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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Xiaoming Zhang, Kai Li, Chongchong Zhao and Dongyu Pan

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing spread of ontologies in various domains, units have gradually become an essential part of ontologies and units ontologies have been developed to offer a better expression ability for the practical usage. From the perspectives of architecture, comparison and reuse, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive survey on four mainstream units ontologies: quantity-unit-dimension-type, quantities, units, dimensions and values, ontology of units of measure and units ontology (UO) of the open biomedical ontologies, in order to address well the state of the art and the reuse strategies of the UO.

Design/methodology/approach

An architecture of units ontologies is presented, in which the relations between key factors (i.e. units of measure, quantity and dimension) are discussed. The criteria for comparing units ontologies are developed from the perspectives of organizational structure, pattern design and application scenario. Then, the authors compare four typical units ontologies based on the proposed comparison criteria. Furthermore, how to reuse these units ontologies is discussed in materials science domain by utilizing two reuse strategies of partial reference and complete reference.

Findings

Units ontologies have attracted high attention in the scientific domain. Based on the comparison of four popular units ontologies, this paper finds that different units ontologies have different design features from the perspectives of basis structure, units conversion and axioms design; a UO is better to be applied to the application areas that satisfy its design features; and many challenges remain to be done in the future research of the UO.

Originality/value

This paper makes an extensive review on units ontologies, by defining the comparison criteria and discussing the reuse strategies in the materials domain. Based on this investigation, guidelines are summarized for the selection and reuse of units ontologies.

Details

Program, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Petr Sosnin

Nowadays, experience bases are widely used by project companies in designing software-intensive systems (SISs). The efficiency of such informational sources is defined by…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, experience bases are widely used by project companies in designing software-intensive systems (SISs). The efficiency of such informational sources is defined by the “nature” of modeled experience units and approaches that apply to their systematization. This paper aims to increase the efficiency of designing the SISs by the use of an ontological support for interactions with an accessible experience, models of which are understood as intellectually processed conditioned reflexes.

Design/methodology/approach

Both of the base of experience (BE) and ontological support in interactions with its units are oriented on precedents built in accordance with the offered normative schema when the occupational work is fulfilled by a team of designers. In creating the BE and the ontology as part of the BE, the team should use a reflection of an operational space of solved tasks on a specialized semantic memory intended for simulating the applied reasoning of the question-answer type.

Findings

If the occupational space of designing is reflected on the semantic memory with a programmable shell, then this environment can be adjusted on simulating the intellectual mechanisms flown in a human consciousness when designers ontologically interact with the BE and tasks being solved. The use of simulating the process in consciousness in accordance with their nature facilitates increasing the efficiency of designing the SIS.

Research limitations/implications

An orientation on a precedent model as a basic type of experience unit and an ontological approach to their systematization are defined by the specificity of the study described in this paper. Models of precedents are constructed in accordance with the normative schema when the occupational work is fulfilled by a team of designers.

Practical implications

Investigated and developed means of ontological support are oriented on effective designing of the SISs with the use of the toolkit Working In Questions and Answers (WIQA) by the team of designers. The achieved effects are aimed at increasing the level of success in collaborative designing of SISs.

Social implications

Offered solutions are applicable in designing the systems which supported different relations of a human with artificial and natural environment. They facilitate the naturalness in interactions of a human with computerized world.

Originality/value

An orientation on the precedent model as a basic type of experience unit and the ontological approach to their systematization are defined by the specificity of the study described in this paper. The novelty of this approach is defined by the framework for the precedent model, understood as the intellectually processed conditioned reflex, in which a reflection on the semantic memory (of the question-answer type) is programmable in a conceptually algorithmic language. The ontological support is implemented in the environment of programming.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Paula J. Aucott, Alexander von Lünen and Humphrey Southall

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a knowledgebase supporting a prototype Europe‐wide time‐spatial search interface for historical resources. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a knowledgebase supporting a prototype Europe‐wide time‐spatial search interface for historical resources. It discusses how this structure could be used to access other types of digital heritage content.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a relational database with spatial capabilities, a multi‐lingual search structure has been created which supports a temporal map and a facetted browser, collaborative facilities and a heritage resource viewer, with links to online catalogues.

