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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

2396

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Ni Ny Wedarthani Achintya Amrita, Ni Wayan Arya Utami and Kadek Tresna Adhi

This study aims to examine determinants of underweight and overweight nutritional status among late adolescents in Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine determinants of underweight and overweight nutritional status among late adolescents in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 Indonesian Family Life Survey 5 (IFLS-5) was conducted. Respondents for this study were selected through stratified and multistage random sampling. Of all IFLS-5 respondents, 2,791 were adolescents 18–24 years old. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to identify major determinants of nutritional status among late adolescents.

Findings

The prevalence of underweight and overweight nutritional status was 19.10% and 12.79%, respectively. Underweight status among late adolescents was strongly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–2.33). Moreover, living in urban areas showed the strongest association with overweight status among the same group (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.29–2.44).

Research limitations/implications

This study gained the advantage from the use of national data that are collected by trained enumerators. Therefore, the possibility of bias is very small, and the study results can be generalized to a late adolescent group in Indonesia. However, this study also has limitations in the types of data available, as it uses secondary data. The lack of detailed data regarding food security, frequency of food consumption in a month and sources of income of the adolescents limit the interpretation of the study. Further studies should consider using a retrospective cohort approach in all adolescent age groups using data from the IFLS-1 to IFLS-5 so that the temporal relationship of the multifactorial nutrition variables can be identified.

Practical implications

Provide input and advice to policymakers in all sectors related to adolescent health and educational curricula for consideration in making interventions that focus on improving nutrition by taking into account the characteristics of adolescents, such as smoking habits, area of residence, income and age of adolescents because nutritional problems are multifactorial.

Social implications

This study can provide education to adolescents to create healthier consumption habits to reduce non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the adult phase, ideal body weight, reduce unhealthy lifestyles (smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs) and increase self-esteem and reduce depression.

Originality/value

This study brings significant findings on the dominant determinant of nutritional status among late adolescents in Indonesia and their vulnerability to NCDs. To address the high prevalence of underweight and overweight nutritional status in Indonesia, a collaboration between smoking cessation, community nutrition and reproductive health programs is required for preventing the underweight nutritional status in adolescents, with a focus on obesity prevention for adolescents living in urban areas. It is expected that this collaboration will support the early prevention of NCD risks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2019

Francis Kwotua Apungu, Charles Apprey, Emmanuel Kobla Atsu Amewu, Samuel Terkper Ahuno and Alexander Kwarteng

The purpose of the study is to assess the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS (18-60 years) in selected health facilities in the eastern region of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to assess the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS (18-60 years) in selected health facilities in the eastern region of Ghana and to determine the influence nutrition support programmes (NSP) have on the nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective study design was used. Purposive and convenience sampling was used to select four hospitals and 200 beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the NSP. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical history of the participants. Dietary intake was assessed with food frequency and 24-h dietary intake questionnaires. Previous data from the medical record within three to six months before the research was collected and compared with current data.

Findings

The prevalence of underweight (using body mass index) was 17 per cent and overweight/obesity was 37 per cent. Most respondents had adequate consumption of phosphorus (70.5 per cent); inadequate intake of calcium (95 per cent), vitamin E (77.5 per cent) and vitamin A (94 per cent); and excess intakes of sodium (93 per cent), selenium (77 per cent), copper (83.5 per cent) and manganese (76 per cent). There was no significant difference in nutrient intake of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the NSP, although there were significant differences in the frequency of consumption of fruits (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.001), legumes (p = 0.002), animal foods (p < 0.001) and cereals, grains and starch (p < 0.001) between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of NSP. About 38 and 20 per cent of respondents, respectively, had low haemoglobin (Hb < 11 g/dL) and high viral load (1,000 cp/mL). Comparing the current and previous (three to six months before the study) health and nutritional status of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of NSP, among the beneficiaries of NSP, monocytes increased by 40.6 per cent (p = 0.028) and mean weight decreased by 2.4 per cent (p = 0.007), Hb decreased by 7.1 per cent (p = 0.27) and viral load decreased by 4.2 per cent (p = 0.49), whereas among the non-beneficiaries, mean weight decreased by 0.05 per cent (p = 0.95) and Hb increased by 9.6 per cent (p = 0.06) and monocytes increased (p = 0.28) and viral load increased by 98.2 per cent (p = 0.34).

Research limitations/implications

A significant proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS had a high prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, inadequate nutrients intake and high viral load. The NSP for people living with HIV/AIDS in the eastern region of Ghana did not significantly influence the nutritional and health status of these people.

Practical implications

Knowing the nutritional status will help health institutions plan activities towards improving the health and nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS. This research is aimed at not only contributing to the existing body of knowledge but also making recommendations of action towards improving NSPs of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Social implications

Improvement in nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS will help reduce morbidity and mortality and its related cost to families, communities and the nation.

