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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Henar Díez, Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega and Ana Urrutia

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value…

Abstract

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value judgments on the measurement. In the unidimensional approach, Zheng (2007a, 2007b) suggests replacing all these properties with the unit-consistency axiom, which requires that the inequality or poverty rankings, rather than their cardinal values, are not altered when income is measured in different monetary units. The aim of this paper is to introduce a multidimensional generalization of this axiom and characterize classes of multidimensional inequality and poverty measures that are unit consistent.

Design/methodology/approach: Zheng (2007a, 2007b) characterizes families of inequality and poverty measures that fulfil the unit-consistency axiom. Tsui (1999, 2002), in turn, derives families of the multidimensional relative inequality and poverty measures. Both of these contributions are the background taken to achieve our characterization results.

Findings: This paper merges these two generalizations to identify the canonical forms of all the multidimensional subgroup- and unit-consistent inequality and poverty measures. The inequality families we derive are generalizations of both the Zheng and Tsui inequality families. The poverty indices presented are generalizations of Tsui's relative poverty families as well as the families identified by Zheng.

Originality/value: The inequality and poverty families characterized in this paper are unit and subgroup consistent, both of them being appropriate requirements in empirical applications in which inequality or poverty in a population split into groups is measured. Then, in empirical applications, it makes sense to choose measures from the families we derive.

Details

Inequality and Opportunity: Papers from the Second ECINEQ Society Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-135-0

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Jean L. Dyer

Each of the four objectives can be applied within the military training environment. Military training often requires that soldiers achieve specific levels of performance…

Abstract

Each of the four objectives can be applied within the military training environment. Military training often requires that soldiers achieve specific levels of performance or proficiency in each phase of training. For example, training courses impose entrance and graduation criteria, and awards are given for excellence in military performance. Frequently, training devices, training media, and training evaluators or observers also directly support the need to diagnose performance strengths and weaknesses. Training measures may be used as indices of performance, and to indicate the need for additional or remedial training.

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The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Buhong Zheng

This paper examines the notion of intermediate inequality and its measurement. Specifically, we investigate whether the intermediateness of an intermediate measure can be…

Abstract

This paper examines the notion of intermediate inequality and its measurement. Specifically, we investigate whether the intermediateness of an intermediate measure can be preserved through repeated (affine) inequality-neutral income transformation. For all existent intermediate measures of inequality, we show that the intermediateness cannot be preserved through the transformation; each intermediate measure tends to either a relative measure or an absolute measure. This observation is then generalized to the class of unit-consistent inequality measures. An inequality measure is unit-consistent if inequality rankings by the measure are not affected by the measuring units in which incomes are expressed. We show that the unit-consistent class of intermediate measure of inequality consists of generalizations of an existent intermediate measure and, hence, the intermediateness also cannot be retained in the limit through transformations.

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Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1980

David Ray, John Gattorna and Mike Allen

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of

Abstract

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of these—DISTRIBUTION. The particular focus is on reviewing current practice in distribution costing and on attempting to push the frontiers back a little by suggesting some new approaches to overcome previously defined shortcomings.

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International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 10 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2012

Cameron K. Tuai

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library…

Abstract

Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library administrators. To understand how to control the costs of integration, this study uses structural contingency theory to study the coordination of librarians and technologists within the information commons.

Design/methodology/approach – This study tests the structural contingency theory expectation that an organization will achieve higher levels of performance when there is a positive relationship between the degree of workflow interdependence and the complexity of coordinative structures necessary to integrate these workflows. This expectation was tested by (a) identifying and collecting a sample of information common; (b) developing and validating survey instruments to test the proposition; and (c) quantitatively analyzing the data to test the proposed contingency theory relationship.

Findings – The contingency theory expectations were confirmed by finding both a positive relationship between coordination and interdependence and a positive relationship between perceptions of performance and degree of congruency between interdependence and coordination.

Limitations – The findings of this study are limited to both the context of an information common and the structures tested. Future research should seek to both broaden the context in which these findings are applicable, and test additional structural relationships as proposed by contingency theory

Practical implications – This study contributes to the library profession in a number of ways. First, it suggests that managers can improve IC performance by matching coordination structures to the degree of interdependence. For instance, when librarians and technologists are strictly co-located, managers should coordinate workflows using less resource-intensive policies rather than meetings. Second, the instruments developed in this study will improve the library manager's ability to measure and report unit interdependence and coordination in a valid and reliable manner. Lastly, it also contributes to the study of structural contingency theory by presenting one of the first empirical confirmations of a positive relationship between interdependence and coordination.

Originality/value – This study represents one of the first empirical confirmations of the structural contingency theory expectations of both a positive relationship between workflow interdependence and coordination, and a positive relationship between performance and coordination's fit to workflow interdependence. These findings are of value to both organizational theorists and to administrators of information commons.