Findings

Combining data from three states with very different histories identified the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. The framework's flexibility means it could easily be re‐purposed to support front ends to other types of cultural content.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the variability in the administrative unit source data, its initial integration required significant manipulation to achieve consistency; however, the benefits of data assimilation ensure the base framework is as efficient as possible.

Practical implications

Usage levels of on‐line cultural resources will be far higher if ordinary users can access them via access routes which have meaning for them, such as by locality/place. Ontology‐based geographical frameworks are much easier to search by place name than are conventional GIS systems, and vastly more accessible to search engines.

Originality/value

This interface demonstrates the potential for integrating data from any number of different national organisations into a single user tool. It also highlights the potential for utilising the underlying structure in multiple contexts.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Jesús Robledano-Arillo, Diego Navarro-Bonilla and Julio Cerdá-Díaz

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model for coding and dissemination of data associated with historical photographic archives. The model is based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model for coding and dissemination of data associated with historical photographic archives. The model is based on Linked Open Data technology and seeks to exhaustively represent the most relevant characteristics for the tasks of contextualization of the documentary groupings and units, management, document retrieval, dissemination and sharing of data about the historical photographs.

Design/methodology/approach

An OWL ontology, called Ontophoto, was constructed following an adaptation of the methodology proposed by Uschold and Gruninger and Gruninger and Fox. The ontology was implemented using Protégé 5.5 software. Next a Graph DB® graph database application (Ontotext) was created to generate a query system based on the SPARQL language. To validate the consistency and effectiveness of the model and ontology, a competency questions methodology has been applied using a sample from the Skogler photographic archive.

Findings

The model facilitates the generation of systems for dissemination and retrieval of iconographic data for historical research, overcoming some of the limitations with respect to the design of methods of content and contextual information representation for heritage photographic archives.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a sample. Future work should consider the implementation of the model on the totality of a photographic collection.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive ontological model that allows the creation of distributed systems of knowledge representation, which can be queried through SPARQL language.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Hui Shi, Dazhi Chong and Gongjun Yan

Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web by tagging content with “meaning”. In general, question answering systems based on semantic Web face a number of…

Abstract

Purpose

Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web by tagging content with “meaning”. In general, question answering systems based on semantic Web face a number of difficult issues. This paper aims to design an experimental environment with custom rules and scalable data sets and evaluate the performance of a proposed optimized backward chaining ontology reasoning system. This study also compares the experimental results with other ontology reasoning systems to show the performance and scalability of this ontology reasoning system.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors proposed a semantic question answering system. This system has been built using ontological knowledge base including optimized backward chaining ontology reasoning system and custom rules. With custom rules, the proposed semantic question answering system will be able to answer questions that contain qualitative descriptors such as “groundbreaking” resesarch and “tenurable at university x”. Scalability has been one of the difficult issues faced by an optimized backward chaining ontology reasoning system and semantic question answering system. To evaluate the proposed ontology reasoning system, first, the authors design a number of innovative custom rule sets and corresponding query sets. The innovative custom rule sets and query sets will contribute to the future research on evaluating ontology reasoning systems as well. Then they design an experimental environment including ontologies and scalable data sets and metrics. Furthermore, they evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized backward chaining reasoning system on supporting custom rules. The evaluation results have been compared with other ontology reasoning systems as well.

