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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Rob Angell, Paul Bottomley, Matthew Gorton, Ben Marder and Antonia Erz

Sponsorships involving foreign brands are ubiquitous, but those involving a company from an animosity-evoking country can adversely affect rather than enhance domestic…

Abstract

Purpose

Sponsorships involving foreign brands are ubiquitous, but those involving a company from an animosity-evoking country can adversely affect rather than enhance domestic consumers' attitude towards the brand. This paper explains the mechanisms by which brand denigration occurs, introducing and validating a model of the animosity transfer process as well as considering if various framing and timing strategies attenuate or lead to adverse consumer responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 tests the animosity transfer model, utilizing a scenario in which English consumers respond to a German brand sponsoring the England soccer team. Study 2 assesses the generalizability of the model in the context of Indian consumers' responses to sponsorship of their cricket team by a Chinese company, and the extent to which an honest framing of the sponsorship choice through the announcement affects outcomes. Study 3 returns to an England–Germany country dyad, testing whether priming consumers with information about the sponsorship prior to a full announcement, attenuates or intensifies the impact of animosity on the studied outcomes.

Findings

The three studies demonstrate that when consumers learn of a sponsorship, it triggers an evaluation process in which the agonistic emotion (anger) they feel plays a pivotal role. More intense emotional appraisals weaken perceptions of sponsor-sponsee congruence, which together act as consecutive process variables mediating the relationship between animosity and sponsorship outcomes. Framing the sponsorship announcement with an honest justification for the partnership can improve outcomes but not amongst those with the highest animosity. Providing consumers with an advanced warning (preannouncement) of the sponsorship also amplifies consumers' unfavorable evaluations showcasing how difficult animosity is to manage in this context.

Originality/value

The animosity transfer model aids understanding of the mechanisms by which animosity affects brand attitude for foreign (out-group) sponsors. It identifies how animosity generates agonistic emotions and in turn weakens perceived fit between the sponsor and sponsee, leading to adverse consumer responses.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Pranay Verma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if animosity outbreaks against China result in a consumer’s reluctance to buy Chinese goods. It further studies the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if animosity outbreaks against China result in a consumer’s reluctance to buy Chinese goods. It further studies the relationship of consumer animosity upon boycott and reluctance to buy (RTB).

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive research design was applied by using the self-administered survey method for collecting data from 473 participants, mostly working graduates from the metropolitan city of Delhi in India. Thereafter, the measurement model was checked by confirming the reliability and validity of the constructs followed by checking for the strength and direction of the proposed hypothesis of the structural model (using SPSS 23 and AMOS 20) and to validate the proposed model developed based on the regret theory.

Findings

All the three types of animosity tend to negatively influence the buying behavior. When markets mature, consumers become concerned about their country’s civil status and boycott goods from hostile countries or places. Through this research, it is possible to find consequences of animosity on Chinese goods consumption, which is RTB. Boycott mediates the animosity relationship with RTB. The regret theory implies that individuals hold self-blame for taking an alternative decision. Domestic market players like local retailers, merchandisers, importers avoiding importing products originating from offending countries would be the managerial implications.

Originality/value

Consumer boycott is not unheard of in a Sino Indian context, but it lacks empirical research. This paper addresses perceived hostilities between two emerging super powers by applying the regret theory.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Aybegüm Güngördü Belbağ

The current study builds on social identity theory and realistic conflict theory aims to identify the relationships amongst consumers' ethnocentrism, animosity, discomfort…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study builds on social identity theory and realistic conflict theory aims to identify the relationships amongst consumers' ethnocentrism, animosity, discomfort with differences – a factor of universal-diverse orientation (UDO) – and reluctance to purchase German (RELG) and French automobiles (RELF) in the Turkish automobile market which is dominated by foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected via face-to-face surveys from 400 respondents in the emerging market Turkey. Structural equation modelling was employed to examine the direct and indirect effects between the variables.

Findings

The main predictors of the RELG are consumer ethnocentrism, discomfort with differences and economic animosity towards Germany, respectively. Furthermore, RELF in the Turkish market is positively affected by consumer ethnocentrism, war animosity towards France and discomfort with differences, respectively. Discomfort with differences mediates the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and RELG and RELF.

Practical implications

International collaborations with local manufacturers have huge strategic impacts when establishing reliable relationships with Turkish consumers. Foreign companies can initiate socially responsible projects that will relay the message of similarities between cultures to decrease perceived cultural differences. Highlighting the similarities of Turkish consumers with a foreign company in promotional campaigns will be much beneficial.

