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Vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani population: critical overview from 2008 to 2018

Faiza Syed (Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan)
Malik Shah Zaman Latif (Department of Biochemistry, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College, Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan)
Iftikhar Ahmed (Bio-Resources Conservation Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan)
Sadia Bibi (Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Saif Ullah (Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia)
Nauman Khalid (Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 18 July 2019

Issue publication date: 22 January 2020

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

Conflict of Interest: None.

Authorship: All named authors meet the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines. Review-based study; no ethical approval is needed.

Citation

Syed, F., Latif, M.S.Z., Ahmed, I., Bibi, S., Ullah, S. and Khalid, N. (2020), "Vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani population: critical overview from 2008 to 2018", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-03-2019-0105

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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