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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Ashling Bourke, Daniel Boduszek and Philip Hyland

The aim of the current study is to investigate criminal psycho‐social cognition, criminal associates and personality traits as predictors of non‐violent recidivism.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the current study is to investigate criminal psycho‐social cognition, criminal associates and personality traits as predictors of non‐violent recidivism.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 179 male non‐violent offenders. Each offender completed self‐report measures assessing criminal attitudes, criminal associates, criminal social identity and Eysenck's personality traits. Recidivism was assessed through self‐reported frequency of imprisonment. A sequential moderated multiple regression analysis investigated the relationship between criminal thinking, criminal social identity and level of recidivism with the moderating role of personality.

Findings

Results indicate that criminal thinking is moderated by personality in the prediction of recidivism such that respondents who score high on psychoticism and low on neuroticism and extraversion show a positive association between criminal think styles and recidivism.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that future research and risk assessment instruments consider the interaction between risk factors in the prediction of recidivism, rather than investigating the factors independently.

Originality/value

This study is a valuable contribution as it investigates non‐violent recidivism specifically, and informs on the moderating influence of personality in the prediction of this behaviour.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Jenna Zeccola, Sally Fiona Kelty and Douglas Boer

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of good lives model (GLM) interventions on the recidivism outcomes of convicted offenders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of good lives model (GLM) interventions on the recidivism outcomes of convicted offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

The review adhered to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis and Cochrane guidelines. Digital databases were searched and articles reporting outcomes of the GLM amongst convicted offenders and outcomes including recidivism data and pre-post measures of dynamic risk were included in a narrative synthesis.

Findings

Of 1,791 articles screened, only six studies met the criteria for review. Key findings were: in half the reviewed studies, GLM did not increase recidivism risk; in half the reviewed studies, only when the correct treatment dosage was applied that some evidence of risk reduction was found; there was limited support for GLM increasing or sustaining motivation for resistance from reoffending. Research for the review was limited and support for the GLM in reducing recidivism rates was not established.

Practical implications

In this 2021 review, the authors examined the efficacy of the GLM in reducing recidivism. This addresses a gap in the literature. The authors found that there is insufficient evidence to suggest that the GLM can reduce recidivism. This has implications for practitioners who wish to deliver evidence-based practices in prison/community settings. There is currently not enough peer-reviewed evidence to unequivocally confirm the efficacy of the GLM. The authors recommended additional quality programme outcome research be carried out.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to assess quantitative and qualitative studies on the efficacy of the GLM and provides foundations for future research.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Lena Grieger, Daniela Hosser and Alexander F. Schmidt

This study aims to investigate the predictive validity of self‐control (SC) for several forms of criminal recidivism (general, property, violence, sexual).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the predictive validity of self‐control (SC) for several forms of criminal recidivism (general, property, violence, sexual).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,838 male prisoners were interviewed while serving a prison sentence. Personality traits known to be related to SC served as operationalization of SC. Cluster analyses identified three clusters of SC‐related traits: Emotion regulation, Self‐assertion, and Effortful control. Survival‐analyses predicted recidivism, which was assessed using official data. The follow up period amounted to 72 months.

Findings

The SC‐related trait clusters significantly predicted general and violent reoffending, after controlling for established risk factors for recidivism (age, age at first offense, social status, previous youth detention, out‐of‐home placements, and length of imprisonment). However, trait clusters did not predict reoffending with a property offense. Offenders with violent or sex offenses in their criminal history showed different profiles on the trait clusters.

Originality/value

The paper shows that SC is an important risk factor for violent recidivism. SC‐related trait clusters should not be combined to form a single score, because essential information for risk profiles would be lost.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Leam Craig, Kevin Browne, Ian Stringer and Anthony Beech

The assessment of risk of recidivism in sexual offenders is fundamental to clinical practice. It is widely accepted that, compared with actuarial measures of risk, unaided…

Abstract

The assessment of risk of recidivism in sexual offenders is fundamental to clinical practice. It is widely accepted that, compared with actuarial measures of risk, unaided clinical judgment has generally been found to be of low reliability. Consequently, the literature has shown a surge in actuarial measures. However, a major difficulty in assessing risk in sex offenders is the low base rate, leading to an increased likelihood of making a false positive predictive error. To overcome this, risk assessment studies are increasingly using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), which displays the relationship between level of risk and decision choice. This note summarises the methodological issues in measuring predictive accuracy in assessing risk of re‐offending in sexual offenders, and identifies from the literature both static and dynamic risk factors associated with sexual offence recidivism.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Chad Trulson and Jon Caudill

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the recidivism outcomes of a large cohort of juvenile homicide offenders three years following their release from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the recidivism outcomes of a large cohort of juvenile homicide offenders three years following their release from institutional confinement.

