapic acid and the phenolic aldehyde vanillin could be detected in all the rice samples analyzed. No relationship could be established between activity and metabolite content. Principal component analysis and classification shows that superoxide radical scavenging activity, total phenolic acid, protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid are the components to differentiate the varieties from each other.

Originality/value

Little work has been done on the antioxidant activity of white rice. The authors report superoxide radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating properties and phenolic contents of six white varieties and six purple/brown varieties of Indian rice. Free phenolic acids like protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, PCA, ferulic acid and sinapic acid are reported from all the 12 varieties of rice.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Pin‐Rou Lee, Rou‐Ming Tan, Bin Yu, Philip Curran and Shao‐Quan Liu

The purpose of this study was to characterise the physiochemical properties of selected exotic seasonal tropical fruits available in Singapore.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to characterise the physiochemical properties of selected exotic seasonal tropical fruits available in Singapore.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 11 seasonal tropical fruits including cempedak, chiku, custard apple, jackfruit, longkong, mangosteen, red jambu, pearl jambu, rambutan, salak and starfruit were analyzed for their sugars, organic acids and free phenolic acids composition using liquid chromatographic methods. Total phenolic content (free and bound), total soluble solids and pH were determined using Folin‐Ciocalteu method, refractometer and pH meter, respectively.

Findings

Fructose, glucose and sucrose were the main sugars in all the fruits. Cempedak had the highest sucrose concentration, while custard apple had the highest content of fructose and glucose. Malic and citric acids were the major organic acids in most of the fruits, except for pearl jambu and red jambu where succinic acid was the dominant acid. The total phenolic content varied from 122.94 to 712.20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh weight (FW). Ferulic (0.631 mg/kg) and sinapic acids (1.506 mg/kg) were the predominant free phenolic acids in custard apple, while caffeic acid was the main free phenolic acid in jackfruit, salak and starfruit.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that the physiochemical characteristics of the 11 tropical fruits varied markedly, which is responsible for the differential flavour and stability. The findings are useful for epidemiological research and predicting the degree of ripeness, stability and post‐harvest processing required for these fruits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Melek Çol Ayvaz, Figen Aksu and Filiz Kır

Mushrooms have always been treasured and appreciated, thanks to their nutritional as well as medicinal properties. The purpose of this paper is to reveal these properties…

Abstract

Purpose

Mushrooms have always been treasured and appreciated, thanks to their nutritional as well as medicinal properties. The purpose of this paper is to reveal these properties such as antioxidant activities and enzyme inhibition potentials of three mushroom species from Ordu, Turkey. Furthermore, phenolic profiles which are believed to be source of these properties are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The assays followed to determine total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant contents, antioxidative and enzyme inhibition activities are spectrophotometric methods. Phenolic profiles of mushroom samples were investigated by using the HPLC system.

Findings

The highest phenolic content was found for Lactarius deliciosus. Pyrogallol was the major phenolics in all three samples. Total phenolic content values supported that finding. But, total flavonoid content was the maximum for Cantharellus cibarius. The magnitude of the antioxidant activities revealed by the different tests varied between species. Furthermore, inhibition potential degrees on acetylcholinesterase, butrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and urease activities were worth mentioning. Lactarius pyrogalus had anti-tyrosinase activity with a 26.229 percent inhibition rate. IC50 values for urease inhibition effect of mushroom samples were in the range of 0.37–0.90 mg/mL.

Originality/value

Enzyme inhibitory potentials for L. pyrogalus was revealed first time. On the other hand, studies on anti-tyrosinase activity of mushrooms are very rare, while almost no studies have been conducted on anti-urease activity. So, the results of present study are very valuable. Thus, the obtained data not only increase the ecological importance of the region but also provide significant contributions to the literature in terms of new sources rich in antioxidants.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Rita Mansour

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine and compare nutritional composition of different parts of citrus fruits, namely, Citrus aurantium (peel: albedo, flavedo and pulp: juice, pomace) . This study was conducted through three stages of fruit maturity (green, yellow and orange). Total polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, acidity, total soluble solid and the minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn, Na, K, Fe, Mn Cu) were evaluated. Moreover, the relationship between the total polyphenol, flavonoids and the antioxidant activity was determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Total polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Flavonoids were assessed by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. K and Na contents were determined by using a flame photometer. Other nutritional composition was determined by volumetric method.