Originality/value

Despite there are many studies regarding antecedents and consequences of consumer ethnocentrism, extant research overlooks the effect of animosity on this concept. Additionally, studies examining UDO in the marketing literature are scarce. This paper integrates UDO, consumer ethnocentrism, animosity and reluctance to purchase foreign products in one study.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Sara Campo and Maria D. Alvarez

The study aims to investigate the concept of animosity that is based on traditional enmity and that which originates from other grounds. The study examines whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the concept of animosity that is based on traditional enmity and that which originates from other grounds. The study examines whether animosity that is based on these different causes has differing effects on perceptions and purchase decisions of the tourist destination product.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on data collected via an online questionnaire concerning the perceptions, feelings and visitation intentions of Chinese individuals toward Japan, as the traditional enemy, or toward other countries without a history of enmity with China. A model of relationships is tested.

Findings

The findings determine that animosity is formed differently depending on the target country. In addition, the influence of animosity on intention to visit and perceived risk of visiting the destination vary when animosity is based on traditional enmity reasons and when it is grounded on other causes. The influence of animosity on risk perceptions is also verified.

Practical implications

The study provides information that can be used to manage a country's brand in the Chinese market and to segment Chinese consumers based on their feelings of animosity toward certain countries.

Originality/value

The study is original as it compares animosity and its influence when it is based on causes related to traditional enmity and when it is grounded on other reasons. It is also one of the few studies to address the relationship between animosity and perceived risk.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Adamantios Diamantopoulos and Petra Riefler

Purpose – Despite the increasing use of formative measurement models in literature, little is known about potential consequences for substantive theory testing. Against…

Abstract

Purpose – Despite the increasing use of formative measurement models in literature, little is known about potential consequences for substantive theory testing. Against this background, the aims of this chapter are (1) to highlight some problems that may arise when formative instead of reflective measures are used to test even simple theoretical models with covarianced-based methodologies, (2) to illustrate some approaches that might help overcome these problems, (3) to pinpoint potential interpretation difficulties of the results involving re-specified measurement models, and (4) to stimulate discussion on the implications for theory development when models are tested with formative measures.

Methodology/approach – Potential consequences of formative measurement models for theory testing are highlighted using an empirical study on consumer animosity as an illustrative example and applying covarianced-based structural equations modeling procedures for estimation purposes.

Findings – The empirical study shows (a) that some scaling options for the (composite) latent variable result in non-convergence problems, (b) that, assuming convergence, parameter estimates, standard errors, and significance levels vary depending on the scaling method used, and (c) that goodness-of-fit statistics cannot be used as diagnostic measures for the appropriateness of divergent results.

Originality/value of paper – The contribution of this chapter is two-fold: First, it shows that to enable estimation, it is often necessary to modify (i.e., expand) the original theoretical model in a conceptually reasonable manner and to do so before data collection. Second, it demonstrates that alternative scaling options for composite latent variables may result in inconsistent substantive conclusions. Consequently, the impact of formative measurement on theory testing is a critical topic and needs to receive further attention in future literature.

Details

Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-095-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Jeoung Yul Lee, Joong In Kim, Alfredo Jiménez and Alessandro Biraglia

This study examines the impact of situational and stable animosities on quality evaluation and purchase intention while also testing the moderating effects of within- and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of situational and stable animosities on quality evaluation and purchase intention while also testing the moderating effects of within- and cross-country cultural distance. It focuses on the case of the US THAAD missile defense system deployment in South Korea (hereafter, Korea) and investigates how the resulting Chinese consumers' animosity affects their quality evaluation of, and purchase intention toward, Korean cosmetics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes a quantitative approach based on a survey and structural equation modeling. The sample comprises 376 Chinese consumers from 19 Chinese regions.

Findings

The results indicate that both stable and situational animosities are negatively associated with purchase intention toward Korean cosmetics. However, their effects on quality evaluation are different. While stable animosity is negatively related to product quality evaluation, situational animosity has no such negative association. Finally, the cultural distance between Chinese regions and Korea strengthens the negative relationship between stable and situational animosities and purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes by better unraveling the effects of stable and situational animosities on perceived product quality. The empirical context is unique because it allows the authors to investigate the relationship between Chinese antagonism toward the THAAD deployment in Korea and Chinese consumers' stable and situational animosities in terms of their quality evaluation of, and purchase intention toward, imported Korean cosmetics. Hence, this study contributes to the literature on consumer animosity by empirically testing the moderating effect of within- and cross-country cultural distance on the relationship between stable and situational animosities and purchase intention.

