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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Mark B. Vandenbosch

The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space…

Abstract

The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space development (perceptual mapping) via confirmatory factor analysis and partial least squares with the aid of an empirical example. Both of these procedures are widely used in causal or structural equation modelling. Since they tend to be confirmatory extensions to factor analysis and principal components analysis, the approaches are also well suited to the development of product spaces. Confirmatory approaches have several advantages over exploratory approaches including the incorporation of prior knowledge, the elimination of rotational indeterminacy, and the use of a wide variety of measurement tools to assess the reliability and validity of model results.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Ross R. Vickers

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each…

Abstract

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each other, the functional forms of the relationships, and so on. The last 10 years have seen a substantial extension of the range of statistical tools available for use in the construction process. The progress in tool development has been accompanied by the publication of handbooks that introduce the methods in general terms (Arminger et al., 1995; Tinsley & Brown, 2000a). Each chapter in these handbooks cites a wide range of books and articles on specific analysis topics.

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The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Bilal Saeed, R. Tasmin, Ayyaz Mahmood and Aamer Hafeez

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally accepted principles through the process of continuous improvement, and these principles should be embedded in the culture of an organization. Organizations pursue to align themselves by continuously improving their processes by adopting scientifically proven techniques and cultural transformation throughout the organization. However, there is a lack of scientific instruments for the assessment of operational excellence. The objective of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of practices of operational excellence principles in the organizations. Further reliability and validity of the developed scale are measured by testing the relationship between Human Resource Practices (HRP) and Operational Excellence (OE).

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprises quantitative design through exploratory and confirmatory studies and also includes qualitative analysis to develop a scale for the assessment of Operational Excellence (OE). Interviews from industry experts have been conducted to identify the major components for which organizations are striving for OE. Previous literature and excellence models, especially principles of the Shingo Operational Excellence Model (SOEM), have been reviewed and considered to finalize the scale items. Data were collected in two stages from both Telecommunication subsectors (Cellular Mobile Operators and Fixed Local Loop Operators) of Pakistan through the cross-sectional survey. In the first stage, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the sample of 611 respondents from both Cellular Mobile and Fixed Local Loop operators of Pakistan. In the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the sample of 423 respondents from the Fixed local loop operators. EFA was conducted by using SPSS version 23 to finalize the OE scale, and for confirmatory factor analysis, PLS-SEM using Smart PLS was used to confirm the reliability and validity of the OE Scale.

Findings

The results of EFA reveal that OE is a multidimensional construct with three dimensions and 23 items. The dimensions of the developed OE Scale explored in this study are cultural enablers (CE), continuous process improvement (CPI) and enterprise alignment (EA). The confirmatory factor analysis of OE confirmed the scale dimensionality, reliability and validity along with the hypothesis testing to measure the impact of antecedent variable HRP on OE.

Research limitations/implications

Organizations pursue to improve and align their operational processes but usually unable to confirm the implementation of their desired objectives. Based on the developed OE scale, managers may assess the implementation of OE principles in their organizations. This research has been conducted in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan only, and the developed instrument needs to be further tested in other organizations.

Practical implications

The instrument developed in this study will help both researchers and practitioners to assess the principles of operational excellence in their organizations and enable them to design the strategies for improving organizational performance.

Social implications

The results of this study will create awareness about the principles of operational excellence. The developed OE instrument will assist in identifying the gaps in organizational norms and values from the perspective of paying respect to every individual inside and outside the organization. OE instrument will be further helpful in the identification and assurance of health, safety, protection of the environment and community issues.

Originality/value

This study provides a reliable and validated scale for the scientific area of operation management and helps managers with the assessment of operational excellence in their organizations. This newly developed scale is also valid to test and use in different studies and industries by researchers and practitioners.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

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11574

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Sandeep Phogat and Anil Kumar Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model (structural equation modeling (SEM)) from the 16 identified just in time (JIT) elements useful for implementation of JIT in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model (structural equation modeling (SEM)) from the 16 identified just in time (JIT) elements useful for implementation of JIT in maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using questionnaires posted to 421 manufacturing industries and automotive service industries in India from which 133 usable responses were obtained. First, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is carried out to identify the factor structure after that confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is carried out to verify the factor structure of a set of identified JIT elements. CFA is conceded by an SEM statistical technique. In this paper, EFA is applied to extract the factors in JIT implementation by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 24) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 18) software.

Findings

Out of 18 identified JIT elements through literature and expert opinion only 16 JIT elements are selected for the study, two JIT elements removed due to the low value of correlation item-total correlation (CITC). Three factors extracted through EFA, which affects the benefits of JIT implementation in maintenance in quality improvement, production improvement and process control. SEM using AMOS 18.0 was used to perform the first-order three-factor structure (quality improvement, production improvement and process control) of the JIT implementation in maintenance.

