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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

José I. Rojas-Méndez, Marta Massi and Elena Gallito

This study introduces and investigates the concept of consumer pandemic animosity to (1) develop and validate a scale (i.e. CPAS) to measure consumer animosity in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study introduces and investigates the concept of consumer pandemic animosity to (1) develop and validate a scale (i.e. CPAS) to measure consumer animosity in the context of a health pandemic; and (2) identify the effects of pandemic animosity on consumer purchase intentions in the field of general consumption and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

The CPAS factor structure was initially tested on a sample of 201 American consumers based on participant interviews and expert evaluations. This exploratory phase identified two factors, namely CPAS emotions and beliefs, which were subsequently supported in the confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement and configural invariance of CPAS and discriminant and nomological validity were confirmed in an independent sample of 303 American consumers. A new sample of 203 Canadian consumers was used to test the external validity of CPAS by controlling for other types of consumer animosity dimensions. Structural equation modelling was used to test the effects of CPAS on consumer purchase intentions in general product consumption and tourism.

Findings

This study contributes to expanding on the conceptualization of the consumer animosity construct that has been dealt with in economics, politics, culture and religion but never of a pandemic health crisis to date. Results indicate the psychometric soundness of the CPAS and the multifaceted nature of this construct by clearly identifying two levels of animosity (i.e. beliefs and emotions). Moreover, the structural model shows a significant and unique impact of pandemic animosity on consumer purchase intentions and travel intentions.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study proposing a new scale to measure the consumer disposition of animosity developed due to a pandemic affecting the world. It also offers a new dimension to the typology of animosity proposed by Jung et al. (2002): intentionality (intention-driven vs non-intention-driven). This paper presents a number of propositions that serve to identify testable hypotheses amenable both to validation and usefulness.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Adamantios Diamantopoulos and Petra Riefler

Purpose – Despite the increasing use of formative measurement models in literature, little is known about potential consequences for substantive theory testing. Against…

Abstract

Purpose – Despite the increasing use of formative measurement models in literature, little is known about potential consequences for substantive theory testing. Against this background, the aims of this chapter are (1) to highlight some problems that may arise when formative instead of reflective measures are used to test even simple theoretical models with covarianced-based methodologies, (2) to illustrate some approaches that might help overcome these problems, (3) to pinpoint potential interpretation difficulties of the results involving re-specified measurement models, and (4) to stimulate discussion on the implications for theory development when models are tested with formative measures.

Methodology/approach – Potential consequences of formative measurement models for theory testing are highlighted using an empirical study on consumer animosity as an illustrative example and applying covarianced-based structural equations modeling procedures for estimation purposes.

Findings – The empirical study shows (a) that some scaling options for the (composite) latent variable result in non-convergence problems, (b) that, assuming convergence, parameter estimates, standard errors, and significance levels vary depending on the scaling method used, and (c) that goodness-of-fit statistics cannot be used as diagnostic measures for the appropriateness of divergent results.

Originality/value of paper – The contribution of this chapter is two-fold: First, it shows that to enable estimation, it is often necessary to modify (i.e., expand) the original theoretical model in a conceptually reasonable manner and to do so before data collection. Second, it demonstrates that alternative scaling options for composite latent variables may result in inconsistent substantive conclusions. Consequently, the impact of formative measurement on theory testing is a critical topic and needs to receive further attention in future literature.

Details

Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-095-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2022

Cher-Min Fong, Hsing-Hua Stella Chang and Yu-Lin Han

Because of its omission of social influences, conventional animosity research has failed to sufficiently consider consumption context. To address this limitation, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of its omission of social influences, conventional animosity research has failed to sufficiently consider consumption context. To address this limitation, this research constitutes two interrelated parts: (a) investigating how normative influences (value-expressive and utilitarian influences) shape consumers’ animosity attitudes and purchase intentions; and (b) building on the normative influence perspective and separating consumption context into purchase (online vs. offline) and usage (private vs. public) contexts. The goal was to examine under the condition of preference conflict, how consumption contexts with different degrees of behavioral exposure affect purchase decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

One pretest, one survey and one experiment were conducted to empirically validate the proposed research model.

Findings

In an international crisis, consumers’ attitudes and behaviors were socially determined. Moreover, the online purchase with private usage (offline purchase with public usage) condition resulted in the highest (lowest) level of purchase intention.

Originality/value

This research pioneers in the animosity literature to identify the possibility of preference conflict in a situational international crisis, and to more delicately separate the conventional consumption context into purchase and usage contexts.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Sadiq and Muhammad Salman Ahmad

The aim of this empirical study is to examine how religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism interact to influence judgment about US products and purchase actions of young…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this empirical study is to examine how religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism interact to influence judgment about US products and purchase actions of young consumers in a conservative Islamic country like Pakistan. Many studies have been conducted before in progressive Islamic countries such as Malaysia, Jordan, Turkey and Tunisia but not in conservative Islamic countries like Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A validated questionnaire derived from literature is used for data collection. Data were collected from 381 college students in four provincial capital cities of Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). Structural equation modeling is used to test the framework.

