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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2022

Shiyu Wan, Yisheng Liu, Grace Ding, Goran Runeson and Michael Er

This article aims to establish a dynamic Energy Performance Contract (EPC) risk allocation model for commercial buildings based on the theory of Incomplete Contract. The purpose…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to establish a dynamic Energy Performance Contract (EPC) risk allocation model for commercial buildings based on the theory of Incomplete Contract. The purpose is to fill the policy vacuum and allow stakeholders to manage risks in energy conservation management by EPCs to better adapt to climate change in the building sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The article chooses a qualitative research approach to depict the whole risk allocation picture of EPC projects and establish a dynamic EPC risk allocation model for commercial buildings in China. It starts with a comprehensive literature review on risks of EPCs. By modifying the theory of Incomplete Contract and adopting the so-called bow-tie model, a theoretical EPC risk allocation model is developed and verified by interview results. By discussing its application in the commercial building sector in China, an operational EPC three-stage risk allocation model is developed.

Findings

This study points out the contract incompleteness of the risk allocation for EPC projects and offered an operational method to guide practice. The reasonable risk allocation between building owners and Energy Service Companies can realize their bilateral targets on commercial building energy-saving benefits, which makes EPC more attractive for energy conservation.

Originality/value

Existing research focused mainly on static risk allocation. Less research was directed to the phased and dynamic risk allocation. This study developed a theoretical three-stage EPC risk allocation model, which provided the theoretical support for dynamic EPC risk allocation of EPC projects. By addressing the contract incompleteness of the risk allocation, an operational method is developed. This is a new approach to allocate risks for EPC projects in a dynamic and staged way.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

John Rodney Turner, Laurence Lecoeuvre, Shankar Sankaran and Michael Er

The purpose of this paper is to identify the marketing practices adopted by contractors in project-based industries to win new business and maintain relationships with existing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the marketing practices adopted by contractors in project-based industries to win new business and maintain relationships with existing clients.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed eight such contractors, and used activity theory as a lens to analyze the results. The authors investigated project marketing activities at four stages of the project contract life cycle, and against four enablers of collaboration.

Findings

The authors have identified that the service-dominant logic pervades project marketing. Through the project contract life cycle the marketing activity starts with a strategic focus, becomes tactical, then operational and returns to strategic. Project marketing involves executive managers, marketing, client or account managers and project managers. Project managers have a key responsibility for project marketing. The four enablers of collaboration, relationships, communication, going-with and trust, support each other and the entire project marketing activity.

Research limitations/implications

As a contribution to theory, the authors have identified the practices adopted by contractors in project-based industries to market their competencies to clients to win new work and maintain relationships with existing clients. The authors have identified practices throughout the contract life cycle, and practices to develop collaboration. The next step will be to explain these practices in terms of traditional marketing theory.

Practical implications

The results provide guidelines to contractors in project-based industries who wish to improve their marketing activity to achieve sustainable performance. Industry may also find it useful to train or coach their project managers to be conscious of their marketing role.

Originality/value

Previous work has been conceptual in nature and has speculated on the nature of the project marketing performed by contractors to win new projects, and set it against marketing done by the project. This research has empirically investigated the actual marketing practices adopted by project contracting organizations, shown how it varies through the project life cycle and shown how responsibility passes from senior management to the account team and then to project managers. It has also investigated the application of the four enablers of collaboration: relationships, communication, going-with and trust.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2022

Johnny Kwok Wai Wong, Mojtaba Maghrebi, Alireza Ahmadian Fard Fini, Mohammad Amin Alizadeh Golestani, Mahdi Ahmadnia and Michael Er

Images taken from construction site interiors often suffer from low illumination and poor natural colors, which restrict their application for high-level site management purposes…

Abstract

Purpose

Images taken from construction site interiors often suffer from low illumination and poor natural colors, which restrict their application for high-level site management purposes. The state-of-the-art low-light image enhancement method provides promising image enhancement results. However, they generally require a longer execution time to complete the enhancement. This study aims to develop a refined image enhancement approach to improve execution efficiency and performance accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop the refined illumination enhancement algorithm named enhanced illumination quality (EIQ), a quadratic expression was first added to the initial illumination map. Subsequently, an adjusted weight matrix was added to improve the smoothness of the illumination map. A coordinated descent optimization algorithm was then applied to minimize the processing time. Gamma correction was also applied to further enhance the illumination map. Finally, a frame comparing and averaging method was used to identify interior site progress.

