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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Basharat Hussain, Abdullah Zafar Sheikh, Julie Repper, Theodore Stickley, Stephen Timmons and Mahmood Hussain Shah

This study aims to investigate how British Pakistani people talk about their social identity, in the context of mental health, and how this shapes their experiences and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how British Pakistani people talk about their social identity, in the context of mental health, and how this shapes their experiences and perceptions of care delivered by the National Health Service, UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight narrative interviews were conducted among members of the Pakistani community living in a city in the UK. The data were analyzed using a narrative analysis approach using “social identity” as a theoretical lens.

Findings

Considering Pakistani service users as a single social entity, and responding with generic approaches in meeting their mental health needs, may not be helpful in achieving equitable treatment. Study participants reject a simple conceptualization of race and ethnicity and how a response based upon stereotypes is woefully inadequate. The study revealed that people from one ethnic or national background cannot be assumed to have a fixed social identity.

Originality/value

This study broadens understanding of how people from a single ethnic background may construct and view their social identities markedly different to others from the same ethnic group. This has implications for service providers in understanding how their clients’ social identity is treated and understood in practice.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Abstract

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2019

Hafiz Ali Hassan and Sayyed Khawar Abbas

The research paper is an effort to find out the behavior of Pakistani individuals toward usage of Takaful insurance. This paper aims to identify the factors, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The research paper is an effort to find out the behavior of Pakistani individuals toward usage of Takaful insurance. This paper aims to identify the factors, which influence investors’ intention toward the adoption of Takaful. Islamic finance is growing rapidly in the international market, especially in Islamic countries. Pakistan is an Islamic country, where the majority of the population is Muslim. Therefore, there is a great potential for Takaful exists in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

Both explanatory and descriptive research designs used for the research framework. The theory of planned behavior is the base theory and the model incorporates several factors such as relative advantage, compatibility, social influence, awareness and religiosity that may influence the adoption of Takaful. The primary data collected through the distribution of self-administered survey-based questionnaire, containing 23 items scaled at a five-point Likert scale. The non-probability snowball sampling and judgmental sampling techniques are used due to the scarce of Takaful users. The sample consists of 345 individuals (127 Takaful users and 218 non-users) living in the three main cities, namely, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. The data are further analyzed and interpreted with IBM SPSS 21. The results are evaluated using descriptive statistics, reliability, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation and binary logistic regression models.

Findings

The research findings reveal that factors such as relative advantage, compatibility, social influence, awareness and religiosity have a significant impact on the behavioral intention of Takaful amongst a depicted sample of Pakistani people. Similarly, Takaful has great potential in the Pakistani market, but due to lack of awareness, Takaful share is far behind than conventional insurance. It is further suggested that Takaful operators must devise some policies and plan to spread awareness about Takaful and come up with more innovative products.

Practical implications

The Takaful operators must devise plans to aware people about Islamic insurance. The study provides implication to Takaful management; Takaful users; and more importantly, the regularity authorities to operate and successfully conduct Takaful applications. Further, they should advance Takaful operations and produce more innovative products. The study focuses on some factors while there are plenty of others, which should be studied accordingly. For future researchers and students, there is a great potential of other techniques and measures, which can be further used for analysis of Takaful business.

Originality/value

This research is a first attempt to trace out the behavior of Pakistani people about Takaful, using the above discussed factors. The behavioral intention is studied using users and non-users combination, which is never done before in the current setting.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

P. Akhter, D. Mohammad, S.D. Orfi, N. Ahmad and K. Rehman

Iron deficiency is the number one nutritional disorder in the world and is quite common in Pakistan. Iron deficiency anaemia may result from a low dietary intake…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency is the number one nutritional disorder in the world and is quite common in Pakistan. Iron deficiency anaemia may result from a low dietary intake, inadequate intestinal absorption, excessive blood loss, and/or increased needs. While iron overload is also responsible of number of diseases. The normal iron status of our body is usually maintained by controlling amount of iron absorbed from food. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for adult male and female in the age from 19 to 50 years is 8 and 18mg, respectively. While RDA above 50 years is it for both genders i.e. 8mg (NIH, 2002). Nutritional status of dietary iron was estimated to combat the iron related diseases in Pakistani population.

Design/methodology/approach

Food samples were collected from major cities/districts of the country using market basket method. Daily diets were prepared and analyzed for iron contents using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS).

Findings

An average value of iron concentration was measured to be 52±15μg/g, which leads to an average daily dietary intake of 31±9.5mg/d, with a variation of 12 to 52mg/d. The estimated values of our daily iron intake are about 2 times higher than the recommended daily allowance set by international committee of radiological protection (ICRP) and US food and nutrition board (FNB). Apparently our diet seems enriched in iron contents. But its bioavailability may be low due to dietary composition. Major portion of our diet is based on plant food (71 per cent), followed by milk products (17 per cent) and other miscellaneous items, whereas consumption of animal food is only 5 per cent. This dietary composition and our food intake habits in the presence of iron inhibiters (i.e. phytate in plant food, tannin and polyphenols in tea and calcium) could be the leading cause of iron deficiency anemia among the Pakistani population.

