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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Michael J. Apter and Mitzi Desselles

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an unconventional approach to personality and motivation, known as reversal theory, and to bring out some of its challenging practical…

490

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an unconventional approach to personality and motivation, known as reversal theory, and to bring out some of its challenging practical implications, especially for organizations. The theory emphasizes frequent change and people’s tendency to “zigzag” creatively through life rather than be limited by fixed traits, or types, which limit their capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces some basic concepts of the reversal theory.

Findings

Research shows, among other things, that there are four basic pairs of motivational states that people reverse between in the course of everyday life, that individuals vary in terms of their degree of “motivational intelligence”, and that organizations have contrasting emotional “microclimates” that can be controlled and changed by leaders as needs change.

Research limitations/implications

The theory has been developed from some 40 years of dedicated psychological research – observational, clinical, psychometric, and experimental – in many different countries and on a wide variety of topics.

Practical implications

The psychological theory was developed originally from work in clinical and counseling psychology and has always had an applied orientation. Practical concepts touched on in this paper include motivational intelligence, psychological reversal, and microclimates. These ideas have been applied in many different fields including personal and leadership development, workplace satisfaction, and customer relations.

Originality/value

The theory clearly contrasts with other psychological theories, has empirical support, and has proved itself in various applied contexts.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Michael J. Apter and Stephen Carter

The present paper is intended as an exploration of the relevance of reversal theory for mentoring. In principle, reversal theory would appear to offer some major strengths in this…

1730

Abstract

The present paper is intended as an exploration of the relevance of reversal theory for mentoring. In principle, reversal theory would appear to offer some major strengths in this respect and these strengths are discussed. Reversal theory itself is briefly described and, finally, implications for mentoring are discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Stephen Carter and Richard Davies

With the realisation that it needed to enhance its leadership capability across Europe, SABMiller is working with Apter International to provide a highly innovative approach to…

1919

Abstract

With the realisation that it needed to enhance its leadership capability across Europe, SABMiller is working with Apter International to provide a highly innovative approach to management development and leadership. Central to its European Management Development Programme (EMDp) is the synergy that exists between the two organisations in terms of “brand consciousness”, but also crucially the creation of a “motivationally rich” learning environment. With the whole programme scientifically based on innovative new approaches arising from one of the world’s first comprehensive applications of reversal theory to the world of work, SABMiller is already benefiting from the shared expertise of a confident European leadership network focused beyond function to broader business needs.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Lee Sarver and George C. Philippatos

This study explores the nature of the spot foreign exchange risk premium. Employing Ross's Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) as a vehicle, it tests the hypothesis that…

Abstract

This study explores the nature of the spot foreign exchange risk premium. Employing Ross's Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) as a vehicle, it tests the hypothesis that cross‐sectional differences in pure currency returns depend on measures of systematic (covariance) risk. These tests have greater power, in the sense of an enhanced ability to reject the hypothesis, since they explicitly allow for the possibility that idiosyncratic risk is priced. A battery of tests is unable to reject the hypothesis that expected exchange returns can be explained by a single‐factor APT. One implication of these results is that official intervention in exchange markets is unnecessary and undesirable.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Chia-Jui Hsu, Jenifer Barrirero, Rolf Merz, Andreas Stratmann, Hisham Aboulfadl, Georg Jacobs, Michael Kopnarski, Frank Mücklich and Carsten Gachot

To decrease wear and friction, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used in engine oil for several decades, but the mechanism of the tribofilm formation is still unclear…

1712

Abstract

Purpose

To decrease wear and friction, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used in engine oil for several decades, but the mechanism of the tribofilm formation is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to characterize the chemical details of the tribofilm by using high-resolution approaching.

Design/methodology/approach

An ISO VG 100 mineral oil mixed with ZDDP was used in sliding tests on cylindrical roller bearings. Tribofilm formation was observed after 2 h of the sliding test. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used for chemical analysis of the tribofilm.

Findings

The results show that the ZDDP tribofilm consists of the common ZDDP elements along with iron oxides. A considerable amount of zinc and a small amount of sulfur were observed. In particular, an oxide interlayer with sulfur enrichment was revealed by APT between the tribofilm and the steel substrate. The depth profile of the chemical composition was obtained, and a tribofilm of approximately 40 nm thickness was identified by XPS.

Originality/value

A sulfur enrichment at the interface is observed by APT, which is beneath an oxygen enrichment. The clear evidence of the S interlayer confirms the hard and soft acids and bases principle.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-01-2020-0035/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1970

THE Conservative Government elected on June 18th last has lost no time in putting into practice its avowed principle of reducing direct taxation. Late in July it flew a kite…

Abstract

THE Conservative Government elected on June 18th last has lost no time in putting into practice its avowed principle of reducing direct taxation. Late in July it flew a kite through an inspired leak showing that it intended to save millions on education, one small part of which would be £10 million, purporting to be “saved” by making readers pay for books borrowed through public libraries. First indications of this were in a story included in The Guardian, Daily Telegraph and other papers, and as this story was not denied by the Government, the Library Association thought it proper to issue a press statement immediately, with the message that the Association was totally opposed to the introduction of such charges.

Details

New Library World, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Robert W. Kolb

Philosophers and historians of science, along with scientists themselves, have long been interested in the problem of theory succession: “How does one theory supersede another?”…

Abstract

Philosophers and historians of science, along with scientists themselves, have long been interested in the problem of theory succession: “How does one theory supersede another?” Concern with this general topic has led to the development of two major recent theories regarding the issue. These theories of theory succession have emerged principally from reflection on physics. In the eyes of most scientists, this is probably appropriate, since physics seems to offer (at least to most observers) science in its purest form.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some…

91043

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2024

Elaine Keane, Manuela Heinz and Andrea Lynch

Diversifying the teaching profession has been of international concern for several decades. While most attention has been devoted to issues of ‘race’ and ethnicity, in comparison…

Abstract

Diversifying the teaching profession has been of international concern for several decades. While most attention has been devoted to issues of ‘race’ and ethnicity, in comparison, social class has been relatively invisible. Research suggests that those from working class backgrounds experience challenges with regard to belonging in what has been regarded as a middle class teaching profession. An area unexplored has been the complexities of researching with student teachers from under-represented groups, including those from working class backgrounds. This chapter draws on research conducted as part of the Access to Post-primary Teaching (APT) project funded under the Higher Education Authority's Programme for Access to Higher Education (PATH): Strand 1 – Equity of Access to Initial Teacher Education. APT supports the participation of student teachers from lower socio-economic groups in initial teacher education. Following the introduction and literature review, we provide information about the methodology of the overall project, as well as the data upon which we draw in this chapter. Next, we present a critical reflective analysis of working with APT participants over the last six years, drawing on our own critical reflections as researchers, as well as the voices of our participants through the project's research strand. Here we highlight concerns pertaining to relative researcher-participant positionality, and issues of identity and disclosure. Finally, we interrogate our analysis using the methodological literature about researching with marginalised groups and end with recommendations for supporting researcher reflexivity.

Details

Including Voices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83797-720-8

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-727-8

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