Findings

The proposed refined approach took around 4.36–4.52 s to achieve the expected results while outperforming the current low-light image enhancement method. EIQ demonstrated a lower lightness-order error and provided higher object resolution in enhanced images. EIQ also has a higher structural similarity index and peak-signal-to-noise ratio, which indicated better image reconstruction performance.

Originality/value

The proposed approach provides an alternative to shorten the execution time, improve equalization of the illumination map and provide a better image reconstruction. The approach could be applied to low-light video enhancement tasks and other dark or poor jobsite images for object detection processes.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Dorothy Nelkin and Mark Michaels

Looks at the contemporary debate on US immigration, focusing particularly on the increasing articulation of eugenics. Notes that, at times of economic and moral crisis, biological…

Abstract

Looks at the contemporary debate on US immigration, focusing particularly on the increasing articulation of eugenics. Notes that, at times of economic and moral crisis, biological generalizations tend to resurface to provide support for the existing system of privilege and rights, and that the information superhighway provides the perfect vehicle for rapidly spreading beliefs and information. Addresses three specific issues – the genetically determined traits and behaviours of specific racial groups, culture as an expression of biological characteristics, and immigration destroying the racial purity of American society. Outlines briefly US history of immigration. Airs the current concerns on US immigration – pinpointing that concern lies not in immigration per se., which has declined in the last decade, but in the changing national origin of new immigrants, that is immigrants are now mainly Latin American or Asian, which is seen as a threat to Anglo‐Saxon hegemony. Refers to the work of the Pioneer Fund, exploring human variation through the racial basis of intelligence and propensity to violence and/or crime. Claims that scientific language has been adapted to reinforce worries about immigration reducing the supremacy of America’s culture.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2007

Joshua Shuart

The use of celebrities, and particularly athletes, to influence consumers and sell products is not a new practice, but one that is gaining considerable steam in the sports…

1860

Abstract

The use of celebrities, and particularly athletes, to influence consumers and sell products is not a new practice, but one that is gaining considerable steam in the sports marketplace. However, many academics and practitioners have long questioned the means by which celebrity endorsement is measured and evaluated. Through the use of validated surveys among US students and the inauguration of the Celebrity-Hero Matrix (CHM), some of their questions are answered. Being labelled a 'heroic' athlete does, it seems, have tremendous power for marketers, and provides endorsement clout for the athlete.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Matthew B. Walker, Steven Salaga and Haylee Mercado

While cost savings and perceptual benefits have been discussed in the literature as catalysts for promoting environmental responsibility (ER) and green management among public…

Abstract

Purpose

While cost savings and perceptual benefits have been discussed in the literature as catalysts for promoting environmental responsibility (ER) and green management among public assembly facilities (PAFs), researchers have yet to determine if and how ER in this particular sector differs by facility characteristics. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study on ER and green management, which utilized questionnaire data from a sample of PAF managers obtained from the International Association of Venue Managers.

Findings

Probit modeling results illustrate that implementation of green practices (e.g. general ER, green teams, and retrofitting) differ by ownership and management structure, market size where the facility is located, and facility type. These results are set against a backdrop of managerial strategy that seemingly enabled the effects.

Practical implications

PAFs are significant physical and social spaces in communities around the world and afford millions of patrons the opportunity to witness many forms of live entertainment. This level of usage, however, requires substantial resource investments in energy, water, waste removal, and other items necessary to maintain a functional, clean, and efficient facility. Given their visible and marquee status in both urban and rural regions, it is not surprising that facility management decisions have been underpinned by ER concerns. The results of this research provide useful information to PAF managers regarding how facility profiles are associated with ER adoption.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research lies in showing how memetic constraints have seemingly encumbered strategic decision making for ER initiatives, and suggestions for PAF managers are couched in the adoption of smart norms.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Robert Dinterman, Ani L. Katchova and James Michael Harris

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate farm financial stress within the USA over the past 20 years and the agricultural and economic factors which have impacted farm businesses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate farm financial stress within the USA over the past 20 years and the agricultural and economic factors which have impacted farm businesses. The effect of the 2005 Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (BAPCPA) on farm financial stress is further evaluated. In particular, Chapter 12 bankruptcies – which can only be filed by farmers – were only a temporary measure until BAPCPA made Chapter 12 a permanent fixture in bankruptcy law.