Originality/value

This study is first to determine the influence of NSPs on nutritional and health status of people living with HIV/AIDS in the eastern region of Ghana.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Alina Jaroch, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Alicja Kowalkowska, Emilia Główczewska-Siedlecka and Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of individualized nutritional intervention was conducted a comprehensive assessment of the nutritional status of frail older adults and evaluation of the effect of nutritional intervention on the nutritional status of pre-frail older patients.

Design/methodology/approach

Frail older adults (n = 43; mean age 84.6 ± 6.4 years old; 81.4% women) had nutritional status assessed using nutritional anthropometry, body composition, and food frequency questionnaire. Pre-frail patients (n = 16; mean age 68.4 ± 5.5 years old; 81.3% women) for eight weeks were consuming 1.0 g protein/kg BW/day. Robust older adults formed a control group (n = 29; mean age 69.3 ± 5.3 years old; 82.8% women).

Findings

Frail older adults had weight and muscle mass loss, and their diet variety was sufficient. After the intervention, pre-frail patients increased their protein consumption by 25.8% (P = 0.002). An increase in lean body mass (+1.0 kg), skeletal muscle mass (+0.3 kg) and improvement in physical performance was also observed.

Originality/value

An individual diet for pre-frail older adults can reverse weight loss and increase lean body mass, furthermore preventing or delaying the development of frailty syndrome. Moreover, increased protein consumption improves physical performance of pre-frail older adults.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jacqueline Doumit

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between nutritional status and associated risk factors such as:, socio-economic, physical, pathological and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between nutritional status and associated risk factors such as:, socio-economic, physical, pathological and psychological factors, among elderly residing in Lebanese nursing homes.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was carried out in 36 elderly care nursing homes with 2,094 residents. Of these, only 221 (11 per cent) elderly met the inclusion criteria and successfully completed the interview question. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions: oral, nutritional, depression, chronic diseases and activities of daily living, were collected. The analysis used a chi-square test and a binary logistic regression.

Findings

High levels of malnourishment were found among elderly who had no jobs (p = 0.012) and had oral health problems (p = 0.038), functional impairment (p < 0.001) and depression (p = 0.021). Comorbid illnesses, however, had no significant association with nutritional status. In addition, the first and strongest predictor entered in the regression on malnutrition was functional impairment (p = 0.002) followed by oral health problems (p = 0.030) and depression (p = 0.036).

Originality/value

The study is original in the sense that it emphasized the importance of three factors, autonomy, better oral and psychological health, in mediating nutritional outcomes for elderly residing in nursing homes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Yee Xing You, Suzana Shahar, Hasnah Haron, Hanis Mastura Yahya and Normah Che Din

Aging adults from low-income residential areas were found to have poor nutritional status and mental health based on National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia (2015)…

Abstract

Purpose

Aging adults from low-income residential areas were found to have poor nutritional status and mental health based on National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia (2015). Good nutrient intake contributes positively in averting these problems. Traditional Asian vegetables (ulam) are rich in polyphenols, antioxidants and fibres which could enhance nutritional status and mood state. This study intended to determine the relationship between habitual ulam intake and nutritional status, mood state and cognition among 252 aging Malaysian adults aged 45–80 years from the low-income residential areas in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

It was a cross-sectional study that used convenient sampling. Advertisement and invitation letters were sent to three selected community centres in Klang Valley prior to data collection. Informed consent was obtained prior to the collection of socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurement was performed as per standard protocols. Validated surveys were conducted to obtain information on ulam consumption, mood state and cognitive status using validated food frequency questionnaires, Profile of Mood State and Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaires, respectively.

Findings

The average of ulam intake was 20.5 ± 2.5 g/day (½ serving daily). Habitual ulam intake was associated with lower waist circumference (R2 = 0.166, β = −0.216, p < 0.01), better MMSE scores (R2 = 0.337, β = 0.128, p < 0.05), less anger (R2 = 0.081, β = −0.116, p < 0.05), less tension (R2 = 0.139, β = −0.204, p < 0.01) and positive total mood disturbance (R2 = 0.095, β = 0.164, p < 0.05) after adjustment for gender, age, energy intake, total fruits and vegetables (non-ulam) consumption. The ulam intake at 100th percentile (=30g/day) associated to a better nutritional status, mood state and cognitive status in comparison to 25th percentile (<7.9 g/day) (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

Findings from this research would recommend people to consume not less than 1 serving of ulam everyday in order to have improved nutritional status, mood and cognition; nonetheless, future studies are required to clarify the causal mechanism concerning this relationship.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Dorah Kwamboka Momanyi, Willis O. Owino, Anselimo Makokha, Esther Evang, Habte Tsige and Michael Krawinkel

This paper aims to describe food insecurity status, food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kitui and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe food insecurity status, food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kitui and Kilifi counties of Kenya. It also explores associations between these and household socio-demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study design was performed with a sample of 216 caregiver/child pairs interviewed. Tablet-based semi-structured questions were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics of children (6-13 years) and caregivers. Food insecurity status was assessed using the household food insecurity experience scale. Information on food consumption was obtained from qualitative 24-h recall as a basis for calculating a household dietary diversity score. Data were also obtained from a non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of children and caregivers’ height and weight were taken to assess their nutritional status. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24 and WHO AnthroPlus 1.0.4.

