Search results

1 – 10 of over 3000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Francis Kwotua Apungu, Charles Apprey, Emmanuel Kobla Atsu Amewu, Samuel Terkper Ahuno and Alexander Kwarteng

The purpose of the study is to assess the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS (18-60 years) in selected health facilities in the eastern region of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to assess the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS (18-60 years) in selected health facilities in the eastern region of Ghana and to determine the influence nutrition support programmes (NSP) have on the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective study design was used. Purposive and convenience sampling was used to select four hospitals and 200 beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the NSP. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical history of the participants. Dietary intake was assessed with food frequency and 24-h dietary intake questionnaires. Previous data from the medical record within three to six months before the research was collected and compared with current data.

Findings

The prevalence of underweight (using body mass index) was 17 per cent and overweight/obesity was 37 per cent. Most respondents had adequate consumption of phosphorus (70.5 per cent); inadequate intake of calcium (95 per cent), vitamin E (77.5 per cent) and vitamin A (94 per cent); and excess intakes of sodium (93 per cent), selenium (77 per cent), copper (83.5 per cent) and manganese (76 per cent). There was no significant difference in nutrient intake of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the NSP, although there were significant differences in the frequency of consumption of fruits (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), legumes (p = 0.002), animal foods (p < 0.001) and cereals, grains and starch (p < 0.001) between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of NSP. About 38 and 20 per cent of respondents, respectively, had low haemoglobin (Hb < 11 g/dL) and high viral load (1,000 cp/mL). Comparing the current and previous (three to six months before the study) health and nutritional status of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of NSP, among the beneficiaries of NSP, monocytes increased by 40.6 per cent (p = 0.028) and mean weight decreased by 2.4 per cent (p = 0.007), Hb decreased by 7.1 per cent (p = 0.27) and viral load decreased by 4.2 per cent (p = 0.49), whereas among the non-beneficiaries, mean weight decreased by 0.05 per cent (p = 0.95) and Hb increased by 9.6 per cent (p = 0.06) and monocytes increased (p = 0.28) and viral load increased by 98.2 per cent (p = 0.34).

Research limitations/implications

A significant proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS had a high prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, inadequate nutrients intake and high viral load. The NSP for people living with HIV/AIDS in the eastern region of Ghana did not significantly influence the nutritional and health status of these people.

Practical implications

Knowing the nutritional status will help health institutions plan activities towards improving the health and nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS. This research is aimed at not only contributing to the existing body of knowledge but also making recommendations of action towards improving NSPs of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Social implications

Improvement in nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS will help reduce morbidity and mortality and its related cost to families, communities and the nation.

Originality/value

This study is first to determine the influence of NSPs on nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS in the eastern region of Ghana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Alina Jaroch, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Alicja Kowalkowska, Emilia Główczewska-Siedlecka and Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of individualized nutritional intervention was conducted a comprehensive assessment of the nutritional status of frail older adults and evaluation of the effect of nutritional intervention on the nutritional status of pre-frail older patients.

Design/methodology/approach

Frail older adults (n = 43; mean age 84.6 ± 6.4 years old; 81.4% women) had nutritional status assessed using nutritional anthropometry, body composition, and food frequency questionnaire. Pre-frail patients (n = 16; mean age 68.4 ± 5.5 years old; 81.3% women) for eight weeks were consuming 1.0 g protein/kg BW/day. Robust older adults formed a control group (n = 29; mean age 69.3 ± 5.3 years old; 82.8% women).

Findings

Frail older adults had weight and muscle mass loss, and their diet variety was sufficient. After the intervention, pre-frail patients increased their protein consumption by 25.8% (P = 0.002). An increase in lean body mass (+1.0 kg), skeletal muscle mass (+0.3 kg) and improvement in physical performance was also observed.

Originality/value

An individual diet for pre-frail older adults can reverse weight loss and increase lean body mass, furthermore preventing or delaying the development of frailty syndrome. Moreover, increased protein consumption improves physical performance of pre-frail older adults.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jacqueline Doumit

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between nutritional status and associated risk factors such as:, socio-economic, physical, pathological and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between nutritional status and associated risk factors such as:, socio-economic, physical, pathological and psychological factors, among elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was carried out in 36 elderly care nursing homes with 2,094 residents. Of these, only 221 (11 per cent) elderly met the inclusion criteria and successfully completed the interview question. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions: oral, nutritional, depression, chronic diseases and activities of daily living, were collected. The analysis used a chi-square test and a binary logistic regression.

