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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Yanghua Jin, Biao Nie and Yuchun Xiao

To identify the typical multilevel issues in social science, as well as illustrate the theoretical basis, hierarchical models and empirical exemplars of multilevel paradigm.

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944

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the typical multilevel issues in social science, as well as illustrate the theoretical basis, hierarchical models and empirical exemplars of multilevel paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical and multilevel data are extremely common in social systems, but multilevel analysis is constrained by statistical techniques. With the development of social system theory and empirical methods such as hierarchical structure modeling and latent growth modeling, multilevel paradigm can be used to analyze multilevel data. So it is necessary to identify typical multilevel phenomena in social science and discuss multilevel modeling techniques.

Findings

This paper identifies four typical multilevel phenomena in social system study: hierarchical and clustered sampling, collective construct research, longitudinal repeated measures, and event history analysis. Hierarchical structure modeling and latent growth modeling are effective multilevel analysis techniques in social science because of their advantages in the integration of social system research.

Research limitations/implications

The quality and availability of multilevel data are the main limitations regarding which model will be applied.

Practical implications

The paper can aid the provision of effective multilevel models to social workers.

Originality/value

This paper provides information on application of multilevel modeling in social science.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Robert E Ployhart

Does staffing contribute to organizational effectiveness and sustained competitive advantage, or are many of staffing’s implications merely cross-level fallacies? This…

Abstract

Does staffing contribute to organizational effectiveness and sustained competitive advantage, or are many of staffing’s implications merely cross-level fallacies? This article provides a critical examination of staffing research and practice, and proposes a multilevel model of staffing that ties together micro (e.g. personnel selection), meso (e.g. team staffing), and macro (e.g. organizational strategy, Human Resources practices) theory, research, and practice. The model is both integrative and prescriptive, providing a basic organizing structure for examining staffing research within and across levels. The article begins with a review of multilevel theory, followed by a review and critique of the dominant staffing paradigms from a multilevel perspective. It is shown these single level paradigms cannot answer many of the primary questions of interest to staffing specialists. In contrast, the multilevel staffing model not only addresses these limitations, but also prompts a variety of new predictions that oftentimes run counter to prevailing wisdom. Staffing specialists are challenged to show how our science and practice contribute to better functioning organizations.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Joseph A. Bonito

Multilevel approaches are generally well suited to group communication because what people say and do in groups is a function of intra- and trans-individual mechanisms…

Abstract

Multilevel approaches are generally well suited to group communication because what people say and do in groups is a function of intra- and trans-individual mechanisms. This chapter first provides a brief overview of group research as a multilevel problem and then describes more modern approaches to modeling nested data using latent variable models, including multilevel structural equation modeling and latent class analysis. The chapter concludes by addressing conceptual opportunities provided by multilevel latent modeling approaches to group communication.

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The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2014

David S. DeGeest and Ernest H. O’Boyle

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Abstract

Purpose

To review and address current approaches and limitations to modeling change over time in social entrepreneurship research.

Methodology

The article provides a narrative review of different practices used to assess change over time. It also shows how different research questions require different methodologies for assessing changes over time. Finally, it presents worked examples for modeling these changes.

Findings

Our review suggests that there is a lack of research in social entrepreneurship that takes into account the many different considerations for addressing how time influences outcomes.

Originality/value

This chapter introduces an analytic technique to social entrepreneurship that effectively models changes in predictors and outcomes even when data are non-normal or nested across time or levels of analysis.

Details

Social Entrepreneurship and Research Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-141-1

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Joseph F. Hair Jr. and Luiz Paulo Fávero

This paper aims to discuss multilevel modeling for longitudinal data, clarifying the circumstances in which they can be used.

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7782

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss multilevel modeling for longitudinal data, clarifying the circumstances in which they can be used.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors estimate three-level models with repeated measures, offering conditions for their correct interpretation.

Findings

From the concepts and techniques presented, the authors can propose models, in which it is possible to identify the fixed and random effects on the dependent variable, understand the variance decomposition of multilevel random effects, test alternative covariance structures to account for heteroskedasticity and calculate and interpret the intraclass correlations of each analysis level.

Originality/value

Understanding how nested data structures and data with repeated measures work enables researchers and managers to define several types of constructs from which multilevel models can be used.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Zhonghua Zhang, John Chi-Kin Lee and Ping Ho Wong

The purpose of this paper is to address the statistical issues associated with the hierarchically structured data in previous studies that focused on servant leadership…

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1673

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the statistical issues associated with the hierarchically structured data in previous studies that focused on servant leadership. To resolve these issues, multilevel modeling methods were applied to re-visit the construct validity of the servant leadership questionnaire developed by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) and investigate the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction under a multilevel framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey data was obtained from a sample of 2,089 teachers from 117 primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. The analyses were conducted using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MLCFA) and multilevel structural equation modeling (MLSEM).

Findings

The results revealed the significant and non-trivial variances that were explained at the organization level in the items measuring servant leadership, which justified the use of MLCFA and MLSEM. The results of MLCFA provided empirical support for the multidimensional construct as well as the second-order factorial structure of servant leadership measures at both the individual and organization levels. In addition, the positive relationships between servant leadership and the followers’ job satisfaction were found to vary at different levels.