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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-313-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Derrick McIver and Douglas A. Lepisto

This paper aims to examine and test the moderating influence of the type of knowledge underlying work – known as the knowledge in practice (KIP) perspective – on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and test the moderating influence of the type of knowledge underlying work – known as the knowledge in practice (KIP) perspective – on the relationship between knowledge management (KM) activities and unit performance. KIP proposes that the knowledge underlying work varies according to two dimensions: tacitness and learnability. This theory proposes that aligning KM activities with tacitness and learnability results in increased performance. However, to the authors’ knowledge, there exists no direct empirical tests of these propositions outlined in KIP theory. This study examines the empirical support for the theoretical predictions outlined by KIP.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a multiple survey, multiple respondent survey design to measure KM activity sets, the tacitness and learnability involved in work contexts and unit performance. Regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

In line with previous research, the authors find support for a direct relationship between some KM activity sets and unit performance. Surprisingly, the authors did not find support for the predictions offered by KIP theory. Specifically, the degree of tacitness or learnability did not moderate the relationship between KM activity sets and unit performance.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of findings to support the moderating effects of tacitness and learnability on the relationship between KM activity sets and unit performance challenges the adequacy of existing formulations of KIP theory. The authors discuss several important future research directions to examine this puzzling finding.

Practical implications

This paper reinforces the suggestion that managers at all levels of organizations should engage in KM activities to increase performance. These findings also suggest that considering the type of knowledge underlying a unit’s work should not be a consideration in implementing KM activities.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically test a KIP perspective. That is, how the type of knowledge involved in work moderates the relationships between KM activity sets and unit performance.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Hifzur Rab and Syeda Anjum

The purpose of this paper is to study the process of price determination by the market in the existing variable fiat money regime and its consequences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the process of price determination by the market in the existing variable fiat money regime and its consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

Scientific knowledge pertaining to units and measurement has been applied to study the issue of wealth measurement and to arrive at the consequences of monetary manipulation. As regards Shariah perspective it may be described as guided application of science to the issue of currency and wealth measurement to analyze and solve economic problems.

Findings

Manipulation of currency that is manipulation of quantity of what determines purchasing power of money does not allow market to determine just prices implying lack of justice in exchange. Profitability of economic activities no longer relates to their utility for the economy implying gross inefficiency in profit driven investment. Market fails to maintain economic balances. These amount to extreme losses. It has led to massive economic uncertainty, instability, disparity, corruption and conflicts. Economic growth, justice and peace become unattainable. It is a serious crime as currency being unit of wealth is the most important unit and it is strictly prohibited in Shariah. Unless corrected for monetary manipulation financial modes recommended by Shariah seem to be unjust and impractical.

Research limitations/implications

Application of scientific approach and scientific knowledge to economic issues especially the issue of wealth measurement needs higher emphasis, efforts and resources.

Practical implications

Governments ought to be persuaded not to manipulate money. Right solution is to link currency with a standard basket of national products with sufficient weight for gold and silver having most stable purchasing power. Unless accounting is corrected for monetary manipulation preferred Islamic modes of finance seem to be unjust and impractical. Where currency is manipulated Shariah/justice requires accounting for dues, capital, profit and loss to be corrected for this manipulation and in present scenario relative change in Consumer Price Index and Whole Sale Price Index may be used as a measure of currency manipulation.

Originality/value

Monetary manipulation has been clearly defined and extreme severity of the problems it creates has been established. It is most important for researchers, academics, government functionaries, social workers and all those who are concerned with economic growth, justice and welfare.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

1.1. Logical Necessity of the Three Dimensions as a Unit of Thought The mathematician does not look kindly on the simple question of why natural space should consist of

Abstract

1.1. Logical Necessity of the Three Dimensions as a Unit of Thought The mathematician does not look kindly on the simple question of why natural space should consist of precisely three dimensions. Instead of giving an answer he assumes a silent smile and shows us a version of space with an infinity of dimensions, as if space were some kind of toy for him to fiddle with to his heart's content.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Hessa Aljabr

This paper aims to view the weights and measures in the Hijaz during the first Abbasid period to define the fundamental measures on which the Islamic jurisprudence is based.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to view the weights and measures in the Hijaz during the first Abbasid period to define the fundamental measures on which the Islamic jurisprudence is based.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying a historical archive methodology, this paper highlights the significance of weight units as standard tools necessary for Muslims, in daily economic dealings, to control the value of goods and determine their size.

Findings

The most prominent weight units in Hijaz during the Abbasid period were limited to Ratl, Mann and spice. The most prominent units in the Hijaz during the Abbasid period were confined to Sa’aa, Al-Mudd and Al-Mukook. Not all units of weight in the Islamic State were used in all territories, but each territory specialized in particular units.

Originality/value

Weight units and measures are essential in religious transactions associated with determining the size of legitimate payments such as zakat, Diyah, dowry, expiation of the oath and delegation of the ritual. They are related to the rules of the act of worship of Wudu and ablution. With that in mind, implications on economic modeling and humanomics can be concluded.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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