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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Hans-Joachim Wolfram

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern prejudice was examined as a potential predictor of overestimating proportions of minority employees in gender-typed occupations. Strength of conjunction error was considered as an indicator of distorted perceptions of these proportions. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the association between modern prejudice and strength of conjunction error was weaker for gender-untypical than for gender-typical targets.

Design/methodology/approach

Modern prejudice was considered as a predictor of overestimations of black female employees in Study 1 (n=183) and black female older employees in Study 2 (n=409). Data were collected using internet-mediated questionnaires.

Findings

In Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error when respondents were presented with gender-typical targets. In Study 2, using a sample scoring higher on modern prejudice than in Study 1, modern racism, but not modern sexism and modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error, irrespective of target occupation. Furthermore, there was an unexpected association between lower sexism and greater strength of conjunction error for gender-typical targets, but not for gender-untypical targets.

Research limitations/implications

The findings lend support to the ethnic-prominence hypothesis in that modern racism, but not modern sexism or modern ageism, was associated with greater strength of conjunction error. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that target non-prototypicality can dilute the effect of modern prejudice on strength of conjunction error.

Originality/value

This is one of the rare studies examining attitudes and conjunction error in a work-relevant context, thereby bridging the gap between social cognition and applied psychology.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Katrina Quisumbing King and Alexandre I. R. White

This volume of Political Power and Social Theory highlights ongoing conversations concerning sociological approaches to the global and historical study of race and racism

Abstract

This volume of Political Power and Social Theory highlights ongoing conversations concerning sociological approaches to the global and historical study of race and racism. In this introduction, we discuss the challenges and promises of studying race across space and time. We emphasize that attending to race on the global scale not only improves our understanding of how race operates in current times, but also helps us better recognize how social relations of power are organized. We underscore how scholars ought to conceive of racism as central to the making of the so-called modern world. The eight papers in this volume advance this intellectual project. We consider them in conversation with one another to highlight four foundations for the global historical study of race and racism. First, the authors emphasize on-the-ground race-making. Second, they explore continuity, change, and overlapping racial orders. Third, the authors document the tensions between local dynamics and global relations, drawing attention to sites where the two meet. Fourth, the authors interrogate the relationship of modernity to the construction of race around the world. The articles in this volume are important examples of work that pushes the study of race and racism forward.

Details

Global Historical Sociology of Race and Racism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-219-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1990

Ernest Raiklin

The monograph argues that American racism has two colours (whiteand black), not one; and that each racism dresses itself not in oneclothing, but in four: (1) “Minimal”…

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Abstract

The monograph argues that American racism has two colours (white and black), not one; and that each racism dresses itself not in one clothing, but in four: (1) “Minimal” negative, when one race considers another race inferior to itself in degree, but not in nature; (2) “Maximal” negative, when one race regards another as inherently inferior; (3) “Minimal” positive, when one race elevates another race to a superior status in degree, but not in nature; and (4) “Maximal” positive, when one race believes that the other race is genetically superior. The monograph maintains that the needs of capitalism created black slavery; that black slavery produced white racism as a justification for black slavery; and that black racism is a backlash of white racism. The monograph concludes that the abolition of black slavery and the civil rights movement destroyed the social and political ground for white and black racism, while the modern development of capitalism is demolishing their economic and intellectual ground.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Jason A. Smith

Racism in the United States is complex given the cultural logics that uphold notions of “post-race” or “colorblindness” as a means for understanding racialized events. The…

Abstract

Racism in the United States is complex given the cultural logics that uphold notions of “post-race” or “colorblindness” as a means for understanding racialized events. The various forces at play within media institutions create paradoxes in the power that the media wields in society. Utilizing the concept of “media spectacle” and putting it into dialogue with colorblind racism, the author looks at local coverage of the 2009 arrest of Henry Louis Gates. The author’s primary concern is to identify not only the narratives that uphold or challenge colorblind racism during racialized events, but also the dynamic in which racialized events are mediated in contemporary society. Through a critical discourse analysis of two Boston newspapers, the author demonstrates the way colorblind racism adapts during a racialized event. This study demonstrates the contested nature of the media and nuance to the ways we understand colorblind racism in an increasingly mediated society.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Aneika L. Simmons and Rochelle Parks-Yancy

The purpose of this paper is to determine how social dominance orientation (SDO) might influence perceptions of bias when the race of the offender and the target of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how social dominance orientation (SDO) might influence perceptions of bias when the race of the offender and the target of the biased comment is either white or black.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation was conducted in a laboratory with undergraduate students.