Findings

This study reveals key significant cause and effect relationships like consumers religiosity on foreign product judgment, consumers animosity on foreign product judgment, consumers religiosity on ethnocentric tendencies of consumers, consumers ethnocentric tendencies on foreign product judgment and foreign product judgment on purchase action of consumers.

Originality/value

This study attempts to add value to the existing literature on consumer behavior, especially the role of religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism in young consumers. This study is the first of its kind on examining religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism among young consumers in Pakistan. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study will guide the marketing managers to formulate appropriate strategies when targeting young consumers, especially when they decide to boycott US products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Paolo Antonetti and Danae Manika

Consumer animosity toward a foreign country can affect negatively international brands. Existing international marketing research offers inconsistent accounts of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer animosity toward a foreign country can affect negatively international brands. Existing international marketing research offers inconsistent accounts of the factors that explain product quality perceptions, negative word of mouth (NWOM) and product avoidance in animosity contexts. This paper aims to demonstrate that such inconsistency is caused by the fact that different explanations apply to different consumer subgroups. Searching for a single solution, thus, leads to erroneous predictions for sizable subgroups of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study implements a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to two quantitative surveys examining Chinese consumers’ (n = 476) reactions to Japanese products and American consumers’ (n = 517) reactions to Chinese products.

Findings

The analysis yields novel explanations of the outcomes of animosity. Only in some causal configurations reduced quality evaluations explain product avoidance and NWOM, while in others negative behaviors co-exist with positive quality perceptions. Moreover, negative emotions’ role varies across forms of animosity. While anger is often associated with the behavioral outcomes of animosity, fear plays an important role in only a few specific combinations.

Research limitations/implications

General models of animosity need to be complemented with accounts that examine the multiple mechanisms underpinning animosity outcomes.

Practical implications

Marketers should identify which animosity model applies to their consumer segment(s) as different mechanisms require different marketing approaches.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study recognizing that the same animosity outcomes are explained by multiple mechanisms offering a more nuanced picture of the motivations associated with consumer animosity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Giada Mainolfi

Using trade tensions as a background scenario, the study aims to investigate the dynamics of coexistence between cosmopolitan trends and the patriotic moods of luxury…

Abstract

Purpose

Using trade tensions as a background scenario, the study aims to investigate the dynamics of coexistence between cosmopolitan trends and the patriotic moods of luxury consumers, and how these feelings interact with both economic animosity and intention to buy luxury products originated in the hostile country.

Design/methodology/approach

The analytical framework was tested through an empirical survey carried out on Russian and Chinese consumers. In total, 766 questionnaires were collected and were analysed using structural equation modelling method.

Findings

Results confirm that patriotic sentiments and economic-based feelings are negatively associated with intentions to buy luxury products that originated in the hostile area. Furthermore, results show that cosmopolitanism positively influences intention to buy. However, the positive effect of patriotism on economic animosity combined with its indirect effect on the intention to buy may reduce the strength of luxury products.

Practical implications

The study has practical implications since it identifies strategic suggestions for luxury companies' managers. More specifically, they have to be aware of the patriotic trends affecting Russian and Chinese consumers and should actively seek to leverage local partners' knowledge in order to better connect with customers' expectations.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a better understanding of the influence exerted by cosmopolitan orientation and patriotic feelings on luxury goods purchase intentions. The study also examines cosmopolitanism and patriotism as antecedents of animosity, which have not been extensively researched in the past with respect to the luxury sector.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Sara Campo and Maria D. Alvarez

The study aims to investigate the concept of animosity that is based on traditional enmity and that which originates from other grounds. The study examines whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the concept of animosity that is based on traditional enmity and that which originates from other grounds. The study examines whether animosity that is based on these different causes has differing effects on perceptions and purchase decisions of the tourist destination product.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on data collected via an online questionnaire concerning the perceptions, feelings and visitation intentions of Chinese individuals toward Japan, as the traditional enemy, or toward other countries without a history of enmity with China. A model of relationships is tested.

Findings

The findings determine that animosity is formed differently depending on the target country. In addition, the influence of animosity on intention to visit and perceived risk of visiting the destination vary when animosity is based on traditional enmity reasons and when it is grounded on other causes. The influence of animosity on risk perceptions is also verified.

Practical implications

The study provides information that can be used to manage a country's brand in the Chinese market and to segment Chinese consumers based on their feelings of animosity toward certain countries.