Findings

High levels of malnourishment were found among elderly who had no jobs (p = 0.012) and had oral health problems (p = 0.038), functional impairment (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.021). Comorbid illnesses, however, had no significant association with nutritional status. In addition, the first and strongest predictor entered in the regression on malnutrition was functional impairment (p = 0.002) followed by oral health problems (p = 0.030) and depression (p = 0.036).

Originality/value

The study is original in the sense that it emphasized the importance of three factors, autonomy, better oral and psychological health, in mediating nutritional outcomes for elderly residing in nursing homes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Yee Xing You, Suzana Shahar, Hasnah Haron, Hanis Mastura Yahya and Normah Che Din

Aging adults from low-income residential areas were found to have poor nutritional status and mental health based on National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia (2015)…

Abstract

Purpose

Aging adults from low-income residential areas were found to have poor nutritional status and mental health based on National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia (2015). Good nutrient intake contributes positively in averting these problems. Traditional Asian vegetables (ulam) are rich in polyphenols, antioxidants and fibres which could enhance nutritional status and mood state. This study intended to determine the relationship between habitual ulam intake and nutritional status, mood state and cognition among 252 aging Malaysian adults aged 45–80 years from the low-income residential areas in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

It was a cross-sectional study that used convenient sampling. Advertisement and invitation letters were sent to three selected community centres in Klang Valley prior to data collection. Informed consent was obtained prior to the collection of socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurement was performed as per standard protocols. Validated surveys were conducted to obtain information on ulam consumption, mood state and cognitive status using validated food frequency questionnaires, Profile of Mood State and Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaires, respectively.

Findings

The average of ulam intake was 20.5 ± 2.5 g/day (½ serving daily). Habitual ulam intake was associated with lower waist circumference (R2 = 0.166, β = −0.216, p < 0.01), better MMSE scores (R2 = 0.337, β = 0.128, p < 0.05), less anger (R2 = 0.081, β = −0.116, p < 0.05), less tension (R2 = 0.139, β = −0.204, p < 0.01) and positive total mood disturbance (R2 = 0.095, β = 0.164, p < 0.05) after adjustment for gender, age, energy intake, total fruits and vegetables (non-ulam) consumption. The ulam intake at 100th percentile (=30g/day) associated to a better nutritional status, mood state and cognitive status in comparison to 25th percentile (<7.9 g/day) (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

Findings from this research would recommend people to consume not less than 1 serving of ulam everyday in order to have improved nutritional status, mood and cognition; nonetheless, future studies are required to clarify the causal mechanism concerning this relationship.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Dorah Kwamboka Momanyi, Willis O. Owino, Anselimo Makokha, Esther Evang, Habte Tsige and Michael Krawinkel

This paper aims to describe food insecurity status, food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kitui and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe food insecurity status, food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kitui and Kilifi counties of Kenya. It also explores associations between these and household socio-demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study design was performed with a sample of 216 caregiver/child pairs interviewed. Tablet-based semi-structured questions were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics of children (6-13 years) and caregivers. Food insecurity status was assessed using the household food insecurity experience scale. Information on food consumption was obtained from qualitative 24-h recall as a basis for calculating a household dietary diversity score. Data were also obtained from a non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of children and caregivers’ height and weight were taken to assess their nutritional status. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24 and WHO AnthroPlus 1.0.4.

Findings

The majority (98.2 per cent) of the households were food insecurity despite 81.5 and 57.4 per cent in Kitui and Kilifi counties, respectively, owning baobab trees. About 32.1 per cent of the households had poor dietary diversity scores (< 4). The prevalence of stunting (28.6 per cent), wasting (11.6 per cent) and underweight (25 per cent) rates among children were high. A significant association was observed between the children stunting rates with their age (p = 0.027), and also with household’s food security status (p < 0.001). Of the caregivers, 14.8 per cent were underweight, 18.1 per cent were overweight and 8.8 per cent were obese. There was significant association between the nutrition status of the caregivers and gender of the children (p < 0.001) and also with stunting rates of children (p = 0.047).

Originality/value

The study provides data on the current food security status and food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kenya which are mostly areas of marginal agricultural potential. The findings indicate a need for appropriate dietary improvements.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Iqramul Haq, Md. Ismail Hossain, Mst. Moushumi Parvin, Ahmed Abdus Saleh Saleheen, Md. Jakaria Habib and Imru- Al-Quais Chowdhury

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with child nutrition for both male and female children in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted among 23,099 mothers or caretakers of children under five years of age from a nationally representative survey named Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2019. This study used chi-square test statistic for bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted effects of those covariates on child nutritional status.