Findings

The result showed that the concentrations of antioxidants, total polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, total chlorophyll, total acidity and antioxidant activity (DPPH%) decreased during the maturity of fruit while the value of pH and β-carotene increases. In addition, the concentrations of the most minerals decreased through the maturation of fruit except Na. Anova statistical analysis of all the studied chemical variables was shown significant differences between all the samples. The pH, total soluble solids, β-caroteniod: orange juice had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. Ascorbic acid, total acidity, total chlorophyll: green juice had the highest average while orange juice has the lowest. Total phenol, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn: green flavedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Flavonoid, antioxidant activity (DPPH%), Ca, Zn: green albedo had the highest average while orange juice had the lowest. Na: orange flavedo had the highest average while green juice had the lowest. The correlations between total polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (R = 0.935 and 0.960, respectively).

Originality/value

The stage of maturity affects nutritional composition in Citrus aurantium fruits (C. aurantium) peel and pulp, where some minerals of composition increased and others decreased, according to the results. This is the first study on comparing the nutritional composition of pulp: juice, pomace and peel: albedo, flavedo of Citrus aurantium L. during maturity in Syria, and it was also not found in previous works.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Vinti Singh, Jyotsana Singh, Radha Kushwaha, Monika Singh, Sandeep Kumar and Awadhesh Kumar Rai

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of…

Abstract

Purpose

Flowers and fruits of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) (mahua) tree are edible and used as traditional Indian medicines. The physicochemical properties of different parts of mahua are investigated. This study aims to estimate the different mineral contents, polyphenols compounds and antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, reducing power, free radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

Flavonoids were identified and quantified in yellow flowers and fruits of M. longifolia tree by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Low molecular weight carbohydrates were determined by the ICBio scan, a specific method for determining of carbohydrates. Mineral content is determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Physicochemical, nutritional and mineral properties of mahua flower, ripe and unripe fruit were investigated by the statistical approach of principal component analysis (PCA).

Findings

Ascorbic acid, gallic acid (GA), quercetin and myrcetin were the phenolic compounds identified and quantified in mahua flower and fruit extracts. Sugar profiling of mahua flowers and fruits confirmed the presence of inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, dextrose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose and maltose. The mineral content of Na, K, Mg and Ca was present in quite a good amount in all samples. Total phenolic content (TPC) was significantly high in mahua flower (25.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) followed by mahua unripe (15.8 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) and ripe fruit (14.3 ± 1.0 mg GA equivalent/g FW) at p = 5%. In contrast, total flavonoid contents (TFCs) were highest in ripe fruit, then mahua flower and unripe fruit. Positive correlations were predicted by PCA for mahua flower with TPC, antioxidant activity assays and minerals except for Na; ripe fruit with TFC and Na; and unripe fruit with maltose and sorbitol.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the application of LIBS for the determination of elements present in the mahua flowers and fruits and reveals that mahua can be a good source of nutrients. Sugar profiling of mahua flower showed that it is a rich source of reducing and non-reducing sugar, proving that mahua flower juice can be used as a natural sweetener in the development of different food products, namely, biscuits, cookies, cake, jam, jelly, juice and squash.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Amin Ismail, Ngee‐Wen Tiong, Seok‐Tyug Tan and Azrina Azlan

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties (capacity and component) of four non‐leafy vegetables. The correlation between the antioxidant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant properties (capacity and component) of four non‐leafy vegetables. The correlation between the antioxidant capacity and its components of the studied vegetables was also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Winged beans, also known as four‐angled bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), string bean (Vigna sinensis) and snow pea (Pisum sativum) were selected as samples from among the common non‐leafy vegetables consumed by Malaysians. These fresh vegetables were lyophilised and ground and their ethanolic extracts were prepared for antioxidant capacity assays and total phenolic, β‐carotene and ascorbic acid contents.

