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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Mohammad Habibullah Pulok, Md Nasim-Us Sabah and Ulrika Enemark

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how socioeconomic status and demographic factors were associated with child malnutrition as well as how these factors accounted…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how socioeconomic status and demographic factors were associated with child malnutrition as well as how these factors accounted for socioeconomic inequality of child malnutrition in Bangladesh during 2007-2011.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of this study come from two cross-sectional rounds (2007 and 2011) of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. This paper uses ordinary least square models to estimate the correlates of child malnutrition. The study further uses the concentration curve and the concentration index to estimate socioeconomic inequality of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. Finally, the decomposition method is used to explain socioeconomic inequality of child malnutrition in the study period.

Findings

Regression analysis indicates that child’s age, breast feeding, child’s birth order, the number of under-five child in the household, household wealth and parental education were strongly correlated with child malnutrition in Bangladesh. This study finds that absolute level of child malnourishment slightly decreased between 2007 and 2011, but socioeconomic inequality increased during this period. Children from the poorest household endured the burden of malnourishment more than those from the wealthiest households. The level of inequality also increased among the rural children, although it remained stagnant among the urban children. Decomposition analysis highlights that parental education had a significant negative relation with the average level of malnutrition, but its role was primarily centred among children from wealthier households.

Practical implications

An approach linking the ministry of health and education with other ministries may speed up the reduction of inequalities in social determinants of childhood undernourishment. Most importantly, there is a need for comprehensive government policies to reduce growing economic inequality and increase the relative income of the poor in Bangladesh.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to apply the decomposition method to explain the socioeconomic inequality of child malnutrition in Bangladesh. This paper presents an enriched understanding of socioeconomic inequality of child malnutrition in Bangladesh during 2007-2011.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Hasan Mahfuz Reza, Suvasish Das Shuvo and Tanvir Ahmad

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis.

Design/methodology/approach

End-stage renal failure outpatients on hemodialysis were selected using simple random sampling technique from the dialysis unit of Sono Hospital Limited, Kushtia, Bangladesh. The nutritional status of 142 participant, of age 18-65 years, was screened. A direct method of nutritional assessment including anthropometric measurement, biochemical measurement, clinical assessment and dietary method was conducted. A logistic regression was applied to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

Findings

In total 69.0 per cent participants were men and 31.0 per cent were women, whereas about 65.5 and 16.9 per cent patients of this study had a BMI of less than 23 kg/m2 and 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) where malnutrition was significantly prevalent. Mean ± SD hemoglobin level of both men and women participants was below the normal level which might increase the risk of malnutrition (p < 0.05). Of the total number of participants, 97.2 per cent were anemic, 66.9 per cent had anorexia, 63.4 per cent complained of nausea, 58.5 per cent complained of vomiting and 26.1 per cent complained of diarrhea, factors that can increase the risk of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients (p < 0.05). The creatinine and urea levels were higher in both men and women participants (p < 0.05). Results show significant difference in albumin levels among men and women (p < 0.05). The bicarbonate level was lower in both men and women, and the participants were suffering from metabolic acidosis (p < 0.05). About 87.3 per cent participants were taking inadequate amounts of protein which was a significant risk factor of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

The result shows that renal failure is prevalent more in men than in women. The majority of patients on hemodialysis were at a risk of malnutrition including being underweight. Most of the patients were anemic. Malnutrition is related to low nutrient intake.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye, Abiodun Omowonuola Adebayo-Oyetoro and Hussaina Kehinde Tiamiyu

This paper aims to examine the concept of poverty and malnutrition in Africa, implications and the way out.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the concept of poverty and malnutrition in Africa, implications and the way out.

Design/methodology/approach

Several literatures were reviewed on the causes, modes, implications and solutions to the contemporary challenges of poverty and malnutrition in Africa.