Design/methodology/approach

Retrospective data were utilized to examine demographic, background, and institutional behavior variables on post-release recidivism of 247 juvenile homicide offenders. Analyses distinguish between capital and non-capital juvenile homicide offenders.

Findings

Descriptive analyses demonstrated a 50 percent recidivism rate among the sample of juvenile homicide offenders. Bivariate analyses revealed few significant differences between capital and non-capital homicide offending juveniles. Logistic regression analyses revealed that youth who were neglected prior to state institutionalization were significantly more likely to recidivate. Logistic regression also revealed that longer lengths of incarceration were associated with decreased odds of recidivism, while participating in assaultive behaviors against peers while confined aggravated the odds of recidivism.

Research limitations/implications

Implications related to the role that previous neglect, incarceration time, and institutional behavior can inform policymakers and practitioners on issues related to the treatment of juvenile homicide offenders while confined, and the impact that incarceration time and institutional behavior mean for post-release recidivism risk.

Originality/value

Little research has assessed the recidivism outcomes of juvenile homicide offenders, especially with a larger sample size. None have examined the differences between capital and non-capital homicide offending juveniles. As juvenile jurisdictions continue to retain more homicide offending juveniles (as opposed to their removal to adult systems), there is value to the research to inform policy and practice with such an enriched and problematic groups of offenders.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Deborah Shade Adekeye and Paul Emmanuel

Delinquency as well as juvenile recidivism cuts across all nations in the world with its negative consequences on individuals, social and economic phases of life. Despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Delinquency as well as juvenile recidivism cuts across all nations in the world with its negative consequences on individuals, social and economic phases of life. Despite various interventions, strategies, the rate of recidivism has been on the increase. This calls for concern and a need to find a solution to the menace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nexus between early release of inmates and juvenile recidivism using Barnawa Borstal Training Institute, Kaduna, as case study and to identify other pre-disposing factors that contribute to juvenile recidivism in the society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a survey research design and used the questionnaire as the main instrument of data collection. The sample for the study consisted of 210 juvenile inmates from the Institute. Simple percentile and frequency distribution were used to analyze the data collected from the juvenile, while χ2 was used to test the only hypothesis formulated for the study. The χ2 result ( χ c 2 =1.409; df=3; α level=0.05; χ t 2 =7.815) showed that there is no significant relationship between early release and juvenile recidivism, and rather lack of proper reformation, stigmatization and lack of parental care are some of the important factors causing juvenile recidivism in Nigeria.

Findings

Based on the findings, it was recommended that government should, through the Borstal homes all over the country, ensure proper and adequate rehabilitation of inmates and provide adequate public enlightment for the safe and total re-absorption of inmates without stigmatization.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of the work is the fact that the Borstal Institute in Kaduna has only male inmates, so there is no opportunity to consider the effect of gender on juvenile recidivism.

Practical implications

The practical implications is that the result of this study can be added to the field of criminal justice in Nigeria. The result also bring to the fore the fact that rehabilitation and success rate of re-integration of juvenile delinquents back into the society is everybody’s business.

Social implications

The social implication of the study is that the study will go a long way in assisting policy makers in government and the prison authority to design and implement policies that will bring about proper reformation and rehabilitation of inmates.

Originality/value

The research was carried out among juvenile delinquents, some of who have been in and out of the Borstal home many times. So the researchers were able to collect first-hand information from the delinquents that serve as the respondents for this research. Moreover, the research setting was located in the northern part of Nigeria, whereas some of the earlier studies were carried out in the southern part of the country.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Colleen Alena O'Brien

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of…

Abstract

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of reintegration that ex-combatants face, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the reintegration program operated by the Agency for Reincorporation and Normalization (Agencia para la Reincorporación y la Normalización, ARN), the government agency that handles the reintegration of ex-combatants from all armed groups in Colombia. I analyze the agency's approaches (past, current, and proposed) toward reintegrating ex-combatants from various armed groups, comparing the financial costs against outcomes. The ARN has been successful at achieving two of its primary goals: minimizing recidivism and maximizing employment of ex-combatants. Only 10% of ARN program participants rejoin criminal groups and 93% find employment across both the formal and informal sectors (informal employment is widespread in Colombia and Latin America). The ARN has been unsuccessful at providing adequate security for ex-combatants. Approximately 6% of ex-combatants enrolled in the ARN program have been murdered since 2001: approximately 3,000 program participants have been assassinated. Next, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of both the ARN's overall program and its outcome across different regions and demographics of the participant population. Finally, I suggest ways that other countries facing the challenge of reintegrating populations of ex-combatants can learn from the Colombian experience, as well as ways that Colombia can improve its own reintegration cost-effectiveness.

