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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Lan Liu and Chengyan Yue

A similarity index of maximum residue level (MRL) regulations is introduced into a variable elasticity of substitution (VES) model to analyze the impacts of MRL regulation…

Abstract

A similarity index of maximum residue level (MRL) regulations is introduced into a variable elasticity of substitution (VES) model to analyze the impacts of MRL regulation similarity on trade flows and social welfare. We specially consider the situation where the requirements set by the importing country are stricter than those of the exporting country. We find that the more similar the MRL regulation between trading partners is, the more substitutable their goods are, and for the consumers that have home preferences for domestic goods, they prefer the imported goods that are more similar to the domestic goods. Our results also show that if the developing countries upward harmonized their MRL standards to developed countries, their exports would expand.

Details

Nontariff Measures with Market Imperfections: Trade and Welfare Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-754-2

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

May Yeung, William A. Kerr, Blair Coomber, Matthew Lantz and Alyse McConnell

Maximum residual limits (MRLs) for pesticides are based on science. This is true both for MRLs devised by national governments and multilaterally through the Codex…

Abstract

Purpose

Maximum residual limits (MRLs) for pesticides are based on science. This is true both for MRLs devised by national governments and multilaterally through the Codex. Science-based Codex MRLs are internationally harmonized to facilitate trade. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of countries have devised national MRLs and eschewed those of the Codex. These differing national standards are becoming important barriers to trade. The purpose of this paper is to explore the ramifications of these diverging MRLs for food security, investigate the reasons for the rise of national standards, and explore the role of science in regulatory processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is an examination of the scientific basis for MRLs in the context of food safety outcomes.

Findings

It finds that there is no improvement in food safety from the move to national MRLs, only a loss of the benefits of trade. As all countries, along with the Codex, claim that their MRLs are based on science, suggesting that there is a need for an examination of the role of science in the making of public policy.

Originality/value

This study identifies a potential risk to food security for food policy makers. Given future food security challenges and that pesticides are used almost universally in conventional agriculture, trade barriers based on divergent interpretations of science need to be addressed by food policy makers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Bo Xiong and John C. Beghin

Maximum residue limits (MRLs) on pesticides and veterinary drugs in plant and animal products are established to promote food safety and animal and plant health. In…

Abstract

Maximum residue limits (MRLs) on pesticides and veterinary drugs in plant and animal products are established to promote food safety and animal and plant health. In practice, however, they are often accused of creating unnecessary trade barriers. The controversy is more prominent when a given MRL is stricter than the corresponding international standard developed by Codex. Using the score indices constructed by Li and Beghin (2012), we empirically assess the implications of stringency in MRLs in plant and animal products, relative to Codex levels, for Canadian and US trade performance. We find little evidence that US imports are influenced by domestic stringency or those imposed by its trading partners. However, US exports are negatively affected by stringency in destination markets. Canada’s stringent MRLs facilitate its exports of plant and animal products and these exports do not seem to be impeded by MRL stringency in destination markets. Canada’s imports do not appear to be systematically influenced by either its own or its trading partners’ MRL stringency. We draw implications for the potential harmonization of MRLs between the two countries.

Details

Nontariff Measures with Market Imperfections: Trade and Welfare Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-754-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Chae Won Hwang and Song Soo Lim

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of differences in sanitary and phytosanitary measures as non-tariff measures (NTMs) in the tea trade between importing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of differences in sanitary and phytosanitary measures as non-tariff measures (NTMs) in the tea trade between importing and exporting countries. With the progress of trade liberalization, there has been a shift of focus to NTMs as alternative or potential trade barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to quantify an NTM on tea trade and implement its empirical application, this study designed an index of differences in maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the pesticide endosulfan and introduced it into a gravity trade model. The estimation challenges in the presence of heteroscedasticity and many zero-trade flows are resolved by taking the Heckman and Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood estimators.