Findings

Among the vegetables, string beans showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to the other vegetables studied (p < 0.05). The total phenolic, ascorbic acid and β‐carotene contents of snow peas were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the other vegetables. There was a significant positive correlation between scavenging activity and antioxidant components studied. On the other hand, a negative correlation was found between antioxidant activity and its components of the studied vegetables.

Originality/value

Previous reports have indicated that vegetables contain high levels of antioxidants. However, data on antioxidant capacity of these non‐leafy vegetables are still lacking. This research paper shows the non‐leafy vegetables studied is a promising source of antioxidants with good antioxidant capacity. Beside that, along with the studied antioxidant components, other compounds in these vegetables could also contribute to their antioxidant capacity.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Paula Nogueira Curi, Francielly Corrêa Albergaria, Rafael Pio, Maria Cecília Evangelista Vasconcelos Schiassi, Bruna de Sousa Tavares and Vanessa Rios de Souza

The purpose of this paper is to characterise eight different fig cultivars with respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compound content and to assess the influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterise eight different fig cultivars with respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compound content and to assess the influence of these cultivars on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the obtained jelly to identify cultivars with increased potential for processing when grown in subtropical regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses of fig fruits and fig jellies were performed in triplicate. To characterise the fig cultivars, analyses of antioxidant activity, phenolic compound content and ascorbic acid concentration were performed on fresh fruits. For the jellies, the total titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, colour, texture profile and sensory attributes were analysed.

Findings

With respect to antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds, the Roxo de Valinhos displayed the highest antioxidant activity according to the ABTS method, ß-carotene and DPPH; the Três num Prato, Lemon and Brunswick cultivars presented the highest ascorbic acid values; and the Três num Prato cultivar also had the highest total phenolic content. Generally, the various fig cultivars yielded jellies with different physical and chemical characteristics and different rheological properties. This variation did not significantly affect acceptability. This study demonstrates that all of the evaluated cultivars have high potential for processing.

Originality/value

This study evaluated the processing potential of Roxo de Valinhos and other fig cultivars in the form of jelly, which in view of the food risk concerns of the dried fig, seems to be an interesting alternative for consumption of processed fig.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Marcelo Caetano de Oliveira, Paula Nogueira Curi, Rafael Pio, Daniela da Hora Farias, Marcio Roberto Rigote, Maria Cecília Evangelista Vasconcelos Schiassi, Moacir Pasqual and Vanessa Rios de Souza

The native species from western Mato Grosso do Sul provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics and high nutrient concentrations. Tropical fruit consumption is…

Abstract

Purpose

The native species from western Mato Grosso do Sul provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics and high nutrient concentrations. Tropical fruit consumption is increasing due to the growing recognition of the nutritional value. These fruits play important roles through the marketing of their products and nutritionally through their consumption. All fruits are edible and are used in the food industry and well sensory accepted. The purpose of this paper is to verify the physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in fruits collected in the Cerrado and Pantanal biomes from western Mato Grosso do Sul.

Design/methodology/approach

The fruits of baru, bocaiuva, jatobá, jenipapo and pequi were collected. To characterize them, longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter, total soluble solids, acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, total sugar, glucose and macro and micronutrient contents analysis were performed in triplicate.

Findings

Jatobá presented the highest values of vitamin C. For phenolics, baru and jatobá stood out; bocaiuva presented the highest results for sugars, while jatobá was superior for glucose. The fruits with the highest antioxidant capacity, DPPH, were pequi and baru, while via ABTS the jatobá was the highest. Baru presented higher levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. The bocaiuva presented the highest results for potassium and sulfur, the jatobá calcium and manganese. Jenipapo stood out with its boron content. Magnesium presented superior results in the baru, jenipapo and bocaiuva. The results reinforce the diversity of physicochemical characteristics.