Originality/value

The study is original as it compares animosity and its influence when it is based on causes related to traditional enmity and when it is grounded on other reasons. It is also one of the few studies to address the relationship between animosity and perceived risk.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Rob Angell, Paul Bottomley, Matthew Gorton, Ben Marder and Antonia Erz

Sponsorships involving foreign brands are ubiquitous, but those involving a company from an animosity-evoking country can adversely affect rather than enhance domestic…

Abstract

Purpose

Sponsorships involving foreign brands are ubiquitous, but those involving a company from an animosity-evoking country can adversely affect rather than enhance domestic consumers' attitude towards the brand. This paper explains the mechanisms by which brand denigration occurs, introducing and validating a model of the animosity transfer process as well as considering if various framing and timing strategies attenuate or lead to adverse consumer responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 tests the animosity transfer model, utilizing a scenario in which English consumers respond to a German brand sponsoring the England soccer team. Study 2 assesses the generalizability of the model in the context of Indian consumers' responses to sponsorship of their cricket team by a Chinese company, and the extent to which an honest framing of the sponsorship choice through the announcement affects outcomes. Study 3 returns to an England–Germany country dyad, testing whether priming consumers with information about the sponsorship prior to a full announcement, attenuates or intensifies the impact of animosity on the studied outcomes.

Findings

The three studies demonstrate that when consumers learn of a sponsorship, it triggers an evaluation process in which the agonistic emotion (anger) they feel plays a pivotal role. More intense emotional appraisals weaken perceptions of sponsor-sponsee congruence, which together act as consecutive process variables mediating the relationship between animosity and sponsorship outcomes. Framing the sponsorship announcement with an honest justification for the partnership can improve outcomes but not amongst those with the highest animosity. Providing consumers with an advanced warning (preannouncement) of the sponsorship also amplifies consumers' unfavorable evaluations showcasing how difficult animosity is to manage in this context.

Originality/value

The animosity transfer model aids understanding of the mechanisms by which animosity affects brand attitude for foreign (out-group) sponsors. It identifies how animosity generates agonistic emotions and in turn weakens perceived fit between the sponsor and sponsee, leading to adverse consumer responses.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Pranay Verma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if animosity outbreaks against China result in a consumer’s reluctance to buy Chinese goods. It further studies the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if animosity outbreaks against China result in a consumer’s reluctance to buy Chinese goods. It further studies the relationship of consumer animosity upon boycott and reluctance to buy (RTB).

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive research design was applied by using the self-administered survey method for collecting data from 473 participants, mostly working graduates from the metropolitan city of Delhi in India. Thereafter, the measurement model was checked by confirming the reliability and validity of the constructs followed by checking for the strength and direction of the proposed hypothesis of the structural model (using SPSS 23 and AMOS 20) and to validate the proposed model developed based on the regret theory.

Findings

All the three types of animosity tend to negatively influence the buying behavior. When markets mature, consumers become concerned about their country’s civil status and boycott goods from hostile countries or places. Through this research, it is possible to find consequences of animosity on Chinese goods consumption, which is RTB. Boycott mediates the animosity relationship with RTB. The regret theory implies that individuals hold self-blame for taking an alternative decision. Domestic market players like local retailers, merchandisers, importers avoiding importing products originating from offending countries would be the managerial implications.

Originality/value

Consumer boycott is not unheard of in a Sino Indian context, but it lacks empirical research. This paper addresses perceived hostilities between two emerging super powers by applying the regret theory.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Cher-Min Fong, Hsing-Hua Stella Chang, Pei-Chun Hsieh and Hui-Wen Wang

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing strategies that may mitigate such negative impacts on marketers’ product and/or brand performance, with a special focus on the soft service sector. This paper aims to address the unique characteristics of service internationalization, i.e. cultural embeddedness, hybridized country origins and high consumption visibility, by proposing a social identity signaling model to explain consumer animosity effects in the soft service sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Two surveys (Pretest with 240 participants and Study 1 with 351 participants) and one experiment (Study 2 with 731 participants) were conducted to empirically test our hypotheses in the Japanese-Chinese relationship context.

Findings

The stronger the national/cultural symbolism and social expressiveness, the stronger the consumer avoidance for the service category. Then the consumer culture positioning strategy that can mitigate an offending country’s cultural symbolism can reduce consumer avoidance.

Originality/value

This research introduces two factors that could affect the negative social identity signaling capacity of service categories in the animosity context: the national/cultural symbolism reflecting an offending country and the social expressiveness communicating social identity. In line with the social identity signaling perspective, the present research specifically uses consumer avoidance as the dependent variable to capture the notion that consumers avoid consuming services because they wish to avoid being associated with an offending country that may threaten their in-group social identities.

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