Details

Infrastructure, Morality, Food and Clothing, and New Developments in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-434-3

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2008

Paul McCold

CSF Buxmont Academy operates eight school/day treatment programs that use restorative practices, which includes a culture in which restorative characterizes staff…

Abstract

CSF Buxmont Academy operates eight school/day treatment programs that use restorative practices, which includes a culture in which restorative characterizes staff interaction with students, and staff-to-staff and student-to-student relationships as well. This chapter presents analyses of the outcome experiences from two waves of discharge cohorts: 919 students during school years 1999–2000 and 2000–2001 and 858 during 2001–2002 and 2002–2003. Outcome measures include program completion rates, changes in self-esteem and anti-social attitudes, and the relationship between the length of program participation and post-release recidivism rates after controlling for individual risk factors. Recidivism rates were significantly related to length of program participation.

Details

Restorative Justice: from Theory to Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1455-3

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Aminu Musa Ahmed and Abd Halim B. Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to examining and analyzing the predictors of criminal recidivism among the ex-prisoners in metropolitan Kano-Nigeria using social ostracism as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examining and analyzing the predictors of criminal recidivism among the ex-prisoners in metropolitan Kano-Nigeria using social ostracism as a predictor. However, the study utilizes two main dimensions of social ostracism; being ignored and being excluded in analyzing criminal recidivism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is quantitative in nature. Data were collected using survey method. Purposive sampling method was used and the population of the study were the ex-prisoners who are released after their prison terms. A total of 256 sample size was utilized and data were analyzed using Partial Lease Squares – Structural Equation Modeling.

Findings

The findings revealed that, there is significant positive relationship between ignoring and exclusion of ex-prisoners in relation to criminal recidivism ( < 0.001***). The model used in the study shows that being ignored is having small effects, whereas being excluded is having medium effects (f2 0.121, 0.203), with predictive relevance (Q2 0.1884).

Practical implications

Going by the study findings it was concluded that social ostracism of ex-prisoners in metropolitan Kano is having positive effects toward criminal recidivism. It is recommended that policy should be made to reduce the exclusion of ex-prisoners so as to reduce their chances of becoming criminal recidivists.

Originality/value

Though many predictors were used in analyzing recidivism, this study used social ostracism which is not previously used as a sole predictor of criminal recidivism.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Louise Almond, Michelle McManus, David Brian and Daniel Peter Merrington

The purpose of this paper is to explore risk factors contained in the existing UK domestic abuse (DA) risk assessment tool: domestic abuse, stalking and harassment and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore risk factors contained in the existing UK domestic abuse (DA) risk assessment tool: domestic abuse, stalking and harassment and honour-based violence (DASH) for individual predictive validity of DA recidivism using data from Devon and Cornwall Constabulary.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,441 DA perpetrators were monitored over a 12-month period, and 270 (18.7 per cent) went on to commit a further DA offence. The individual risk factors which were associated and predictive of increased risk of recidivism were identified.

Findings

Only four of the individual risk factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of DA recidivism: “criminal history”, “problems with alcohol”, “separation” and “frightened”. Therefore, 21 of the risk factor items analysed could not discriminate between non-recidivist and recidivist perpetrators. Only two risk factors were able to significantly predict the recidivist group when compared to the non-recidivist group. These were identified as “criminal history” and “separated”. Of those who did commit a further DA offence in the following 12 months, 133 were violent and 137 were non-violent. The risk factors associated with these types of recidivism are identified.

Practical implications

The implications for UK police practice and the DASH risk assessment tool are discussed. By identifying key individual factors that can prioritise those individuals likely to recidivate and the severity of that recidivism, this could assist police decision making regarding the response and further prevention of DA incidents. The validation of association between individual factors and DA recidivism should improve the accuracy of risk levels.

Originality/value

This is the first large-scale validation of the individual risk factors contained within the UK’s DA risk assessment tool. It should be noted that the validity of the DASH tool itself was not examined within the current study.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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