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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Xiaoming Zhang, Huilin Chen, Yanqin Ruan, Dongyu Pan and Chongchong Zhao

With the rapid development of materials informatics and the Semantic Web, the semantic-driven solution has emerged to improve traditional query technology, which is hard…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of materials informatics and the Semantic Web, the semantic-driven solution has emerged to improve traditional query technology, which is hard to discover implicit knowledge from materials data. However, it is a nontrivial thing for materials scientists to construct a semantic query, and the query results are usually presented in RDF/XML format which is not convenient for users to understand. This paper aims to propose an approach to construct semantic query and visualize the query results for metallic materials domain.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors design a query builder to generate SPARQL query statements automatically based on domain ontology and query conditions inputted by users. Moreover, a semantic visualization model is defined based on the materials science tetrahedron to support the visualization of query results in an intuitive, dynamic and interactive way.

Findings

Based on the Semantic Web technology, the authors design an automatic semantic query builder to help domain experts write the normative semantic query statements quickly and simply, as well as a prototype (named MatViz) is developed to visually show query results, which could help experts discover implicit knowledge from materials data. Moreover, the experiments demonstrate that the proposed system in this paper can rapidly and effectively return visualized query results over the metallic materials data set.

Originality/value

This paper mainly discusses an approach to support semantic query and visualization of metallic materials data. The implementation of MatViz will be a meaningful work for the research of metal materials data integration.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Chongchong Zhao, Chao Dong and Xiaoming Zhang

The integration and retrieval of the vast data have attracted sufficient attention, thus the W3C workgroup releases R2RML to standardize the transformation from relational…

Abstract

Purpose

The integration and retrieval of the vast data have attracted sufficient attention, thus the W3C workgroup releases R2RML to standardize the transformation from relational data to semantic-aware data. However, it only provides a data transform mechanism to resource description framework (RDF). The generation of mapping alignments still needs manual work or other algorithms. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a domain-oriented automatic mapping method and an application of the R2RML standard.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, materials science is focussed to show an example of domain-oriented mapping. source field concept and M3B2 (Metal Materials Mapping Background Base) knowledge bases are established to support the auto-recommending algorithm. As for the generation of RDF files, the idea is to generate the triples and the links, respectively. The links of the triples follow the object-subject relationship, and the links of the object properties can be achieved by the range individuals and the trail path.

Findings

Consequently based on the previous work, the authors proposed Engine for Metal Materials Mapping Background Base (EM3B2), a semantic integration engine for materials science. EM3B2 not only offers friendly graphical interfaces, but also provides auto-recommending mapping based on materials knowledge to enable users to avoid vast manually work. The experimental result indicates that EM3B2 supplies accurate mapping. Moreover, the running time of E3MB2 is also competitive as classical methods.

Originality/value

This paper proposed EM3B2 semantic integration engine, which contributes to the relational database-to-RDF mapping by the application of W3C R2RML standard and the domain-oriented mapping.

Details

Program, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Xiaoming Zhang, Kai Li, Chongchong Zhao and Dongyu Pan

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer a better expression ability for the practical usage. From the perspectives of architecture, comparison and reuse, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey on four mainstream units ontologies: quantity-unit-dimension-type, quantities, units, dimensions and values, ontology of units of measure and units ontology (UO) of the open biomedical ontologies, in order to address well the state of the art and the reuse strategies of the UO.

Design/methodology/approach

An architecture of units ontologies is presented, in which the relations between key factors (i.e. units of measure, quantity and dimension) are discussed. The criteria for comparing units ontologies are developed from the perspectives of organizational structure, pattern design and application scenario. Then, the authors compare four typical units ontologies based on the proposed comparison criteria. Furthermore, how to reuse these units ontologies is discussed in materials science domain by utilizing two reuse strategies of partial reference and complete reference.

Findings

Units ontologies have attracted high attention in the scientific domain. Based on the comparison of four popular units ontologies, this paper finds that different units ontologies have different design features from the perspectives of basis structure, units conversion and axioms design; a UO is better to be applied to the application areas that satisfy its design features; and many challenges remain to be done in the future research of the UO.

