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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Martinette Kruger

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by focusing on the profile and loyalty of visitors to a literary arts festival in South Africa. In addition, this research advocates that festivals can influence visitors’ supplementary behavioural intentions and actions beyond loyalty in the form of literary arts appreciation, purchases and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A visitor survey was conducted at one of the oldest literary arts festivals in the country where a total of 391 completed self-administered questionnaires were obtained. The statistical analyses comprised three factor analyses (motives to attend the festival, satisfaction with the festival offering elements and behavioural intentions) as well as structural equation modelling, to establish the relationship between the motives, evaluation of the “festivalscapes”, behavioural intentions and loyalty.

Findings

The findings confirmed that literary arts festival loyalty is the principle behavioural intention that will occur after attending a literary arts festival. However, the results demonstrated that literary arts festivals also have the potential to increase and stimulate supplementary behavioural intentions in the form of greater awareness of the arts, increased purchasing behaviour of literary works, increased travel to support the literary arts and greater personal involvement.

Practical implications

Festivals, irrespective of the art form that they showcase, therefore, play a significant role in encouraging and increasing purchasing behaviour, which is vital to the viability and continuation of the arts industry.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to research the literary arts festival market in South Africa, thereby making a distinct contribution by expanding the literature on the needs of this neglected market and the aspects that influence loyalty to these types of festivals.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2022

Martinette Kruger and Adam Viljoen

Zoos are important urban tourism attractions. The challenge for zoos is finding a balance between attracting visitors and enhancing education and conservation management. This…

1666

Abstract

Purpose

Zoos are important urban tourism attractions. The challenge for zoos is finding a balance between attracting visitors and enhancing education and conservation management. This research contributes to a greater understanding of the conservation intentions of zoo visitors and how zoos can emphasise conservation management principles sustainably. This study aims to identify the variables that encourage conservation intentions among visitors to a South African zoo.

Design/methodology/approach

A destination-based survey was conducted in 2019 at the Johannesburg Zoo, and 445 questionnaires were administered through convenience sampling.

Findings

Exploratory factor analyses identified visitors’ conservation awareness because of zoos (pre-conscious, conscious and unconscious), behavioural intentions (advocating and supporting), motives (engagement, edutainment and escapism) and satisfaction (interaction and facility quality, and service and interpretation quality). The behavioural intentions were the dependent variables. Advocating conservation intentions (ACI) is an active role where zoo visitors feel a strong responsibility towards conservation and encourage others to the conservation cause. Supporting conservation intentions (SCI) relates more to loyalty towards visiting the zoo and subsequently supporting conservation. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed that enhancing ACI relies on SCI, edutainment, conscious awareness, service and interpretation quality and total spending. However, enhancing SCI relies on ACI, interaction and facility quality and the motive, escapism, while engagement revealed a negative relationship.

Originality/value

The results show that zoos can encourage SCI to ACI by using interactive and entertaining interpretations to teach visitors about the zoo’s mandate and the importance of conservation while balancing their need to escape.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Armand Viljoen, Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and cluster visitors to a premier South African cheese festival based on their motivation for attending the festival.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from visitors over the three days of the festival, in which 519 usable questionnaires were included in the analysis. Three stages of the analysis were employed: a factor analysis examining the visitors’ motivation to attend the festival, a cluster analysis based on the motives identified by the factor analysis and an analysis of significant differences between the different market segments.

Findings

The general profile of respondents was similar to the profile of culinary tourists found in other studies. Furthermore, five key motives were identified, of which this combination has not been previously identified in the literature. The cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters, with heterogeneous behavioural and socio-demographic profile identifiers.

Practical implications

The value that this market segmentation technique holds regarding the marketing and branding of a(n) event/festival is that it could help managers/marketers to promote better culinary events/festivals in South Africa, by offering unique attributes that attract culinary visitors.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is a first attempt to segment culinary visitors based on motivational factors, especially within the South African context. Clustering based on motives proved to be a useful market segmentation tool and proposes a 3-S typology of visitors to food-related events/festivals, namely, social, serious and selective epicureans.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2018

Armand Viljoen, Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The role and importance of arts festivals are well documented within the festival and events literature. Art and culture, as well as the subsequent enhancement thereof, are…

Abstract

Purpose

The role and importance of arts festivals are well documented within the festival and events literature. Art and culture, as well as the subsequent enhancement thereof, are especially significant in multicultural societies. However, little is known regarding the role of culinary experiences within an arts festival setting. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study was a well-known and popular Afrikaans national arts festival held annually in Potchefstroom, South Africa. Visitors to three distinct tasting experiences (brandy, whisky and sparkling wine, including Méthode Cap Classique), offered as part of the festival programme, were surveyed.

Findings

In the analyses, 292 completed questionnaires were included, which revealed three managerial factors for a successful tasting experience, as well as six tasting experience dimensions. In all cases, the experiences exceeded the expectations. This research greatly contributes towards the body of knowledge regarding tasting experiences at national arts festivals, an aspect that has not been researched to date.

Practical implications

Based on the results, practical implications are provided to enhance the current tasting experiences as well as visitor loyalty. This research is a stepping stone towards understanding the needs and preferences of the visitors, as well as identifying how the festival can capitalise on delivering these experiences.