Findings

The majority (98.2 per cent) of the households were food insecurity despite 81.5 and 57.4 per cent in Kitui and Kilifi counties, respectively, owning baobab trees. About 32.1 per cent of the households had poor dietary diversity scores (< 4). The prevalence of stunting (28.6 per cent), wasting (11.6 per cent) and underweight (25 per cent) rates among children were high. A significant association was observed between the children stunting rates with their age (p = 0.027), and also with household’s food security status (p < 0.001). Of the caregivers, 14.8 per cent were underweight, 18.1 per cent were overweight and 8.8 per cent were obese. There was significant association between the nutrition status of the caregivers and gender of the children (p < 0.001) and also with stunting rates of children (p = 0.047).

Originality/value

The study provides data on the current food security status and food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kenya which are mostly areas of marginal agricultural potential. The findings indicate a need for appropriate dietary improvements.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Iqramul Haq, Md. Ismail Hossain, Mst. Moushumi Parvin, Ahmed Abdus Saleh Saleheen, Md. Jakaria Habib and Imru- Al-Quais Chowdhury

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to…

1222

Abstract

Purpose

Malnutrition is one of the serious public health problems especially for children and pregnant women in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with child nutrition for both male and female children in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted among 23,099 mothers or caretakers of children under five years of age from a nationally representative survey named Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2019. This study used chi-square test statistic for bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted effects of those covariates on child nutritional status.

Findings

The prevalence of severely malnourished, nourishment was higher for males than females (5.3% vs 5.1%, 77.4% vs 76.8%) while moderately malnourished were higher for females (18.1% vs 17.4%). The findings from the multinomial model insinuated that the mother’s education level, wealth index, region, early child development, mother’s functional difficulties, child disability, reading children's books and diarrhea had a highly significant effect on moderate and severe malnutrition for male children. For the female children model, factors such as mother’s education level, wealth index, fever, child disability, rural, diarrhea, early child development and reading less than three books were significant for moderate and severe malnutrition.

Originality/value

There is a solution to any kind of problem and malnutrition is not an exceptional health problem. So, to overcome this problem, policymakers should take effective measures to improve maternal education level, wealth status, child health.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Alan Adams and Vanessa Ferrett

States that sandwiches purchased by customers from an outlet in the centre of Manchester (UK) were analysed and a comparison was made between the actual nutritional status

698

Abstract

States that sandwiches purchased by customers from an outlet in the centre of Manchester (UK) were analysed and a comparison was made between the actual nutritional status of the sandwiches and customers’ perceptions of the same. Customers selected, on average, sandwiches which were below the standard nutrient requirement for energy and non‐starch polysaccharide. However, they were adequate on other criteria such as iron and saturated fatty acid. Customers with relatively higher nutritional knowledge were no better at judging the nutritional content of their sandwiches, which suggests that customers generally should benefit from clearly presented, easy to understand, nutritional information.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 99 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Esma Asil, Aslı Uçar, Çağla Zeynep Tunay and Aynur Bütün Ayhan

This study aims to evaluate the nutritional habits, eating behavior and nutritional status of children with autism.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the nutritional habits, eating behavior and nutritional status of children with autism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted with 60 boys and 16 girls diagnosed with autism (mean age: 8.3 ± 4.9 years). Research data were collected from parents of children with autism using a questionnaire form developed by researchers after literature searching. The height and body weight of the children were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated.

Findings

Almost half of the children except the 13–18 age group were overweight/obese according to BMI. Difficulty in giving new food was 73.1% in the 2–5 age group, 70% in the 6–12 age group and 40% in the 13–18 age group (p = 0.04). It was determined that the children refused to consume a median of 3 (1–8) types of food (p = 0.04) and were obsessed with consuming 2 (1–4) types of food and 1 (1–4) type of beverages. Additionally, milk and dairy products were refused significantly higher between 2–5 and 6–12 years than 13–18 years (p = 0.02). Also, it was found that age had an inverse effect on refusal food number (β = 0.38, 95% CI = −0.30 − −0.08, p = 0.01). In conclusion, obesity and nutritional problems such as food selectivity, food refusal and obsessive eating behavior are encountered in children with autism which affect children socially and physically and should not be ignored when planning the treatment of children with autism.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of a control group to compare the results of children with autism is an important limitation of the study.

Originality/value

This study fulfills a defined need to examine and evaluate Turkish children’s nutritional status, nutritional habits and eating behavior with autism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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