Originality/value

Iron deficiency anemia is quiet common and cause of concern in Pakistan. The findings of the study indicate that bioavailability of iron to Pakistani population can be enhanced/improved with slight alterations/adjustments in dietary habits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Roberta Adami, Andrea Carosi and Anita Sharma

This paper aims to study long-term savings accumulation in the UK. The authors use cross-sectional information from the extensive data set of the Family Resources Survey…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study long-term savings accumulation in the UK. The authors use cross-sectional information from the extensive data set of the Family Resources Survey to compare long-term saving amongst different ethnic groups with the control group, the native population. The paper reflects on whether different groups are more likely to suffer poverty in retirement.

Design/methodology/approach

In this analysis, the authors apply the life-cycle framework to explain saving profiles. This theoretical model has been used extensively in the field of economics and can be applied to empirical studies to examine changes in income and saving patterns over the life-course. The framework contends that individuals make savings decisions to smooth consumption over different phases of their life-cycle.

Findings

The findings indicate that socio-economic factors are key elements in determining whether individuals plan for retirement if factors are controlled for the differences in saving behaviours between ethnic minorities and the control population decrease considerably. Asian women, with good education and social standing, display greater saving rates than the control group, while the socio-economic disadvantage suffered especially by Pakistani and Bangladeshi women is key to their inability to save long-term. High levels of poverty in retirement are more likely to be caused by the interaction of low levels of education, part-time work and long spells of unemployment than by ethnicity.

Originality/value

The important contribution to the debate on savings by ethnic minorities is the extension of the life-cycle model to specific sections of the population and to proffer new insights into their saving/dis-saving patterns and ultimately their welfare in retirement.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Faiza Syed, Malik Shah Zaman Latif, Iftikhar Ahmed, Sadia Bibi, Saif Ullah and Nauman Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Perveen Akhter and M.K. Rahman

Selenium deficiency in combination with iodine also has profound effect in the generation of thyroid related diseases and on neonatal growth and its survival. In Pakistan…

Abstract

Purpose

Selenium deficiency in combination with iodine also has profound effect in the generation of thyroid related diseases and on neonatal growth and its survival. In Pakistan, occurrence of thyroid related diseases are common. Low levels of iodine in food have been established and published estimates are available, but data on selenium intake levels were scarce. The purpose of this paper is to generate baseline analytical data on dietary intake of selenium to investigate its impact on occurrence of thyroid related diseases in Pakistani population.

Design/methodology/approach

Food samples were collected from major cities/districts of the country using market basket method. Daily diets were prepared and analyzed by using neutron activation analysis.

Findings

Measured levels varied from 51 to 453ng/g with geometric mean value (GM) × geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 163 × 1.6ng/g. This leads to daily intake variation from 31 to 270 μg/d with GM × GSD value of 97 × 1.6 μg/d. The measured levels were compared with reported values of other countries and recommended estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) range of 50‐200 μg/d for adults. The estimated selenium levels are adequate and safe as per international standard.

Originality/value

The paper provides baseline data and indicates that Pakistani diet contains sufficient amount of selenium and may not be cause of concern for thyroid related diseases in our country.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Nasreen Ali, Carl Mclean and Hamid Rehman

This paper seeks to discuss the attitudes and beliefs of the Pakistani/Kashmiri community in Birmingham towards the cultural practice of consanguineous (cousin) marriage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the attitudes and beliefs of the Pakistani/Kashmiri community in Birmingham towards the cultural practice of consanguineous (cousin) marriage and health, and how an understanding of Pakistani/Kashmiri community views may help institute good practice for health care professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research study using eight gender‐ and age‐specific focus group discussions and eight in‐depth one‐to‐one interviews with participants who were in consanguineous relationships. All participants were from the Pakistani/Kashmiri community and residents of Springfield ward in Birmingham.

Findings

The findings illustrate Pakistani/Kashmiri attitudes towards consanguinity and health. There was awareness of still births and genetic conditions but a poor understanding of genetics; respondents were reluctant to accept the link between cousin marriages and birth issues and explanations for still births and impairments were largely attributed to the “will of God”. Female respondents were in favour of screening for genetic conditions but would not terminate pregnancies as this was contrary to Islamic ideas about pre‐destiny and all respondents wanted more medical and Islamic scholarly information on cousin marriage and how it is linked to disabilities. Clearly there is a need to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce infant mortality in the Pakistani/Kashmiri community.

Research limitations/implications

Research findings correspond with previous studies that have explored ethnic minority knowledge and attitudes to health and healthcare services and the need for culturally competent services.

