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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Judith Plomp, Maria Tims, Jos Akkermans, Svetlana N. Khapova, Paul G.W. Jansen and Arnold B. Bakker

The purpose of this paper is to bring together job design and career theory in the examination of how proactive employees optimize their well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring together job design and career theory in the examination of how proactive employees optimize their well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and perceived health) through job crafting and career competencies. This study offers an integrated account of the pathway from proactive personality to well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by a cross-sectional self-report survey study among 574 employees working in various organizations.

Findings

The results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the proposed double mediation model: job crafting and career competencies both mediated the positive relationship between proactive personality and well-being. The findings suggest that proactive employees can enhance their well-being both through proactive job redesign and the development of career-related skills and abilities.

Research limitations/implications

This study precludes causal explanations. Future research should further investigate the role of employee proactivity related to contemporary work topics, including temporary contracts and self-employment.

Practical implications

Managers and HR practitioners can optimize employee well-being by focusing on HR policies related to job redesign, as well as investing in training and development of career competencies.

Originality/value

This paper integrates two research domains by exploring how proactive employees take a proactive stance toward their job as well as their career, and investigates how this proactive approach contributes to their well-being. In addition, the authors demonstrated a link between the development of career competencies and employee health.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2024

Xinyue Lin, Maria Tims and Liang Meng

Taking attribution theory as an overarching framework, the study aims to examine how employees attribute and respond to a colleague's approach crafting.

Abstract

Purpose

Taking attribution theory as an overarching framework, the study aims to examine how employees attribute and respond to a colleague's approach crafting.

Design/methodology/approach

Two complementary studies, including a scenario experiment (Study 1; N = 114) and an online survey (Study 2; N = 220), were conducted to test the hypothesized model.

Findings

Study 1 found support for the attribution of a prosocial motive to approach crafting, which in turn led to more social support and less social undermining among observers. This mediation was stronger when the job crafter was perceived as less other-oriented. Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and further showed that when observers attributed both high impression management and prosocial motives to approach crafting, the positive relationship between their prosocial motive attribution and social support for the job crafter got weakened, while the negative relationship between their prosocial motive attribution and social undermining of the job crafter was strengthened.

Originality/value

The findings demonstrate that approach crafting gives rise to specific attributions and reactions toward the job crafter, which enrich the understanding of the social consequences of job crafting in the workplace.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Maria Tims, Melissa Twemlow and Christine Yin Man Fong

In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of Career Development International, a state-of-the-art overview of recent trends in job-crafting research was conducted…

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Abstract

Purpose

In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding of Career Development International, a state-of-the-art overview of recent trends in job-crafting research was conducted. Since job crafting was introduced twenty years ago as a type of proactive work behavior that employees engage in to adjust their jobs to their needs, skills, and preferences, research has evolved tremendously.

Design/methodology/approach

To take stock of recent developments and to unravel the latest trends in the field, this overview encompasses job-crafting research published in the years 2016–2021. The overview portrays that recent contributions have matured the theoretical and empirical advancement of job-crafting research from three perspectives (i.e. individual, team and social).

Findings

When looking at the job-crafting literature through these three perspectives, a total of six trends were uncovered that show that job-crafting research has moved to a more in-depth theory-testing approach; broadened its scope; examined team-level job crafting and social relationships; and focused on the impact of job crafting on others in the work environment and their evaluations and reactions to it.

Originality/value

The overview of recent trends within the job-crafting literature ends with a set of recommendations for how future research on job crafting could progress and create scientific impact for the coming years.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to adapt and validate the Job Crafting Scale (JCS), a measure based on the conceptualization of job crafting of the job demands–resources theory, for a sample of Portuguese workers and to test its psychometric properties regarding validity (factor, convergent, discriminant, and criterion) and reliability.

Design/methodology/approach

Two subsamples (n1 = 315 and n2 = 329) of Portuguese workers aged 18 years old and over participated in this research. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to assess the factor structure.

Findings

The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the JCS, with 18 items, has a factor structure composed of four-correlated factors. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the existence of factor, discriminant, and criterion validity, as well as reliability.

Originality/value

This study provides a job crafting measure adapted to the Portuguese language that can serve as a diagnostic tool for workers and organizations.

Propósito

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo adaptar y validar la Job Crafting Scale (JCS), una medida basada en la conceptualización de job crafting de la Teoría de Demandas-Recursos, para una muestra de trabajadores portugueses y probar sus propiedades psicométricas en cuanto a validez (factor, convergente, discriminante y de criterio) y confiabilidad.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

En esta investigación participaron dos submuestras (n1 = 315 y n2 = 329) de trabajadores portugueses de 18 años o más. Se utilizó un análisis factorial exploratorio y un análisis factorial confirmatorio para evaluar la estructura factorial.

Resultados

Los resultados indicaron que la versión portuguesa del JCS, con 18 ítems, tiene una estructura factorial compuesta por cuatro factores correlacionados. Además, los resultados demostraron la existencia de validez factorial, discriminante y de criterio, así como confiabilidad.

Originalidad

Este estudio proporciona una medida de job crafting adaptada a la lengua portuguesa que puede servir como herramienta de diagnóstico para trabajadores y organizaciones.

Objetivo

Este estudo teve como objetivo adaptar e validar a Job Crafting Scale (JCS), uma medida baseada na conceptualização de job crafting da Teoria das Exigências-Recursos, numa amostra de trabalhadores portugueses e testar as suas propriedades psicométricas quanto à validade (fatorial, convergente, discriminante e de critério) e fiabilidade.