Findings

The proposed innovative custom rules and query sets can be effectively employed for evaluating ontology reasoning systems. The evaluation results show that the scalability of the proposed backward chaining ontology reasoning system is better than in-memory reasoning systems. The proposed semantic question answering system can be integrated in sematic Web applications to solve scalability issues. For light weight applications, such as mobile applications, in-memory reasoning systems will be a better choice.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need for a study on evaluating an ontology reasoning system on supporting custom rules with and without external storage.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Cong-Phuoc Phan, Hong-Quang Nguyen and Tan-Tai Nguyen

Large collections of patent documents disclosing novel, non-obvious technologies are publicly available and beneficial to academia and industries. To maximally exploit its…

Abstract

Purpose

Large collections of patent documents disclosing novel, non-obvious technologies are publicly available and beneficial to academia and industries. To maximally exploit its potential, searching these patent documents has increasingly become an important topic. Although much research has processed a large size of collections, a few studies have attempted to integrate both patent classifications and specifications for analyzing user queries. Consequently, the queries are often insufficiently analyzed for improving the accuracy of search results. This paper aims to address such limitation by exploiting semantic relationships between patent contents and their classification.

Design/methodology/approach

The contributions are fourfold. First, the authors enhance similarity measurement between two short sentences and make it 20 per cent more accurate. Second, the Graph-embedded Tree ontology is enriched by integrating both patent documents and classification scheme. Third, the ontology does not rely on rule-based method or text matching; instead, an heuristic meaning comparison to extract semantic relationships between concepts is applied. Finally, the patent search approach uses the ontology effectively with the results sorted based on their most common order.

Findings

The experiment on searching for 600 patent documents in the field of Logistics brings better 15 per cent in terms of F-Measure when compared with traditional approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The research, however, still requires improvement in which the terms and phrases extracted by Noun and Noun phrases making less sense in some aspect and thus might not result in high accuracy. The large collection of extracted relationships could be further optimized for its conciseness. In addition, parallel processing such as Map-Reduce could be further used to improve the search processing performance.

Practical implications

The experimental results could be used for scientists and technologists to search for novel, non-obvious technologies in the patents.

Social implications

High quality of patent search results will reduce the patent infringement.

Originality/value

The proposed ontology is semantically enriched by integrating both patent documents and their classification. This ontology facilitates the analysis of the user queries for enhancing the accuracy of the patent search results.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2019

Andrew Iliadis

Applied computational ontologies (ACOs) are increasingly used in data science domains to produce semantic enhancement and interoperability among divergent data. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Applied computational ontologies (ACOs) are increasingly used in data science domains to produce semantic enhancement and interoperability among divergent data. The purpose of this paper is to propose and implement a methodology for researching the sociotechnical dimensions of data-driven ontology work, and to show how applied ontologies are communicatively constituted with ethical implications.

Design/methodology/approach

The underlying idea is to use a data assemblage approach for studying ACOs and the methods they use to add semantic complexity to digital data. The author uses a mixed methods approach, providing an analysis of the widely used Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) through digital methods and visualizations, and presents historical research alongside unstructured interview data with leading experts in BFO development.

Findings

The author found that ACOs are products of communal deliberation and decision making across institutions. While ACOs are beneficial for facilitating semantic data interoperability, ACOs may produce unintended effects when semantically enhancing data about social entities and relations. ACOs can have potentially negative consequences for data subjects. Further critical work is needed for understanding how ACOs are applied in contexts like the semantic web, digital platforms, and topic domains. ACOs do not merely reflect social reality through data but are active actors in the social shaping of data.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new approach for studying ACOs, the social impact of ACO work, and describes methods that may be used to produce further applied ontology studies.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2007

Sean Wolfgand Matsui Siqueira, Maria Helena Lima Baptista Braz and Rubens Nascimento Melo

This paper seeks to present a modeling approach for e‐learning content, describing how to structure e‐learning content and also represent it in OWL DL.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to present a modeling approach for e‐learning content, describing how to structure e‐learning content and also represent it in OWL DL.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents three different layers of information that should be considered in e‐learning and conceptual models to guide the representation of e‐learning content. This proposal is based on existing standards and experience gained in previous works. It is also shown how to structure and represent the content embedded in learning objects (LOs).