Originality/value

The results will be useful for maintenance managers and maintenance professionals to understand the process of implementation of JIT in maintenance and to gain benefits after the implementation of JIT in maintenance in their respective organization.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2015

Mareike Landmann, Emilia Kmiotek-Meier, Daniel Lachmann and Jennifer Lorenz

This chapter presents and discusses various steps to ensure empirical reliability and theoretical validity in the construction of competence scales in graduate surveys…

Abstract

This chapter presents and discusses various steps to ensure empirical reliability and theoretical validity in the construction of competence scales in graduate surveys. The development of a scale to assess demands of the teacher profession and related abilities in graduates for a German tracer study project serves as an example. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach’s coefficient alpha are employed to test the reliability of the scale. Differing results illustrate how the method applied influences decisions in the process of developing a scale. Our findings show that multidimensionality can only be tested appropriately by CFA; PCA renders no feasible or similar results to CFA depending on the predetermination of the number of factors; Cronbach’s alpha produces misleading results as the prerequisite assumption of unidimensionality is violated by the data.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-287-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

David Perkins, Gita Mathur and Kam Jugdev

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the resource-based view of the firm from strategic management and apply it to a study of competitive advantage in the project…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the resource-based view of the firm from strategic management and apply it to a study of competitive advantage in the project management context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to examine the factors that constitute strategic characteristics of project management resources and outcomes of the project management process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study gathered data from 437 North American project management professionals using an existing survey tool from prior research involving a smaller sample.

Findings

The final model derived from CFA demonstrated construct validity, meaning acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. It showed only minor differences from a prior exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The final model consisted of two factors representing valuable project management characteristics, one factor representing rare project management characteristics, one factor representing inimitable project management characteristics, three factors representing organizational support for project management assets, one factor representing project-level performance and one factor representing firm-level performance.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include self-report bias and the use of a panel for data collection.

Practical implications

This study draws managerial attention to project management characteristics that constitute a source of competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The study validates a survey tool from previous research, reflects few deviations from factor structure of the prior EFA, and sets the stage for future research to elaborate on the conceptual model. It extends understanding of the characteristics of project management assets that lead to a firm’s competitive advantage.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

Hayati Habibah Abdul Talib, Khairul Anuar Mohd Ali and Fazli Idris

The purpose of this research is to identify and validate a measurement model for assessing the quality management practices among small and medium-sized enterprises…

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3977

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to identify and validate a measurement model for assessing the quality management practices among small and medium-sized enterprises, specifically for the food processing industry in developing countries such as Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was initially conducted among SMEs using a questionnaire mailed to the managing director of companies selected from the SMECorp directory. A total of 207 respondents from SMEs were used for further analysis. Two steps of analysis were undertaken to validate the measurement model of critical success factors: principal component analysis and confirmatory analysis.

Findings

Eight critical success factors of quality management practices are proposed for assessing quality management practices among SMEs in the food processing industry in Malaysia. A measurement model was then developed. PCA with Varimax rotation revealed 13 components, eight of which were retained for further analysis. First- and second-order CFAs identified the CSF measurement model along with the goodness-of-fit index. Thus, the findings also reveal the status of quality management practices among food processing SMEs in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is to evaluate only the CSFs; therefore, further work is needed to evaluate the relationship between CSFs and organisational performance of SMEs in the food processing industry in Malaysia.

Originality/value

There are various papers regarding the assessment of quality management, especially on TQM practices in various industries. However, few assessments of the critical success factors of quality management practices of SMEs in the food processing industry, especially in developing countries like Malaysia, have been found to date. The findings of this paper will help the industry to identify its current quality management practice to focus on improving its performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Charles Chi Cui and Edward I. Adams

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so…

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1696

Abstract

The national identity scale (NATID) was recently reported in the literature for identifying the core elements that define the uniqueness of a given culture or nation in so far as their association with marketing is concerned. This study examined the conceptual strengths and empirical limitations of NATID, and assessed the relevance of the national identity construct in Yemen. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data from a sample of 208 Yemeni respondents revealed that the NATID scale did not fit the Yemeni data. Modification of the scale was made through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which resulted in four dimensions in two alternative models similar to NATID. Results from the second‐order confirmatory factor analysis of the two alternative models supported NATID’s multi‐dimensionality of the national identity construct in the Yemeni context. Implications for future research are discussed and limitations noted.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Edilberto F. Montemayor

Employee dissatisfaction with merit pay is a long‐standing problem. This study introduces four explanatory constructs, based on decisional and interactional fairness…

Abstract

Employee dissatisfaction with merit pay is a long‐standing problem. This study introduces four explanatory constructs, based on decisional and interactional fairness notions, that describe how supervisors implement merit pay and predict merit pay satisfaction. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, applied to a sample of American employees (N = 415) and a sample of Venezuelan employees (N = 239), show that the five constructs introduced here are distinct from each other and that their measures generalize across countries (cultures and languages).

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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