Findings

In a study utilizing American student participants, the authors found that when an individual is high in SDO they are more likely to perceive racism/stereotyping when a low-status group member (i.e. African-American) makes a racially biased comment about high-status group members (i.e. Caucasian).

Originality/value

The authors determined the influence of SDO on the perception of racial comments regarding African-Americans and Caucasians. These findings are also unique in that the authors manipulate the authority (i.e. status) of the offender and target.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Samshul-Amry Abdul-Latif and Asmat-Nizam Abdul-Talib

Consumer racism describes the act of purchase discrimination based on ethnic and/or cultural differences. As the original consumer racism scale was developed based on a…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer racism describes the act of purchase discrimination based on ethnic and/or cultural differences. As the original consumer racism scale was developed based on a western context and environment, most of its items may be unsuitable for use in certain non-western countries. The purpose of this paper is to modify the existing consumer racism scale to include the elements of inter-ethnic relationships, historical occurrences and political situations, which are crucial in shaping and influencing racism in a multi-religion and multi-racial context.

Design/methodology/approach

After generating new items and retaining or removing others for a modified consumer racism scale, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is performed based on 145 respondents followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on 176 respondents. The modified scale, including two other related constructs (consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity), is then tested through structural equation modeling (SEM) using WarpPLS 5.0 and data from 495 respondents.

Findings

EFA and CFA results suggest that the modified eight-item consumer racism scale is applicable in a multi-ethnic scenario. However, SEM findings contradict previous studies; thus, discussion of the possible effects of consumer racism is based on two different approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could be expanded into other ethnic groups and countries, and/or to different products, categories and brands.

Originality/value

The main contributions of this study are the validation of the modified measurement scale and demonstration of its applicability in a multi-ethnic scenario. The study is based on data from a multi-ethnic, multi-religion and multi-cultural country: Malaysia.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Ambika Prasad, Laurie T. O’Brien and Caitlin E. Smith Sockbeson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of caste identity in applied settings. The authors do this within the larger framework of affirmative action programs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of caste identity in applied settings. The authors do this within the larger framework of affirmative action programs (AAPs) or “reservations” in India. The paper explores the interplay of a primordial identity like caste with the modern institutions representing equality – a context unique to India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the findings of two experimental studies collecting data using Mechanical Turk.

Findings

The first study finds that an individual hired under the AAP is perceived poorly on his/her competence and reward worthiness. The second study finds support for the influence of an individual’s conception of modern casteism and his/her caste identity as factors in shaping attitudes toward AAP.

Research limitations/implications

The paper lays the groundwork but does not explore the contours of casteism in contemporary India. Understanding of this construct as well as the impact of factors as region, education, urbanization, religion, nature of employment, etc. on caste dynamics should be considered by future research.

Practical implications

The paper uncovers some similarities between Indian and Western findings, but it also demonstrates key differences between findings related to race-based AAPs in the West and the caste-based AAP in India. This understanding will guide discourses on diversity management in under-researched countries like India. The findings can sensitize organizations to the need for addressing unconscious biases related to caste.