Practical implications

The study has relevant practical implications, notably for Korean exporters' marketing management and within- and cross-cultural management. The results suggest that countermeasures are needed because Chinese consumers' stable and situational animosities are negatively related to their purchase intention toward Korean cosmetics. Moreover, the findings provide the insight that when foreign firms export culture-sensitive products to a large, multicultural country, their managers should pay attention to within- and cross-cultural differences simultaneously.

Originality/value

Previous studies have shown that the effects of animosity on product evaluation and purchase intention differ depending on the animosity dimension, product type, country and the situation causing animosity, among others. However, the existing literature on animosity has neglected the reality that within-cultural differences in a single large emerging market are relevant to explaining the concept of animosity and its effect on the purchase intention toward culture-sensitive products. Furthermore, none of the animosity studies have touched on the important moderating role of within- and cross-cultural differences between a large and multicultural importing country and a brand's home country in this manner. Therefore, the study fills this gap by empirically examining whether different moderating effects of stable and situational animosities exist for a specific conflict situation caused by a military issue and investigates the causes of these different effects.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Cher-Min Fong, Hsing-Hua Stella Chang, Pei-Chun Hsieh and Hui-Wen Wang

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research responds to researchers’ calls for more research of consumer animosity on potential boundary conditions (e.g. product categories) and marketing strategies that may mitigate such negative impacts on marketers’ product and/or brand performance, with a special focus on the soft service sector. This paper aims to address the unique characteristics of service internationalization, i.e. cultural embeddedness, hybridized country origins and high consumption visibility, by proposing a social identity signaling model to explain consumer animosity effects in the soft service sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Two surveys (Pretest with 240 participants and Study 1 with 351 participants) and one experiment (Study 2 with 731 participants) were conducted to empirically test our hypotheses in the Japanese-Chinese relationship context.

Findings

The stronger the national/cultural symbolism and social expressiveness, the stronger the consumer avoidance for the service category. Then the consumer culture positioning strategy that can mitigate an offending country’s cultural symbolism can reduce consumer avoidance.

Originality/value

This research introduces two factors that could affect the negative social identity signaling capacity of service categories in the animosity context: the national/cultural symbolism reflecting an offending country and the social expressiveness communicating social identity. In line with the social identity signaling perspective, the present research specifically uses consumer avoidance as the dependent variable to capture the notion that consumers avoid consuming services because they wish to avoid being associated with an offending country that may threaten their in-group social identities.

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Ru-Shiun Liou, Lee Warren Brown and Dinesh Hasija

Many multinational corporations that originate from emerging economies (emerging market multinational corporations (EMNCs)) opt for acquiring a target firm in a developed…

Abstract

Purpose

Many multinational corporations that originate from emerging economies (emerging market multinational corporations (EMNCs)) opt for acquiring a target firm in a developed market to expediently upgrade their strategic capabilities. To successfully achieve their strategic goals in the developed markets, EMNCs may use market actions and nonmarket actions to mitigate the potential risk derived from the national political differences between their home emerging economy and host developed economy. This paper aims to extend the legitimacy-based view of political risk to study the influence of political animosity – defined as misalignment of the host-home countries’ national interests – on the EMNCs’ market and nonmarket strategy in a developed market.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, we examine all EMNCs that made cross-border acquisitions of the USA targets from 2005 to 2011. The final sample consists of 252 acquisitions originating from 25 emerging markets. This paper used Tobit regression analysis to test the direct and moderating hypotheses.

Findings

Facing a high level of political animosity between their home country and the host developed economy, EMNCs use a market strategy by acquiring less ownership stake in the developed market, as well as engage in a nonmarket strategy by increasing lobbying activities. In addition, because of the heightened legitimacy concerns of developed market shareholders, cross-listed EMNCs have a greater tendency than non-cross-listed EMNCs to improve their legitimacy through their market and nonmarket strategy.