Findings

This study found that differences in MRLs, arising from the stricter standards in importing countries lead to a significant decrease in tea trade value. This negative impact of differences in MRLs is found to be slightly less than that of tariffs, implying that in this case, the NTM acts as a policy substitute for import tariffs in the global tea trade.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is to suggest and quantify the differences in MRLs across countries as a substantial NTM on the global tea trade and provide its empirical application.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Tahra Elobeid, Vijay Ganji, Sara Al-Saeedi, Alaa Abdelmonem Mohamed, Hana Mohamed Dahir, Hassan Hassan, Layal Karam and Grace Attieh

The purposes of this study were to analyze fruits, vegetables, water and soil for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and to assess the food exposure of these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study were to analyze fruits, vegetables, water and soil for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and to assess the food exposure of these pesticides in Qatar.

Design/methodology/approach

Pesticides were quantified in dates, leafy vegetables, fruiting vegetables, water and soil samples using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These pesticides were α-benzene hexachloride (BHC), ß-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, g-chlordane, endosulfan I, α-chlordane, dieldrin, endrin and methoxychlor. Additionally, food exposure risk assessment was performed by estimating daily intakes of OCP.

Findings

Most analyzed samples contained at least one OCP residue. Endosulfan was the only pesticide that was not detected. The concentrations of OCP in samples were below the maximum residue level (MRL) except endosulfan. Among all the samples analyzed, ˜18% of those exceeded the MRL with respect to the concentrations of methoxychlor and heptachlor. Only intake of methoxychlor (0.018 mg/day) exceeded the MRL (0.01 mg/day). Dates and fruiting vegetables were likely to pose a higher risk than leafy vegetables because they contained heptachlor, endrin and methoxychlor. Leafy vegetables might pose a greater risk than dates and fruiting vegetables because of the presence of β-BHC and dieldrin.

Originality/value

Eight out of ten OCPs that were measured were found to be below the MRL. These pesticides should be eliminated from the food supply based on the Qatar National Implementation Plan of the Stockholm Convention in 2010. Based on the intake risk assessment, overall, the intake of OCP may not pose a major risk to human health as the concentrations of OCP were below MRL, except methoxychlor. Water and soil are the potential sources of contamination of OCP in foods that were tested in Qatar. To limit the health risks associated with OCPs, there is a need for close monitoring of food and agricultural practices and the types of pesticides imported into Qatar.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2018

Martina Tunegová, Eva Samková, Lucie Hasoňová, Marcela Klimešová, Aneta Marková, Robert Kala and Róbert Toman

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of inspections carried out by the State Veterinary Administration (SVA) of Czech Republic (CR) for the occurrence of chemical contaminants in animal products before and after CR entered the European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from e-databases of the SVA from 1999–2016 and sorted into categories (game animals and fish; livestock; food and raw material of animal origin) and time periods (one before entry and two after entry of CR to the EU). Analyses of the samples were categorized as “positive samples” (any presence of contaminants) and “samples above the MRL” (presence of contaminants exceeding the maximum residue levels).

Findings

Results showed a significant decrease in the number of positive findings of contaminants during the monitored years 1999–2016, especially after CR entered the EU. Most encouragingly, the number of samples that exceeded the MRL was less than 1 percent from all the tested samples of animal origin and, after entry to the EU, in one category (food and raw materials of animal origin) it was even less than 0.1 percent. Findings of banned substances indicate continued environmental contamination in CR; however, this remains a problem in most of Europe due to their extensive use in the past and slow degradation.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the occurrence of chemical contaminants and their levels in food of animal origin in view of the changing legislative requirements before and after CR entered the EU.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Wael Abdallah, Craig Johnson, Cristian Nitzl and Mohammed A. Mohammed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings as determined by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings as determined by the learning organization survey short-form (LOS-27) and pharmacy survey on patient safety culture instruments, and to further explore how dimensions of organizational learning relate to dimensions of pharmacy patient safety culture.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from three public hospital pharmacies and three private hospital pharmacies in Kuwait. Partial least square structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