Findings

Besides providing a better structuring of the e‐learning content, content reuse and exploratory navigations over content through the semantic relationships between information (mainly information objects (IOs) and conceptual units) are promoted.

Research limitations/implications

A visual tool to allow a better exploration of the e‐learning content is already being developed. However, it is essential to develop optimized storing and retrieving mechanisms that would make this approach more interesting.

Practical implications

When compared with other approaches such as those based on semantic models and deductive models, the decrease in complexity makes acceptance and adoption of this approach by teachers and instructional designers easier.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified three‐level information need for e‐learning content and presents a new modeling approach. Besides structuring the e‐learning content, the model is also represented in OWL DL. It allows an easier/richer implementation of e‐learning content.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Alexander Mehler and Ulli Waltinger

The purpose of this paper is to present a topic classification model using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) as the target scheme. This is to be done by exploring…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a topic classification model using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) as the target scheme. This is to be done by exploring metadata as provided by the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) to derive document snippets as minimal document representations. The reason is to reduce the effort of document processing in digital libraries. Further, the paper seeks to perform feature selection and extension by means of social ontologies and related web‐based lexical resources. This is done to provide reliable topic‐related classifications while circumventing the problem of data sparseness. Finally, the paper aims to evaluate the model by means of two language‐specific corpora. The paper bridges digital libraries, on the one hand, and computational linguistics, on the other. The aim is to make accessible computational linguistic methods to provide thematic classifications in digital libraries based on closed topic models such as the DDC.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of text classification, text‐technology, computational linguistics, computational semantics, and social semantics.

Findings

It is shown that SVM‐based classifiers perform best by exploring certain selections of OAI document metadata.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that it is necessary to further develop SVM‐based DDC‐classifiers by using larger training sets possibly for more than two languages in order to get better F‐measure values.

Originality/value

Algorithmic and formal‐mathematical information is provided on how to build DDC‐classifiers for digital libraries.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Mario Iván Tarride and Patricio Osorio‐Vega

This paper offers a framework based on the key principles of the complexity paradigm proposed by Edgar Morin to review what can be considered the dominant approach towards…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper offers a framework based on the key principles of the complexity paradigm proposed by Edgar Morin to review what can be considered the dominant approach towards knowledge management, i.e. the intellectual capital construct. The purpose of this paper is to identify epistemological weaknesses to offer insights for the improvement of the theory and practice on knowledge management.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the complexity paradigm and its dialogic and recursive principles, a framework to understand knowledge is offered comprising three interrelated requirements, each of which is based on a pair of opposites, arguably critical for the conceptualisation of a complex knowledge: order and disorder, whole and parts, and non‐logical and logical modes of thinking. This tool is applied to reviewing the epistemological assumptions under the intellectual capital approach, in order to find insights for further research on knowledge management. The task has an interpretative character and is carried out highlighting central aspects of the intellectual capital construct.

Findings

As a result it is possible to point out that the intellectual capital approach does not fulfill the complexity requirements, since it only recognises at the level of human beings their objective and functional aspects of knowledge, given by qualifications and other features that can be measured on the one hand, and driven a priori by a functional strategy, on the other. It ignores, in consequence, the more unstructured and disordered aspect of knowledge which, from a complexity perspective, is constitutive for the creation of innovative ideas.

Research limitations/implications

The study is fully centered on intellectual capital literature. A complementary review of other less used expressions of knowledge management such as the construct of “communities of practice”, applying the same diagnostic tool, could enrich the conclusions and theoretical proposals.

Practical implications

A framework for the detection of epistemological biases is offered and used in this paper to study the intellectual capital construct, which could be also applied for other knowledge‐based settings. For business managers and consultants dealing with knowledge management, this paper can also give some insights for the improvement of their organisational interventions.

Originality/value

A novel approach, the complexity paradigm, is proposed as the epistemological standpoint to improve theory and practice on knowledge management.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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