Design/methodology/approach

Chapter 12 bankruptcy filings from 1997 until 2016 are used as a proxy for farm financial stress. Panel fixed effects models are used to determine relevant factors affecting financial stress for farmers from agricultural and macroeconomic perspectives. Further, models incorporating pre- and post-BAPCPA regimes are utilized.

Findings

The results show that macroeconomic factors (interest and unemployment rates) are strong predictors of farm bankruptcies for farms while agricultural land values are the only consistent strong predictor among the agricultural factors. When evaluating the post-BAPCPA regime, only agricultural land values continue to be a significant predictor of farm bankruptcies. The findings also indicate a dynamic relationship with agricultural land values, where current year values are negatively related but previous year land values are positively related to bankruptcies.

Originality/value

The authors provide an analysis of the post-BAPCPA regime on farm bankruptcies that has not been evaluated within the literature yet. Further, the findings illuminate discussion on a potentially dynamic relationship with financial stress and agricultural land values.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 78 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Marian L. Dalton

The rapid advances in computer networking technology in the late 1980s have led to a corresponding increase in locations wishing to participate in computer networks. As more sites…

Abstract

The rapid advances in computer networking technology in the late 1980s have led to a corresponding increase in locations wishing to participate in computer networks. As more sites adopt a common communication protocol and connect to local networks that may themselves be connected into a national network, opportunities abound for information sharing and collaborative research. A major roadblock to experiencing the benefits of this connectivity, however, is the difficulty of knowing what information is available on computers throughout the network. Several approaches are being explored to provide access to this “virtual library.” A combination of library and computer networking skills will be necessary to design appropriate tools that will allow all users to participate in the developing networked information environment.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Edward Valauskas

What is hacking? Is it an art form to explore computers, a means to accumulate information as proof of an electronic passage through security systems and around passwords? Or is…

Abstract

What is hacking? Is it an art form to explore computers, a means to accumulate information as proof of an electronic passage through security systems and around passwords? Or is it an illegal venture whose sole purpose is mischief, digital anarchy, a form of revolution against the government, corporations, and other powers that own mainframes and their associated data files? The issue of hacking has erupted with even more vigor this year with the conviction of Robert T. Morris, the author of the Internet worm, along with the recent support of hackers by Mitch Kapor, founder of the Lotus Development Corp. A new aggressive stance by the U.S. Justice Department to track down specialists stealing passwords and credit card numbers has created sensational headlines along with a number of new virulent viruses on personal computers.

Details

Library Workstation Report, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1041-7923

Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Ajeet N. Mathur

This teaching case describes a born-global Indian enterprise in R&D that developed and leveraged knowledge-intensive business services in speciality chemicals, custom synthesis of…

Abstract

Purpose

This teaching case describes a born-global Indian enterprise in R&D that developed and leveraged knowledge-intensive business services in speciality chemicals, custom synthesis of genes and contract research co-evolving dynamic capabilities in partnership with multinationals from Europe and North America. The purpose of this case to explore how emerging market multinationals can leverage factor market strengths for niche positioning in industries generally populated by large players, in this case, the big Pharma companies.

Methodology/approach

The case describes how the international strategy of the company was rooted in the “Make in India” national policy. The risks and opportunities involved a “springboard” approach of gaining customer confidence in North America, Europe and Japan in incremental steps. Challenges concerned fostering a credible talent management eco-system where scientific spirit and business pathways were pursued around unknown and unfamiliar projects challenging resource-based views of the firm.

Research implications

An interesting facet of this case is how the nexus of treaties with stakeholding constituents were configured and sustained for strategic management of intellectual capital and organizational knowledge.

Originality/value

The novelty of the case is in demonstrating how small EMNCs can leverage factor market advantages to become world leaders in niche segments. Another interesting feature is how such firms are organized around sustainability of shareholder value without profitability in their initial years.

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