Originality/value

This study reiterates the importance of using appropriate methods to capture a solid definition of the construct of servant leadership and provides new insights into the conceptual framework of servant leadership as well as the effects of servant leadership on individual and organizational outcomes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Farzana Akbari, Mahdi Salehi and Mohammad Ali Bagherpour Vlashani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tax avoidance, firm value and managerial ability in Tehran Stock Exchange and Over the Counter (OTC)…

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1059

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tax avoidance, firm value and managerial ability in Tehran Stock Exchange and Over the Counter (OTC), according to the related theoretical foundations.

Design/methodology/approach

To calculate the managerial ability in this study, DEA is used based on the accounting data, company profile and industry and the hypotheses are estimated in a period of 12 years during 2004 to 2015 in TSE and OTC. Within the previous studies, to test the hypotheses, only the classical regression method is usually used and most of the times the effect of macroeconomic variables is not considered. In this study, in a new act for testing the hypotheses, three statistical methods are used, that is, classical regression models, mixed effects multilevel models and Bayesian multilevel models. Also in this study, the test of structural change is used to control the effects of macroeconomic variables, like inflation and other economic and political influence, on the results.

Findings

The results of these three methods show that the effect of income smoothing and earnings quality on the relationship between tax avoidance and firm value are significant.

Originality/value

Although several studies are conducted so far on the subject of the study, the current study is the first project which combined Bayesian econometrics. Therefore, the results are quite noble.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Robert Van de Graaff Randolph

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of a high performance alliance macro-culture as a multilevel construct reflective of resilient collaborative systems of…

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1057

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of a high performance alliance macro-culture as a multilevel construct reflective of resilient collaborative systems of exchange within strategic alliances and explores the distinct capabilities of this multilevel approach in predicting alliance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses developed in this study are tested using primary data collected from 650 members of 15 non-profit organizations in two multi-organizational collaborative networks. Considering the multilevel nature of the study the structural hypotheses are tested using a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and the predictive hypotheses are tested using multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

All but one structural hypothesis are supported and all predictive hypotheses are supported suggesting that a multilevel macro-cultural conceptualization is effective in exploring the relationship between collaborative exchange systems and their outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations stem from the generalizability of the data collected as the alliances formed by non-profit firms may not be wholly reflective of the alliance structures and goals of other firm types.

Originality/value

This study primarily contributes to multilevel study of strategic alliances and the study of collaborative norms and structures of allied groupings. The results of this study lend support to the importance of taking a network governance perspective and illustrate the limitations of traditional single-level approaches when studying interfirm collaborative networks and structural resilience therein.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2009

Diddy Antai, Sara Wedrén, Rino Bellocco and Tahereh Moradi

Each ethnic group has its own peculiar cultural practices that may widen inequalities in child health and survival among ethnic groups. This study estimated ethnic…

Abstract

Each ethnic group has its own peculiar cultural practices that may widen inequalities in child health and survival among ethnic groups. This study estimated ethnic disparities in mortality of under‐five‐year‐olds, controlling for individual and community level characteristics. Using multilevel multivariable regression analysis on a nationally representative sample drawn from 7,864 households in the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, we estimated the risks of deaths under‐five‐year‐olds for 6,029 children nested within 2,735 mothers aged 15‐49 years old, who were in turn nested within 365 communities. Results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The observed risk of under‐five death was highest among children of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri mothers and lowest among children of Yoruba mothers. The mother's affiliation to the Yoruba ethnic group, compared to Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri, was still significantly associated with decreased under‐five mortality (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 ‐ 0.96) after adjustment for individual and community level factors. Under‐five mortality was significantly related to socio‐economic and demographic factors (birth order/birth interval, mother's age, and mother's education), which explained much but not all of the ethnic disparities. Findings underscore the need for measures aimed at improving female education and the socio‐economic standard of women, changing short birth spacing norms and reducing inequitable distribution of maternal and child health services.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Luiz Paulo Lopes Fávero, Ricardo Goulart Serra, Marco Aurélio dos Santos and Eduardo Brunaldi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of firm-, industry- and country-level determinants on real annual sales growth in the context of a cross-classified…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of firm-, industry- and country-level determinants on real annual sales growth in the context of a cross-classified multilevel perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied 11,381 firms from 17 industries in six Latin American countries based on the data collected up to 2015. Since the data are nested in two levels (level 1: firms; level 2: cross-classification of industries and countries), the authors use a cross-classified multilevel model. The significant variability in all levels of analysis confirms the option for the multilevel model.

Findings

Differences in industries account for the largest proportion of variance (77.2 percent). This finding indicates that industry-level characteristics should be explored in the sales growth literature (it seems to the authors that they were neglected). This finding also calls attention to the roles of policy-makers in facilitating firm growth. The final model indicates that the considered variables explain approximately 55 percent of the differences in real annual sales growth in the same industry and country after having accounted for the impacts of the differences in firms. After accounting for the impacts of the differences in firms’ and countries’ characteristics, 43 percent of the variation in average real annual sales growth is due to differences in industries. The obtained results indicate that while firms from countries with higher GDP growth and more effective corporate boards present higher real annual sales growth, firms that operate in commodity producer industries have worse performance in this indicator. With respect to firm’s characteristics, larger firms (contradicting Gibrat’s law) and exporters grew less. Some results could be explained by the decrease in commodities’ prices and global purchases between 2012 and 2015.

Originality/value

The paper fills some gaps in the firm growth literature by testing Gibrat’s law in non-developed countries (not yet done, to the best of the authors’ knowledge) and exploring variables other than size in the explanation of firm growth (rarely used, to the best of the authors’ knowledge). Moreover, the adopted model correctly estimated the origin of the variability in firm growth in its natural cross-classified distinct levels.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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