Desenho/metodologia/abordagem

Duas subamostras (n1 = 315 e n2 = 329) compostas por trabalhadores portugueses com 18 ou mais anos foram recolhidas. Foram utilizadas uma análise fatorial exploratória e uma análise fatorial confirmatória para analisar a estrutura fatorial.

Resultados

Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a versão portuguesa da JCS, composta por 18 itens, possui uma estrutura fatorial composta por quatro fatores correlacionados. Além disso, os resultados demonstraram a existência de validade fatorial, discriminante e de critério, bem como de fiabilidade.

Originalidade/valor

Este estudo fornece uma medida de job crafting adaptada para a língua portuguesa que pode servir como ferramenta de diagnóstico para trabalhadores e organizações.

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Maria Tims, Arnold B. Bakker and Daantje Derks

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether job crafting and work enjoyment could explain the well-established relationship between self-efficacy and job performance. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether job crafting and work enjoyment could explain the well-established relationship between self-efficacy and job performance. The authors hypothesized that employees would be most likely to engage in proactive job crafting behaviors on the days when they feel most self-efficacious. Daily job crafting, in turn, was expected to relate to daily performance through daily work enjoyment.

Design/methodology/approach

A daily diary study was conducted among a heterogeneous sample of employees (N=47, days=215). Participants completed the survey on five consecutive days.

Findings

The results of multilevel structural equation modeling analyses were generally in line with the hypotheses. Specifically, results indicated that employees who felt more self-efficacious on a given day were more likely to mobilize their job resources on that day. Daily job crafting, in turn, was positively correlated to work enjoyment and indirectly associated with performance. Participants reported elevated levels of performance on the days on which they enjoyed their work most.

Research limitations/implications

Self-reports were used to assess all constructs, which may result in common method bias. However, within-person correlations were moderate, and a two-level CFA indicated that a one-factor model could not account for all the variance in the data.

Originality/value

The findings of this study underscore the importance of daily proactive behavior for employee and organizational outcomes.

Content available

Abstract

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Tim Edwards

In offering a critical account of project‐based innovation projects, this paper aims to assess the creation and sharing of knowledge from a social constructionist perspective.

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Abstract

Purpose

In offering a critical account of project‐based innovation projects, this paper aims to assess the creation and sharing of knowledge from a social constructionist perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Using findings from an in‐depth longitudinal study of a UK Government Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) programme, the paper shows that the ability to adopt knowledge is linked to the efforts of actors to cope with the uncertainties that emerge from crisis events when actors can transform their social context in ways that allow them to overcome the politicisation of tasks. By conceptualising “knowledge” as a social process, this paper proposes that the individual and collective ability to introduce new meaning is not simply related to the propositional aspects of knowledge (through the acquisition of new systems and practices), it also relies on the socially embedded nature of knowledge – the legitimating role of the local context.

Findings

To ascertain a better understanding of knowledge creation and sharing this paper considers the process through which individuals appropriate knowledge where crisis events disrupt and jeopardise the social relations between the members of the innovation project. Here the paper demonstrates how actors renegotiate participation in projects and therefore reconstitute the context through which such activities are organised.

Research limitations/implications

Based on a single case study, this research offers a limited view of context. The study is also based on the appropriation of practices linked to TQM. Future work should look at a range of contexts and technologies to ascertain differentiation in the way the social context mediates knowledge communication.

Originality/value

This paper offers a critical account of knowledge management and innovation. It stands in contrast to more mainstream positivist accounts.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2017

Debra Zahay

444

Abstract

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Book part
Publication date: 22 April 2015

Jessica S. Bean

This paper uses newly compiled data from two surveys of female home workers undertaken by the Women’s Industrial Council in London in 1897 and 1907 to investigate various issues…

Abstract

This paper uses newly compiled data from two surveys of female home workers undertaken by the Women’s Industrial Council in London in 1897 and 1907 to investigate various issues related to their work and wages. The reports detail the occupations, average weekly earnings and hours, marital status, and household size, composition, and total income of approximately 850 female home workers, offering a unique, and as yet unused, opportunity to explore the labor market characteristics of the lowest-paid workers in the early twentieth century. Analysis of the data reveals that the female home workers who were surveyed were drawn overwhelmingly from poor households. Home workers were older than female factory workers, most were married or widowed, and the majority of married workers reported that their husbands were out of work, sick, disabled, or in casual or irregular work. Weekly wages and hours of work varied considerably by industry, but averaged about 7–9s. and 40–45 hours per week, with many workers reporting the desire for more work. The relationship between hours of work (daily and weekly) and hourly wages was negative, and the wives and daughters of men who were out of the labor force due to unemployment or illness tended to work longer hours at lower wages, as did women who lived in households where some health issue was present. These findings lend support to contemporary perceptions that women driven into the labor force by immediate household need were forced to take the lowest-paid work, whether because they lacked skill and experience or bargaining power in the labor market.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-782-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2015

David Chandler

This paper investigates the substance of institutions in the context of business ethics. In particular, I test a theory of stakeholder attention to resource commitments by firms…

Abstract

This paper investigates the substance of institutions in the context of business ethics. In particular, I test a theory of stakeholder attention to resource commitments by firms that implement the Ethics and Compliance Officer (ECO) position, from 1990 to 2008. Results support the hypothesized curvilinear relationship between resource commitments and stakeholder attention – while both high and low levels of ECO implementation generate low levels of reported ethics transgressions (the former due to good firm behavior and the latter due to stakeholder disengagement), moderate ECO implementation produces elevated transgression reports (due to raised expectations and increased engagement). Contrary to extant theory, results are consistent across both internal and external firm stakeholder groups.

Details

Institutions and Ideals: Philip Selznick’s Legacy for Organizational Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-726-0

Keywords

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