Social implications

The paper underscores the continuing relevance of caste in modern India and the negative perceptions of lower castes. The paper finds that individuals with an appreciation of the subtle forms of casteism are sympathetic to programs that promote social equality. In modern social contexts this nuanced operationalization of casteism can be a relevant indicator of caste dynamics.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to examine caste-based AAP in India in an applied study and unpacks the psychological underpinnings of the attitudes toward AAP.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2015

Rana Muhammad Ayyub

Due to globalization and latest immigration patterns, ethnic subgroups are emerging in almost all the advanced countries resulting in significant increase in ethnic food…

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1786

Abstract

Purpose

Due to globalization and latest immigration patterns, ethnic subgroups are emerging in almost all the advanced countries resulting in significant increase in ethnic food consumption; to which many issues are attached which are not adequately addressed in marketing literature. Recently, marketing researchers have started paying attention to different perspectives of ethnic consumption in intra-national contexts. Halal is one of such fastest growing ethnic food in western societies. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively study Halal food consumption in majority ethnic groups in relation to possible resistances and acculturation in multicultural society of UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire survey was used to collect data.

Findings

The model was developed by using structural equation modeling (SEM) which shows that both consumer animosity and consumer racism negatively affect willingness to buy Halal food by majority ethnic groups whereas ongoing acculturation moderates these relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is use of a combination of convenience sampling and snowball sampling.

Practical implications

The findings can guide ethnic researchers and food marketers to devise prudent marketing strategies to deal with ethnic food consumption issues.

Social implications

This study will bridge a gap in ensuring intercultural harmony by dealing with a market reality.

Originality/value

This work has a potential to instigate future research in much needed area of changing food consumption behavior in multicultural societies and its implications.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Sally Rao Hill and Katherine Paphitis

Consumer racism (CR) is a highly relevant issue to societies such as Australia and one which has, up until now, been somewhat neglected by marketers. This paper aims to…

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3008

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer racism (CR) is a highly relevant issue to societies such as Australia and one which has, up until now, been somewhat neglected by marketers. This paper aims to investigate this relatively “new” construct and its impact on product evaluation and subsequent willingness to buy cross‐ethnic products amongst Australian consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a quasi‐experiment method. Data were collected from an intercept sample of 212 Australian consumers via personal interviews. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, and hypotheses were tested using regression analysis and two‐way between groups ANOVA.

Findings

The results provide evidence that higher levels of CR translate into more negative evaluations of product quality which, in turn, decrease willingness to buy products perceived as originating from the ethnic minority. Further, regardless of the importance of product outcome, CR has a consistent negative effect on product evaluation and willingness to buy amongst Australian consumers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could be expanded into other ethnic groups and other countries, and could include other moderators such as level of interaction. CR construct can also be examined in service contexts.

Originality/value

The major contributions of the study are the validation of the CR construct and the findings about the impact of it on consumers' willingness to buy cross‐ethnic products via product evaluations in the Australian context.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Matthew J. Taylor, Chammie C. Austin, Jacob D. Perkins and Jason L. Edwards

Purpose – For many African American college students, the pursuit of a college education has both rewards and risks. Oftentimes, African American students are faced with…

Abstract

Purpose – For many African American college students, the pursuit of a college education has both rewards and risks. Oftentimes, African American students are faced with the decision to leave the comforts of their home communities in order to realize the American dream through the mechanism of higher education. The majority attend predominately White institutions (PWIs) where successful negotiation of this process not only has academic consequences, but psychological and cultural consequences as well. This chapter examines the psychological and phenomenological experience of African American students at PWIs of higher education.

Design/methodology/approach – The present day manifestation of historical and sociopolitical foundations of exclusion, racism, and discrimination in higher education are explored. There is a focus on how these latter themes relate to “campus culture” and institutions, with implications for psychological coping and educational success. Conclusions also focus on ways to begin to bring about change in this culture.

Findings – The successful negotiation of the collegiate environment, ultimately leading to the awarding of one's degree requires more than just passing classes; matriculation and retention in college also involves engaging one's social and cultural environment as well, particularly outside of the classroom.

Originality/value – As discussions of multiculturalism and inclusiveness in higher education find themselves anchored to abstract and theoretical conceptualization, or linked to an approach which focuses on “numbers” and “percentages” among student bodies, both of these approaches provide little indication that we are ultimately talking about the lived experiences of real people.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

Keywords

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