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1 – 10 of 161
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Mark Shevlin, Eoin McElroy, Jamie Murphy, Philip Hyland, Frédérique Vallieres, Ask Elklit and Mogens Christoffersen

While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining…

Abstract

Purpose

While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining cannabis with other illicit substances). The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study sought to examine the association between recreational drug use (cannabis only vs polydrug) and psychotic disorders. Analysis was conducted on a large, representative survey of young Danish people aged 24 (n=4,718). Participants completed self-report measures of lifetime drug use and this information was linked to the Danish psychiatric registry system.

Findings

Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between drug use (no drug use, cannabis only, cannabis and other drug) and ICD-10 psychotic disorders, while controlling for gender and parental history of psychosis. Compared with no drug use, the use of cannabis only did not increase the risk of psychosis while the odds ratio for cannabis and other drug were statistically significant.

Research limitations/implications

Psychosis risk may be associated with the cumulative effect of polydrug use.

Practical implications

Cannabis use may be a proxy for other drug use in research studies.

Originality/value

This study is innovative as it uses linked self-report and administrative data for a large sample. Administrative data were used to as an objective mental health status indicator.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy and John Read

There have been many studies that demonstrated an association between sexual trauma and psychotic disorders or psychotic symptoms. Limited attention has been paid to gender…

Abstract

Purpose

There have been many studies that demonstrated an association between sexual trauma and psychotic disorders or psychotic symptoms. Limited attention has been paid to gender differences regarding this association. A recent study evidenced that the trauma-psychosis association may be moderated by gender and that the effect may be specific for females. However, there have been many methodological limitations, particularly that low prevalence of psychosis and sexual trauma for males leads to low statistical power, that have made this hypothesis difficult to test. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study sought to estimate the association between sexual trauma and psychosis, and to determine if the association was moderated by gender using data from the Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity among Prisoners in England and Wales (n=3,142).

Findings

Bivariate analysis showed that sexual trauma predicted probable psychosis for both females (OR=4.13) and males (OR=4.72). After controlling for confounding variables the odds ratios for males and females did not differ significantly (the shared odds ratio was 2.60) indicating that the association was not moderated by gender.

Originality/value

The relationship between sexual abuse and psychosis may neither be specific to, nor moderated by, gender.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Mark Shevlin, Gary Adamson, Ryanne Colbert, Daniel Boduszek and Philip Hyland

84

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Daniel Boduszek, Mark Shevlin, Gary Adamson and Philip Hyland

215

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Daniel Boduszek, Mark Shevlin, Gary Adamson and Philip Hyland

177

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Timothy James Trimble, Mark Shevlin, Vincent Egan, Geraldine O'Hare, Dave Rogers and Barbara Hannigan

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based group intervention in anger management with male offenders. All…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based group intervention in anger management with male offenders. All participants were the subject of a stipulation to attend the programme under a probation order, and were at the time of the study being managed in the community.

Design/methodology/approach

Totally, 105 offenders attended the anger management programme, which was delivered by the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI), between 2008 and 2010 across a range of centres, representing most regions of the province. Prior to treatment, the offenders completed two measures: The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Stages of Change Scales (SCS). Both these measures were also completed at the end of the programme of treatment.

Findings

It was found that the programme significantly reduced the expression of anger as well as state and trait anger among offenders referred to the programme as measured by the STAXI. Both the action and maintenance subscales of the SCS were significant predictors of improvement in anger expression. The action subscale was shown to be a valuable predictor of readiness for change amongst the offenders.

Originality/value

Assessing an offender’s readiness to change may enhance selection for specific rehabilitation programs thus reducing drop-out rates leading to a more efficient use of resources. This study demonstrates that those participants who were found to be more ready for change, benefited most from the intervention programme.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Priscillia Hunt and Jeremy N.V Miles

Studies in criminal psychology are inevitably undertaken in a context of uncertainty. One class of methods addressing such uncertainties is Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies in criminal psychology are inevitably undertaken in a context of uncertainty. One class of methods addressing such uncertainties is Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to MC simulation for representing uncertainty and focusses on likely uses in studies of criminology and psychology. In addition to describing the method and providing a step-by-step guide to implementing a MC simulation, this paper provides examples using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey data. Results show MC simulations can be a useful technique to test biased estimators and to evaluate the effect of bias on power for statistical tests.