Findings

The prevalence of severely malnourished, nourishment was higher for males than females (5.3% vs 5.1%, 77.4% vs 76.8%) while moderately malnourished were higher for females (18.1% vs 17.4%). The findings from the multinomial model insinuated that the mother’s education level, wealth index, region, early child development, mother’s functional difficulties, child disability, reading children's books and diarrhea had a highly significant effect on moderate and severe malnutrition for male children. For the female children model, factors such as mother’s education level, wealth index, fever, child disability, rural, diarrhea, early child development and reading less than three books were significant for moderate and severe malnutrition.

Originality/value

There is a solution to any kind of problem and malnutrition is not an exceptional health problem. So, to overcome this problem, policymakers should take effective measures to improve maternal education level, wealth status, child health.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Alan Adams and Vanessa Ferrett

States that sandwiches purchased by customers from an outlet in the centre of Manchester (UK) were analysed and a comparison was made between the actual nutritional status

Abstract

States that sandwiches purchased by customers from an outlet in the centre of Manchester (UK) were analysed and a comparison was made between the actual nutritional status of the sandwiches and customers’ perceptions of the same. Customers selected, on average, sandwiches which were below the standard nutrient requirement for energy and non‐starch polysaccharide. However, they were adequate on other criteria such as iron and saturated fatty acid. Customers with relatively higher nutritional knowledge were no better at judging the nutritional content of their sandwiches, which suggests that customers generally should benefit from clearly presented, easy to understand, nutritional information.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 99 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Gopal Chandra Mandal, Kaushik Bose and Slawomir Koziel

Developing countries like India, accounts for about 40 percent of undernourished children in the World and it is largely due to the result of dietary inadequacy in…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing countries like India, accounts for about 40 percent of undernourished children in the World and it is largely due to the result of dietary inadequacy in relation to their needs. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the changes in the nutritional status of the children, from their preschool days to the present primary school days.

Design/methodology/approach

The present investigation was conducted at 20 Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) centers (Center-A) and 15 primary schools (Center-B) in Bali Gram Panchayat, Arambag, Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, at an interval of three to four years. A total of 1,012 children (boys=498; girls=514) aged two to six years old enrolled in these ICDS centers and a total of 603 children (boys=300, girls=303), aged five to ten years were studied from the 15 primary schools who were the beneficiaries of ICDS centers. Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) and wasting (weight-for height Z-score (WHZ)) were used to assess the nutritional status.

Findings

The nutritional situation (both in case of underweight and wasting) was better in Center B as compared with Center A. In general, the nutritional condition of boys was better than girls. Center had a very significant effect on both WAZ as well as WHZ, irrespective of age and sex. Sex has a significant impact only on WAZ. Interestingly, there was no significant sex-center interaction for both WAZ as well as WHZ. The children of the area were getting Mid Day Meal supplied through the school authorities which was comparatively better than the ICDS centers’ food supplementation. Better monitoring of nutritional supplementation at primary schools may be an important factor.

Practical implications

In ICDS centers, only the Anganwari worker is responsible in running and implementing the programs offered by the Government. However, at primary schools, the active involvement of all the teachers to run the program may have effectively led to have better results. Furthermore, the Government's focus should not be only on the increase the area covered by the ICDS program, but focus should be to increase the quality of food supplied, proper monitoring of the implementation and increase the allocation of funds. Appropriate measures may be taken by the authorities regarding this.

Originality/value

The results of the study will help in policy making in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Maeve C. Brady

Notes that the main criteria for selecting nutrients to be added to foods are that they are shown to be safe, effective and beneficial, or that for certain at‐risk…

Abstract

Notes that the main criteria for selecting nutrients to be added to foods are that they are shown to be safe, effective and beneficial, or that for certain at‐risk population groups there is a demonstrable need. Also that addition of nutrients requires careful attention to food regulations, labelling, nutritional rationale, cost, acceptability of the product to consumers and assessment of technical and analytical limitations for compliance with label declarations. Points out that there are several examples where the nutritional enrichment of foods (restoration and fortification) has helped prevent or reduce the level of nutritional inadequacies within a population. Concludes that foods with added nutrients provide an ideal vehicle for improving the nutritional status of populations, particularly in the light of changing lifestyles and dietary patterns.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000