Findings

Poverty and malnutrition are two sides of a coin that are ravaging the African continent. These were as a result of underdevelopment, maladministration and lack of focus and vision by the generations of leaders saddled with administration in different African countries. Poverty in Africa embraces lack of basic human needs faced by people in African society. Many African nations are very poor, and their income per capita or gross domestic product per capita fall toward the bottom of list of nations of the world, despite a wealth of natural resources. In 2009, according to United Nations (UN), 22 of 24 nations identified as having “Low Human Development” on the UN’s Human Development Index were in sub-Saharan Africa and 34 of the 50 nations on the UN list of least developed countries are in Africa. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 233 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were hungry/undernourished in 2014-2016 (its most recent estimate). In total, 795 million people were hungry worldwide. According to the World Bank, sub-Saharan Africa was the area with the second largest number of hungry people, as Asia had 512 million, mainly due to the much larger population of Asia when compared to sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank also reported in 2012 that sub-Saharan Africa Poverty and Equity Data was 501 million people, or 47 per cent Poverty has also been reported as the principal cause of hunger in Africa and the principal causes of poverty have been found to be harmful economic systems, conflict, environmental factors such as drought and climate change and population growth.

Originality/value

This study examined the concept of poverty and malnutrition in Africa, the implications and the way out.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Toseef Azid

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the determinants of malnutrition of primary school‐age (five to ten years) children in urban and slum areas. The ultimate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the determinants of malnutrition of primary school‐age (five to ten years) children in urban and slum areas. The ultimate objective is to frame policy proposals for children's nutritional welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, logit model is applied to 882 observations of primary data. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) is constructed to use an indicator of malnutrition.

Findings

The probability for anthropometric failure increases by age, birth‐order, female sex and activity of the child (child labor or home‐care activity) other than schooling. The parents' education, specifically mothers' education, can play an important role for child's nutritional status. Malnutrition is positively related with congestion in the household (number of household members per room), while provision of electricity, safe drinking water and underground drainage turns out to be negatively affecting children's malnutrition. The children living in slums are more likely to experience anthropometric failure.

Research limitations/implications

From the policy perspective awareness about gender equity of child, adult education, growth of household income specifically of slum areas and improvement in living conditions (through public health works program) may contribute to enhance children's nutritional status.

Practical implications

The slums need targeted policy for children welfare regarding their nutrition in the form of provision of public utilities and income support.

Originality/value

From the methodological point of view, CIAF has been estimated as a measure of malnutrition. The findings of study may support academicians, policy makers and social activists for human development programs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2016

Rebekah Burroway

Previous research assumes that economic development is the key to increasing the food supply and alleviating child malnutrition. However, economic development alone does…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research assumes that economic development is the key to increasing the food supply and alleviating child malnutrition. However, economic development alone does not promise that income is distributed fairly, nor does it guarantee that other human needs will be fulfilled. What has been missing from cross-national research is an analysis of how gender inequality shapes women’s abilities to effectively maintain food security. The current study contributes to this literature by exploring the multidimensional effects of women’s empowerment on child stunting and wasting.

Methodology/approach

Pooling data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Bank, the analysis estimates a series of multi-level models that examine the country-level influences on malnutrition, while also accounting for household and maternal characteristics that affect food security at the individual level.

Findings

Results suggest that improvements in women’s education, control over reproduction, representation in national politics, and life expectancy correspond to improvements in child malnutrition. Notably, the effects of gender inequality are comparable to or larger than those of economic development. The multi-level modeling technique illustrates how social forces that are larger than the individual shape the chances of experiencing food insecurity.

Research limitations

Cross-national data are limited in scope and cannot prove causality. Further research is also needed to better understand the process by which women wield advances in rights and empowerment to affect food security.

Social implications

If policymakers want to facilitate food security in poor countries, they should not disregard the potential of policies that will promote more equitable rights for women.

Details

Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-054-1

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Diwa Pandey, Mohammed H. Buzgeia, Safaa A.E. Badr, Faiza Gheith Senussi, Haifa Ibrahim El‐Mokasabi and Aisha Mohammed El‐Shahomi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of actual malnutrition and its risk among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in the Libyan city…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of actual malnutrition and its risk among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in the Libyan city of Benghazi.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional nutritional assessment study using the patient‐generated subjective global assessment (PG‐SGA) was carried out on 200 (91 males and 109 females) cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

Findings

A total of 25 per cent of the subjects were severely malnourished while 73.5 per cent were either at risk of malnutrition or suspected to be malnourished. Almost all (99.5 per cent) needed some degree of intervention (critical in nature for 83.5 per cent). Family income and physical activity were associated with nutritional status (p<0.05). Body Mass Index alone is an insensitive criterion for identifying malnutrition among such patients. All the sections and subsections of the PG‐SGA had a statistically significant positively correlation with its total score (r=0.51‐0.96, p<0.05). Dieticians played a very limited role in patient nutritional care.