Originality/value

This paper makes an extensive review on units ontologies, by defining the comparison criteria and discussing the reuse strategies in the materials domain. Based on this investigation, guidelines are summarized for the selection and reuse of units ontologies.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Michael Trachtengerts, Adilbek Erkimbaev, Vladimir Zitserman and Georgii Kobzev

The purpose of this paper is to reveal main advantages of digital libraries in comparison with technology of common database for data-oriented fields of modern science. As…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal main advantages of digital libraries in comparison with technology of common database for data-oriented fields of modern science. As an example, the subject domain “nanomaterials and nanotechnologies” with new features due to evolution of concepts and objects is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis of the information system ABCD as a basis for science-oriented digital library was fulfilled. Also, a survey of peculiarities of data in fast developing fields of science was prepared.

Findings

The results of this paper showed that functional capacities of ABCD satisfy requirements for complex collections and archives of scientific documents. Based on the ABCD tools and this concept, the digital library for storage and systematization of data and documents on nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for the power engineering was constructed. The library combines opportunities of bibliographic, full text and factual information systems.

Originality/value

This paper gives the foundation for creation of a library that combines services of bibliographic, full text and factual (numerical) information systems. Some analyses of ABCD tools were made before elsewhere, but they did not point on data peculiarities of complexly organized domains: semi-structured data, multitude formats (text, image and tables), interconnection of content with external sources located on other servers or in the Web.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2011

Péter Jacsó

This paper aims to look at the pros and cons of Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) from a bibliometric perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to look at the pros and cons of Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) from a bibliometric perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the major content and software features of MAS, and its shortcomings.

Findings

The paper recommends some further enhancements, and the use of care and caution when interpreting the metrics produced by cited reference enhanced databases, especially those created on the basis of the idea of autonomous citation indexing.

Originality/value

The paper reveals pros and cons of MAS. A free bibliometric service is a project of great interest to those interested in metrics‐based research performance evaluation.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Renze Zhou, Zhiguo Xing, Haidou Wang, Zhongyu Piao, Yanfei Huang, Weiling Guo and Runbo Ma

With the development of deep learning-based analytical techniques, increased research has focused on fatigue data analysis methods based on deep learning, which are…

Abstract

Purpose

With the development of deep learning-based analytical techniques, increased research has focused on fatigue data analysis methods based on deep learning, which are gaining in popularity. However, the application of deep neural networks in the material science domain is mainly inhibited by data availability. In this paper, to overcome the difficulty of multifactor fatigue life prediction with small data sets,

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple neural network ensemble (MNNE) is used, and an MNNE with a general and flexible explicit function is developed to accurately quantify the complicated relationships hidden in multivariable data sets. Moreover, a variational autoencoder-based data generator is trained with small sample sets to expand the size of the training data set. A comparative study involving the proposed method and traditional models is performed. In addition, a filtering rule based on the R2 score is proposed and applied in the training process of the MNNE, and this approach has a beneficial effect on the prediction accuracy and generalization ability.

Findings

A comparative study involving the proposed method and traditional models is performed. The comparative experiment confirms that the use of hybrid data can improve the accuracy and generalization ability of the deep neural network and that the MNNE outperforms support vector machines, multilayer perceptron and deep neural network models based on the goodness of fit and robustness in the small sample case.

Practical implications

The experimental results imply that the proposed algorithm is a sophisticated and promising multivariate method for predicting the contact fatigue life of a coating when data availability is limited.

Originality/value

A data generated model based on variational autoencoder was used to make up lack of data. An MNNE method was proposed to apply in the small data case of fatigue life prediction.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Binbin Zhang, Prakhar Jaiswal, Rahul Rai, Paul Guerrier and George Baggs

Part quality inspection is playing a critical role in the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry. It produces a part quality analysis report which can be adopted to…

Abstract

Purpose

Part quality inspection is playing a critical role in the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry. It produces a part quality analysis report which can be adopted to further improve the overall part quality. However, the part quality inspection process puts heavy reliance on the engineer’s background and experience. This manual process suffers from both low efficiency and potential errors and, therefore, cannot meet the requirement of real-time detection. The purpose of this paper is to look into a deep neural network, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), towards a robust method for online monitoring of AM parts.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed online monitoring method relies on a deep CNN that takes a real metal AM part’s images as inputs and the part quality categories as network outputs. The authors validate the efficacy of the proposed methodology by recognizing the “beautiful-weld” category from material CoCrMo top surface images. The images of “beautiful-weld” parts that show even hatch lines and appropriate overlaps indicate a good quality of an AM part.