Originality/value

The current paper sheds light on EMNCs’ international strategy in developed markets by examining both market and nonmarket actions. EMNCs are shown to be strongly motivated to engage in acquisitions in developed markets so they can acquire invaluable strategic resources, such as brands and distribution channels, to compete with the developed market multinationals. A sophisticated ownership strategy and corporate political activities are invaluable for EMNCs to catch up with developed market multinationals.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Villy Abraham and Yaniv Poria

Drawing on the theories of social identity and realistic conflict theory, the purpose of this study is to enrich the literature by proposing and testing a model…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the theories of social identity and realistic conflict theory, the purpose of this study is to enrich the literature by proposing and testing a model conceptualizing the relationships between animosity, an antecedent (tourists’ perception of a heritage site) and demand variables (e.g. length of stay).

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected for the study is based on a combination of qualitative (20 interviews) and quantitative research (n = 330) methods.

Findings

The study demonstrates that animosity should be integrated into tourism research. The study provides relevant insights indicating that animosity harbored toward locals is crucial to the understanding of tourists’ behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides relevant insights indicating that animosity harbored toward locals is crucial to the understanding of tourists’ behavior.

Practical implications

Managerial implications for those entrusted with the promotion of tourism and site management are suggested in areas at the heart of a conflict.

Originality/value

The study of animosity challenges the common view in heritage tourism which focus on positive emotions harbored by tourists. In the present study, the authors focus on the consequences of negative emotions.

摘要

目的

采用社会认同和现实冲突等理论来尝试充实文献, 具体做法为:提出并测试模型以确立憎恶、先行条件(游客对遗产地的感知)、需求变量(例如停留时间)之间的关系。

构思/方法/途径

结合定性(20次访谈)和定量(n = 330)两种研究方法, 为本项研究收集数据。

研究结果

研究表明:应将憎恶纳入旅游业研究中。本次研究提供的相关见解表明:游客对当地人怀有的敌意, 对于理解游客行为至关重要。

独创性/价值

遗产旅游业的普遍观点侧重于研究游客所怀有的积极情绪, 对其敌意情感的研究对这一普遍观点提出了挑战。在本项研究中, 我们侧重于负面情绪产生的后果。

关键词

憎恶、遗产地、西岸、行为意图、犹太定居者、巴勒斯坦人

文章类型

研究论文

Propósito

Basándonos en las teorías de la identidad social y la teoría realista del conflicto, intentamos enriquecer la literatura proponiendo y probando un modelo que conceptualice las relaciones entre la animosidad, un antecedente (percepción que tienen los turistas de un sitio patrimonial) y las variables de demanda (por ejemplo, la duración de la estadía).

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

Los datos recopilados para el estudio se basan en una combinación de métodos de investigación cualitativa (20 entrevistas) y cuantitativa (n = 330).

Hallazgos

El estudio demuestra que la animosidad debe integrarse en la investigación turística. El estudio proporciona información relevante que indica que la animosidad contra los lugareños es crucial para comprender el comportamiento de los turistas.

Originalidad/Valor

El estudio de la animosidad desafía la visión común en el turismo patrimonial que se enfoca en las emociones positivas que albergan los turistas. En este estudio nos centramos en las consecuencias de las emociones negativas.

Palabras clave

Animosidad, sitios patrimoniales, cisjordania, intenciones de comportamiento, colonos judíos, palestinos.

Tipo de papel

Trabajo de investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Maria Alvarez, Sara Campo and Galia Fuchs

This study aims to explore the topic of perceived terrorism risk and animosity as interrelated within the context of countries suffering from armed struggles and terror…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the topic of perceived terrorism risk and animosity as interrelated within the context of countries suffering from armed struggles and terror. The research investigates how these constructs influence the visitation decisions of millennials.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation focuses on three countries in the Mediterranean basin with varied degrees of risk but who include a conflict area, for comparison purposes. The data was collected through an online questionnaire aimed at young millennial students.

Findings

The study confirms that animosity, for the millennial generation, is derived from conflicts and past historical events, or from political and social issues in the target country. In addition, the results show that animosity not only influences the perceived attractiveness of the destination, and through it the intention to visit the place, but also increases the perceptions of terror risk at the destination.

Research limitations/implications

The research corroborates the importance of investigating animosity and perceived risk together. It also empirically verifies the influence of animosity on visitation intentions via the mediating role of perceived attractiveness of the destination and perceived risk of terror.

Originality/value

The study investigates animosity in countries that suffer from armed political conflicts resulting in terror attacks, a context different from that of other already existing studies. The research also examines how animosity and perceived risk interact with each other to influence visitation decisions, a topic which is lacking in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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