Practical implications

It is suggested that dieticians should play a more participatory and prominent role in a multidisciplinary team involved in patient nutritional care. The PG‐SGA can help identify areas where tailor made strategies to counteract specific malnutrition or its risk can be planned, implemented and monitored.

Originality/value

There exists a considerable prevalence of malnutrition among Benghazi cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, most of whom need critical intervention.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Dare Akerele, Mohammed Kebiru Ibrahim and Samuel Adewuyi

– The study aimed to investigate the problem of malnutrition among Nigerian households with emphasis on protein and calorie intake.

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515

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to investigate the problem of malnutrition among Nigerian households with emphasis on protein and calorie intake.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-stage random sampling approach was used to select 321 household members drawn from a total of 80 households. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was applied in analysing the data.

Findings

The study revealed that household income, dependency ratio, education and gender of household head, among others, are factors that would significantly influence per capita daily calorie and protein intake of households. Protein-energy malnutrition is more of inadequate calorie than protein intake. There was confirmatory evidence of inadequate consumption of calorie among pre-school and school age children, while adult male members seemed to consume the above requirements with the possibility of being at the risk of obesity. Though children were undernourished, they are unlikely to be marasmic.

Originality/value

The study examined the problem of malnutrition among Nigerian households with emphasis on protein and calorie intake. Socio-economic factors influencing per capita calorie and protein intakes as well as the possible risks of protein-energy malnutrition among household members were also examined. The patterns of intake of calorie and protein consumption among household members indicated the possibility of over-nutrition and under-nutrition coexisting among members of the households with over-nutrition and potential risks of obesity in adult males and under-nutrition among pre-school and school age children.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Iqramul Haq, Md. Ismail Hossain, Mst. Moushumi Parvin, Ahmed Abdus Saleh Saleheen, Md. Jakaria Habib and Imru- Al-Quais Chowdhury

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with child nutrition for both male and female children in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted among 23,099 mothers or caretakers of children under five years of age from a nationally representative survey named Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2019. This study used chi-square test statistic for bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted effects of those covariates on child nutritional status.

Findings

The prevalence of severely malnourished, nourishment was higher for males than females (5.3% vs 5.1%, 77.4% vs 76.8%) while moderately malnourished were higher for females (18.1% vs 17.4%). The findings from the multinomial model insinuated that the mother’s education level, wealth index, region, early child development, mother’s functional difficulties, child disability, reading children's books and diarrhea had a highly significant effect on moderate and severe malnutrition for male children. For the female children model, factors such as mother’s education level, wealth index, fever, child disability, rural, diarrhea, early child development and reading less than three books were significant for moderate and severe malnutrition.

Originality/value

There is a solution to any kind of problem and malnutrition is not an exceptional health problem. So, to overcome this problem, policymakers should take effective measures to improve maternal education level, wealth status, child health.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

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2320

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Norain Zainudin, Aliza Haslinda Hamirudin, Nor Azlina A. Rahman and Suriati Sidek

This research aims to identify malnutrition risk and perception of malnourished and at-risk elderly individuals on their dietary practices.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to identify malnutrition risk and perception of malnourished and at-risk elderly individuals on their dietary practices.

Design/methodology/approach

In Phase 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 413 elderly individuals aged 60 years and above in agricultural settlements in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Malnutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF). In Phase 2, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted among 21 elderly individuals identified in Phase 1. The interviews ceased when data saturation was achieved.

Findings

25.7 per cent (n = 106) of elderly individuals were identified as malnourished and at-risk (MNA-SF score = <12). Age, smoking, income and living status were significantly associated with malnutrition risk (p < 0.05). Thematic analysis revealed four themes that represent elderly individuals’ perception on their dietary practices: the impact of aging on dietary intake; food restriction according to health condition; poor dietary intake due to feeling of loneliness; and perceived benefits of foods for health.

Research limitations/implications

Strategies from multidisciplinary healthcare professionals to eliminate improper dietary practice are required for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life among the elderly.

Originality/value

This research is at the forefront in reporting the elderly individuals’ perception on dietary practice in agricultural settlement. Attention to individual’s health issues and the associated factors that may influence their dietary practices is essential to provide appropriate interventions to achieve optimum nutritional status and healthy aging.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000