Originality/value

The increase of the flow of available information, together with the growth of multicultural influences, the search for wholesome diet and the diversity of flavors and colors make these fruits important regional development tools. Their characteristics encompass national and international exploration potential that arouse consumer interest and contribute to the pursuit of innovations. In addition, the native species mentioned above provide fruits with unique sensory characteristics. Their consumption is increasing in the markets due to the growing recognition of their nutritional value. Therefore, these fruits play important roles, economically, through the marketing of their products and nutritionally through their consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Mayengbam Premi Devi, Manas Ranjan Sahoo, Aparna Kuna, Madhumita Dasgupta, Sowmya Mandarapu, Prahlad Deb and Narendra Prakash

This study aims to examine the effects of various physical and chemical pre-treatments on antioxidant properties of tree bean (Parkia roxburghii G. Don) in combination…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of various physical and chemical pre-treatments on antioxidant properties of tree bean (Parkia roxburghii G. Don) in combination with storage conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The whole pods and seeds of tree bean were treated with gamma rays (γ-rays), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and stored at room temperature (RT, 25°C) for 30 days. The physical and chemical pre-treated seeds and pods were compared with the same stored at RT and refrigerated storage at 4°C and −20°C. During storage, physical (moisture content) and antioxidants like total phenolics, ascorbate content, reduced glutathione, total flavonoids, along with free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) were measured.

Findings

Chemical pre-treatments with NaOCl, ClO2 and H2O2 significantly accelerated (p = 0.05) the total phenolics (1.9 mg/g FW in seeds and 2.4 mg/g FW in pods), flavonoids content (0.3 mg/g FW each in seeds and pods) and ABTS activities (73.3 per cent in seeds and 92.3 per cent in pods) at 30 days of storage. A significant decrease (p = 0.05) in ascorbate content (6.1 mg/g FW in seeds and 3.5 mg/g FW in pods), reduced glutathione (5.1 mg/g FW in seeds and 3.7 mg/g FW in pods), FRAP (0.3 mg equi Fe/g FW in seeds and 0.4 mg equi Fe/g FW in pods) and reducing power (1.8 mg/g FW in seeds and 3.7 mg/g FW in pods) was observed under all the treatments at 30 days of storage. However, DPPH increased under γ-irradiation and decreased under chemical pre-treatments, storage at RT and refrigerated storage. The overall result showed that pre-treatment of H2O2 at 10-20 mM maintains antioxidants and radical scavenging activities in tree bean during storage.

Originality/value

The application of H2O2 at 10-20 mM prior to storage of tree bean maintains the physical, antioxidant properties and FRSA in tree bean seeds and pods as compared to natural ambient conditions. Hence, this technique will help in improving the keeping quality of this legume and avoid spoilage after harvest for an extended period.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Olaniyi Amos Fawole and Umezuruike Linus Opara

The purpose of this study was to characterize fruit properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in South Africa in order to provide information to assist in selecting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to characterize fruit properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in South Africa in order to provide information to assist in selecting cultivars for food and industrial purposes, as well as to optimize postharvest handling and processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The physical, textural and chemical properties as well as volatile profile and free radical scavenging capacity of eight cultivars (cvs “Acco”, “Arakta”, “Bhagwa”, “Ganesh”, “Herskawitz,” “Molla de Elche”, “Ruby”, and “Wonderful”) were quantified to demonstrate the diversity among the characters of the commercially grown cultivars.

Findings

Statistically significant differences were found between cultivars for most of the evaluated characters, primarily highlighting the genetic diversity among the cultivars. The classification of fruit cultivars based on quality traits (such as size, texture, colour, soluble solids, acidity, juiciness and phenolics) showed the great potential of the cultivars for processing and fresh market. The relationship among these quality traits was analysed by principal component analysis (PCA) resulting in the separation of the investigated cultivars into two groups (cluster 1=Ruby, Arakta and Ganesh; Class 2=Bhagwa, Acco and Herskawitz) and two ungrouped cultivars (Molla de Elche and Wonderful). Specific understanding about quality traits of each cultivar was established using the correlation coefficients obtained.

Originality/value

This study provides valuable fundamental information that can be useful for commercial and industrial purposes, as well as the development of optimal postharvest handling and processing parameters for the investigated South African grown pomegranate cultivars.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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