The use of celebrities, and particularly athletes, to influence consumers and sell products is not a new practice, but one that is gaining considerable steam in the sports marketplace. However, many academics and practitioners have long questioned the means by which celebrity endorsement is measured and evaluated. Through the use of validated surveys among US students and the inauguration of the Celebrity-Hero Matrix (CHM), some of their questions are answered. Being labelled a 'heroic' athlete does, it seems, have tremendous power for marketers, and provides endorsement clout for the athlete.
Shuart, J. (2007), "Heroes in sport: assessing celebrity endorser effectiveness", International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 11-25. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-08-02-2007-B004
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