Design/methodology/approach

After describing MC simulation methods in detail, this paper provides a step-by-step guide to conducting a simulation. Then, a series of examples are provided. First, the authors present a brief example of how to generate data using MC simulation and the implications of alternative probability distribution assumptions. The second example uses actual data to evaluate the impact that omitted variable bias can have on least squares estimators. A third example evaluates the impact this form of heteroskedasticity can have on the power of statistical tests.

Findings

This study shows MC simulated variable means are very similar to the actual data, but the standard deviations are considerably less in MC simulation-generated data. Using actual data on criminal convictions and income of fathers, the authors demonstrate the impact of omitted variable bias on the standard errors of the least squares estimator. Lastly, the authors show the p-values are systematically larger and the rejection frequencies correspondingly smaller in heteroskedastic error models compared to a model with homoskedastic errors.

Originality/value

The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of what MC simulation methods are and what can be achieved with them. A key value of this paper is that the authors focus on understanding the concepts of MC simulation for researchers of statistics and psychology in particular. Furthermore, the authors provide a step-by-step description of the MC simulation approach and provide examples using real survey data on criminal convictions and economic characteristics of fathers in large US cities.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Daniel Boduszek, Mark Shevlin, John Mallett, Philip Hyland and Damian O'Kane

This study aims to examine the construct validity and factor structure of the Rosenberg self‐esteem scale (RSES) using a sample (n=312) of Polish prisoners incarcerated in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the construct validity and factor structure of the Rosenberg self‐esteem scale (RSES) using a sample (n=312) of Polish prisoners incarcerated in Nowogard High Security Prison.

Design/methodology/approach

The number of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models under investigation was limited to two by virtue of employing a much stricter and more rigorously sound methodological procedure in which item errors were prevented from correlating, as suggested by Brown.

Findings

Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the two‐factor (positive and negative self‐esteem) model provided a better fit for the RSES items than did the one‐factor model.

Originality/value

The results provide some initial support for the two‐dimensional model that could possibly be measuring substantively separate factors within a prison sample, thus calling into question the one‐factor solution of the RSES.

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Daniel Boduszek, Gary Adamson, Mark Shevlin and Philip Hyland

Social Identity Theory proposes that identity and thinking style are strongly related. Research also suggests that the process of depersonalization is responsible for shifting…

Abstract

Purpose

Social Identity Theory proposes that identity and thinking style are strongly related. Research also suggests that the process of depersonalization is responsible for shifting from personal identity to social identity and assimilating group attitudes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of personality in the relationship between criminal social identity and criminal thinking style.

Design/methodology/approach

The Measure of Criminal Attitudes, the Measure of Criminal Social Identity, and The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was administrated to a sample of recidivistic male prisoners with learning difficulties (n=312).

Findings

Sequential moderated multiple regression analyses indicated the unique main effect of extraversion, psychoticism, in‐group affect, and in‐group ties on criminal thinking style. In terms of the moderating role of personality, the in‐group affect was more strongly associated with criminal thinking for low levels of extraversion, whereas high levels of extraversion moderated the positive relationship between in‐group ties and criminal thinking style.

Originality/value

The findings provide the first empirical support for the moderating role of personality in the relationship between criminal identity and criminal thinking style of offenders with learning difficulties.

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Philip Hyland

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the nature of confirmatory bifactor modelling. Confirmatory bifactor modelling is a factor analytic procedure that allows…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the nature of confirmatory bifactor modelling. Confirmatory bifactor modelling is a factor analytic procedure that allows researchers to model unidimensionality and multidimensionality simultaneously. This method has important applications in the field of criminal psychology.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins by introducing the topic of factor analysis and explains how confirmatory bifactor modelling is similar yet distinct to the more familiar factor analytical procedures in the psychological literature.

Findings

Through practical examples this paper explains the value of this analytical technique to researchers in criminal psychology. Examples from the existing criminal psychological literature are used to illustrate the way in which bifactor analysis allows important theoretical questions to be addressed.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the strengths and limitations associated with traditional “restricted” confirmatory bifactor models and introduces the notion of the “unrestricted” bifactor model. The unrestricted bifactor model allows greater flexibility for addressing interesting research questions. The paper concludes by providing the reader with an annotated Mplus syntax file for how to perform confirmatory bifactor modelling.

1 – 10 of 161