Findings

The classification accuracy of the developed method using limited information of a small local block of an image is 82 per cent. The classification accuracy using the full image and the ensemble of model outputs is 100 per cent.

Originality/value

A real-world data set of high resolution images of ASTM F75 I CoCrMo-based three-dimensional printed parts (Top surface images with magnification 63×) annotated with categories labels. Development of a CNN-based classification model for the supervised learning task of recognizing a “beautiful-weld” AM parts. The classification accuracy using the full image and the ensemble of model outputs is 100 per cent.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Devika Madalli, Anila Sulochana and Abhinav Kumar Singh

Matter is an important topic of science as a discipline since its inception. Nevertheless, along with the evolution of semantic web, matter has got equal importance among…

Abstract

Purpose

Matter is an important topic of science as a discipline since its inception. Nevertheless, along with the evolution of semantic web, matter has got equal importance among the ontology developers. The current work describes an ontology of matter that the authors developed in the lab. The purpose of this paper is to come up with an exhaustive list of concepts and relations to cover matter domain under one umbrella, after identifying the gaps in the present ontologies.

Design/methodology/approach

Ontology was developed following faceted analytico-synthetic approach of knowledge organization. The authors followed hybrid developmental approach which includes top-down as well as bottom-up development strategy, for creating classes and subclasses. The authors modelled matter domain comprehensively considering different aspects of matter. The theories behind the modelling approach helps to maintain the consistency of further extensions.

Findings

Final ontology has around 280 concepts and as many as 60 properties which include both object property and datatype property.

Research limitations/implications

There exists very vague definition of concepts in different subject areas, as matter is a domain of study in physics, chemistry, material science, metallurgy, etc. Same material has been adopted differently depending upon purpose of its study/use in that field. For example aspirin is simply a chemical compound in chemistry, whereas in medicine it is also an agent.

Practical implications

Present work claims to influence the ontology engineers to develop more extension to this core ontology of matter (COMAT). Also this will find its use in information retrieval, semantic annotations and in several other semantic knowledge-based systems.

Originality/value

COMAT is the most recent work of the domain. Originality lies in the way matter domain has been looked up, from a very wide perspective, as well as in the approach of modelling the domain.

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

Ann G. Green and Myron P. Gutmann

In developing and debating digital repositories, the digital library world has devoted more attention to their missions and roles in supporting access to and stewardship…

Abstract

Purpose

In developing and debating digital repositories, the digital library world has devoted more attention to their missions and roles in supporting access to and stewardship of academic research output than to discussing discipline, or domain, specific digital repositories. This is especially interesting, given that in social science these domain‐specific repositories have been in existence for many decades. The goal of this paper is to juxtapose these two kinds of repositories and to suggest ways that they can help build partnerships between themselves and with the research community.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in the paper is based on the fundamental idea that all the parties involved share important goals, and that by working together these goals can be advanced successfully.

Findings

The key message is that by visualizing the role of repositories explicitly in the life cycle of the social science research enterprise, the ways that the partnerships work will be clear. These workings can be seen as a sequence of reciprocal information flows between parties to the process, triggers that signal that one party or another has a task to perform, and hand‐offs of information from one party to another that take place at crucial moments. This approach envisions both cooperation and specialization.

Practical implications

If followed, the recommendations offered in the paper will allow those implementing various kinds of repositories to work together with others in new ways, thus both enhancing the amount of information preserved and its value for the community.

Originality/value

This is one of the first times that the mutual possibilities of institutional and domain‐specific repositories have been brought together.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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