Originality/value

This paper presents some suggestions on effecting behaviour change in this important area.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2019

Syed Faheem Hasan Bukhari, Frances M. Woodside, Rumman Hassan, Ayesha Latif Shaikh, Saima Hussain and Waqas Mazhar

This study aims to explore whether religiosity influences consumer purchase behavior among Muslim consumers in Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether religiosity influences consumer purchase behavior among Muslim consumers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth, semi-structured interview protocol was developed and administered to a sample of 90 participants, both male and female, across eight metropolitan cities of Pakistan. Professionals, university students and housewives were part of the sample. NVivo Version 11 was used for data analysis to answer the research questions raised in this study. Moreover, the purposive sampling method has been used in this research.

Findings

The behavior of consumers was found to vary with the degree of involvement and the degree of religiosity. Study findings are divided into three themes. Firstly, a high level of religiosity makes Muslim consumers follow the Islamic principles of food consumption, by evaluating the product ingredients, spending moderately and verifying a halal logo at the time of purchase. Secondly, a major theme is the view that religiosity has no influence on food consumption; it is more about individuals’ needs and priorities. Finally, the consumers’ overall perception of quality, product value, purity and health consciousness over-powers the concept of religiosity.

Research limitations/implications

Because of its qualitative and exploratory nature, the generalizability of this paper is limited. In addition to that, this research is just focused on one Muslim country.

Practical implications

This study suggests that western food exporters may use religiosity and other factors as probable segmentation variables to effectively position their brands. Religious images and other factors may be highlighted in product packaging and communication campaigns by marketers to gain recognition and usage of western food and consumption among religious, Pakistani Muslim consumers. The output of this research may support prospective entrants into the food business; those interested in exploring the Asian consumer market. Findings from this study may also be helpful for those in the west interested in exploring Pakistan as an emerging consumer market.

Social implications

The presence of western imported food may improve the quality of life by having more opportunities and healthier options for the nation. Western food products can also bring cultural convergence whereby the underdeveloped nation feels upgraded and modern. Moreover, if the western food products are certified halal, the product has a fair chance of adoption and penetration in the society. Also, the food products coming from the western world induces mindfulness, people are more aware about innovative and useful ingredients that can satisfy their taste buds, improve their health, increase their life expectancy and contented approach toward life.

Originality/value

Thus far, limited research has analyzed religiosity of an overwhelmingly Muslim population and its impact on consumer behavior. This study is a preliminary effort to provide a basic understanding of the behavior of Pakistani Muslims, who have been insufficiently investigated by marketing and consumer researchers. The intriguing results are to remind marketers that there are several factors that govern religiosity and lead to a purchase decision.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Nosheen Fatima Warraich and Abebe Rorissa

This study aims to ascertain the information professionals’ perceptions and attitudes towards the application of linked data (LD) technologies in libraries in the context…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to ascertain the information professionals’ perceptions and attitudes towards the application of linked data (LD) technologies in libraries in the context of a developing country. It also explores the Pakistani information professionals’ level of familiarity with LD concepts, plans and efforts in its application, along with its potential benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire survey was used to identify the information professionals’ perceived level of familiarity with LD concepts and benefits to implement LD in libraries, and their plans and efforts to adopt LD technologies. A questionnaire was developed to meet the objective of the study and collect data from the purposefully selected professionals (N = 86) working in university libraries in Pakistan. SPSS was used to analyse the data set.

Findings

Findings show that LD application in libraries is still not common among Pakistani information professionals. They have a moderate level of understanding with semantic Web (SW) and LD key concepts. The respondents were positive about the potential benefits of implementing LD technology in libraries, such as assisting patrons to discover relevant information, enriching traditional bibliographic records, enhancing the visibility and discoverability of library data and improving the users’ overall search experiences that may foster future developments. Overall, the respondents’ institutions were on different levels of planning – from working on a plan to having a finalized plan. The findings emphasized establishing the SW’s potential in library services.

Research limitations/implications

There are certain limitations of this study. Firstly, the population is Pakistani information professionals who are purposefully selected. Secondly, the findings reveal that the respondents’ understanding with LD concepts, opinions about LD, plans and efforts to its application along with its potential benefits in libraries are self-perceived and not tested in any way and they were not actually implementing these technologies in their institutions because of a lack of best practices. It is a quantitative study and it will serve as a baseline study, even though there is a need to conduct more in-depth qualitative studies in the information environment to explore the phenomenon.

Social implications

This study will guide information professionals and policymakers to take initiatives towards the implementation of LD technology in libraries. It may also lead to further research to understand the perceptions of information professionals so that appropriate training and advocacy programmes can be developed to promote LD initiatives in libraries.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first known empirical study in the context of a developing country. It clearly demonstrates the Pakistani information professionals’ perceptions regarding the library LD and associated plans along with potential benefits to implement it.

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