Originality/value

This research identified for the first time the factors that contribute to a memorable tasting experience, as well as evaluated the tasting experience dimensions.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Martinette Kruger and Adam Viljoen

This exploratory study aims to show that events can create awareness and facilitate behavioural change among attendees. Festivals and events can use the United Nations sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to show that events can create awareness and facilitate behavioural change among attendees. Festivals and events can use the United Nations sustainable development goals as drivers of societal change and business growth. Unfortunately, the attendees to a benefit concert have not been investigated to date. This study fills this gap by segmenting attendees to a benefit concert aimed at eradicating poverty.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative destination-based survey was undertaken at the Mandela 100: Global Citizen Festival in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2018. A simple random sampling method was used within a stratified sampling method, and 408 questionnaires were obtained.

Findings

Three psychographic segmentation variables were used: motives for attending the event (novelty, escape and socialization and cause advocating); behavioural intentions and change as a result of attending the event (cognition and awareness, loyalty-related behaviour, active engagement and travel-related behaviour); and global causes aimed at eradicating poverty that attendees regard as important to support (social, sustainability, fiscal, fundamental and elevated prosperity). The results revealed three distinct segments, proposing that an AID-typology applies to benefit concert attendees: advocates, inspirers and discoverers. Each group has either a high, moderate or low level of commitment towards the festival’s and other global causes.

Practical implications

Practical implications are suggested as guidelines to encourage advocacy and active involvement for global causes.

Originality/value

This study was conducted from a developing country’s perspective and contextualizes the role that events can play in advocating for specific causes and encouraging citizens to get involved.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these…

2060

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these motives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a visitor survey at the oldest EDM festival in South Africa, namely, H2O, five motives for attending H2O were identified (fun and dance; novelty; excitement, group identity and entertainment; lifestyle and well-being; and travel and escape), while the results revealed three clusters of EDM festival visitors: enthusiasts, energizers and electros. The results demonstrated that clustering EDM festival visitors based on their motives is a useful market segmentation tool as it yields a clear and direct profile and understanding of different types of attendees and their preferences.

Findings

The results as well as findings emphasize how EDM events can play a role in expanding tourism, especially youth travel, by hosting more EDM festivals in the country.

Originality/value

The study proposes a 3E typology of EDM festival visitors that could be applied to other EDM festival and event markets. This research, therefore, makes a clear contribution to the literature on EDM festivals and events and the market that this distinct music genre attracts.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music tourism…

2111

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a music festival leads to additional intangible benefits such as the appreciation of the specific music genre and music tourism. This was done by using visitors’ behavioural intentions related to these benefits as a tool for market segmentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The research followed a quantitative approach by conducting a visitor survey at an international jazz festival in South Africa.

Findings

The results showed that visitors’ post-festival behavioural intentions are a useful market segmentation tool. This approach revealed three distinct market segments with different levels of post-festival behavioural intentions (high, medium, and low). The results further showed that music festivals have the potential to create benefits beyond the festival itself or the host destination in the form of music tourism and the appreciation of a music genre. However, influencing visitors’ behavioural intentions can only be achieved by a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the market.

Originality/value

This research applied an innovative market segmentation approach that showed the post-festival behavioural intentions of different visitor segments at a music festival. The findings confirm that music festivals can have far-reaching benefits that can contribute to their legacy.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2022

Martinette Kruger and Adam Viljoen

This study aims to identify the preferences of wine consumers based on age cohorts to identify differences in consumption from a developing country perspective, with a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the preferences of wine consumers based on age cohorts to identify differences in consumption from a developing country perspective, with a predominantly younger population, to determine wine consumption longevity.

Design/methodology/approach

The target population was wine consumers in South Africa. Through convenience sampling, the data were collected in 2020 via a self-administered online questionnaire. In total, 20,997 fully completed the questionnaire. The age categories of the respondents were assigned to a particular age cohort to differentiate the market.

Findings

The age cohorts revealed five cohorts, namely, Gen Z: 18–24 years (11%); Young Gen Y: 25–34 years (32%); Mature Gen Y: 35–44 years (25%); Gen X: 45–54 years (17%); and Baby boomers: 55+ years (15%). Segmenting South African wine consumers based on their age cohorts revealed statistically significant differences based on their socio-demographics, wine preferences and consumption behavior. A typology of domestic wine consumers is consequently proposed: basic, budget conscious and image-oriented wine drinking Gen Z’s; experimenting and enjoyment-oriented wine drinking Young Gen Y-ers; aspirational and purposive wine drinking Mature Gen Y-ers; ritual-oriented, avid and conspicuous wine drinking Gen X-ers; and conservative, value-seeking and experienced wine drinking Baby Boomers.

Practical implications

This knowledge has important marketing implications and can create a greater appreciation for South African wines among the different age cohorts. The research shows the value of the generational theory in understanding wine consumers’ consumption and highlights the importance of analyzing different generations rather than solely focusing on one, as this could lead to mismanagement of resources.

Originality/value

This is one of the most comprehensive national surveys aimed at the South African wine consumer. The research fills the current literature gap regarding the characteristics of the different age cohorts and shows how wine consumption and preferences may change over time.

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