A total of 272 surveys (59.1 percent response rate) were completed and returned. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between organizational learning and patient safety culture in hospital pharmacy settings (path coefficient of 0.826, p-value <0.05 and R2 of 0.683). Several dimensions of the organizational learning showed significant links to the various dimensions of the pharmacy patient safety culture. Specifically, training (TRN), management that reinforces learning (MRL) and supportive learning environment (SLE) had the strongest effects on the pharmacy patient safety culture dimensions. Moreover, these effects indicated that MRL, SLE and TRN were associated with improvements in most dimensions of pharmacy patient safety culture.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess the relationship between organizational learning, patient safety culture and their dimensions in hospital pharmacy settings.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Garima Sharma and Rajiv Nandan Rai

Degradation of repairable components may not be similar after each maintenance activity; thus, the classic (traditional-time based) maintenance policies, which consider…

Abstract

Purpose

Degradation of repairable components may not be similar after each maintenance activity; thus, the classic (traditional-time based) maintenance policies, which consider preventive maintenance (PM), age-based maintenance and overhauls to be done at fixed time interval, may fail to monitor the exact condition of the component. Thus, a progressive maintenance policy (PMP) may be more appropriate for the industries that deal with large, complex and critical repairable systems (RS) such as aerospace industries, nuclear power plants, etc.

Design/methodology/approach

A progressive maintenance policy is developed, in which hard life, PM scheduled time and overhaul period of the system are revised after each service activity by adjusting PM interval and mean residual life (MRL) such that the risk of failure is not increased.

Findings

A comparative study is then carried out between the classic PM policy and developed PMP, and the improvement in availability, mean time between failures and reduction in maintenance cost is registered.

Originality/value

The proposed PMP takes care of the equipment degradation more efficiently than any other existing maintenance policies and is also flexible in its application as the policy can be continuously amended as per the failure profile of the equipment. Similar maintenance policies assuming lifetime distributions are available in the literature, but to ascertain that the proposed PMP is more suitable and applicable to the industries, this paper uses Kijima-based imperfect maintenance models. The proposed PMP is demonstrated through a real-time data set example.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Nacim Nait Mohand, Abdelhakim Hammoudi, Mohammed Said Radjef, Oualid Hamza and Maria Angela Perito

This study is in line with the debate concerning the compatibility between the qualitative and quantitative food production objectives. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is in line with the debate concerning the compatibility between the qualitative and quantitative food production objectives. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causal relationship that may exist between public food safety regulations (specifically, the maximum authorised levels of chemical or microbiological contaminants), and the expected price in the spot markets (wholesale markets, for example).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a theoretical industrial economic model that identifies the causal link which may exist between public food safety regulations (e.g. the maximum authorised levels of chemical or microbiological contaminants), the expected price in domestic markets, and the rate of exclusion of local producers. This general model allows one to characterize the price formation process in markets subject to maximum residue level constraints by focusing on the role of the official inspection systems established by public authorities.

Findings

The authors show how strengthening official controls does not systematically impact negatively on producers’ participation and does not always decrease supply. Moreover, the authors show that reinforcing the maximum permitted contamination thresholds is not always sufficient for ensuring consumer health.

Originality/value

The originality of the model is that it shows how all variables (economic and sanitary variables) interact in the formation of agricultural prices and determine the final size of the productive system (number of active producers). The characterisation of the market price as a function of producers’ investment efforts and of the level of official control reliability allows one to determine both the total supply and the proportion of this supply that is contaminated (i.e. does not comply with the maximum threshold of contamination).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Sushama Murty and Resham Nagpal

The purpose of this paper is to measure technical efficiency of Indian thermal power sector employing the recent by-production approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure technical efficiency of Indian thermal power sector employing the recent by-production approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The by-production approach is used in conjunction with data from the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of India to compute the output-based Färe, Grosskopf, Lovell (FGL) efficiency index and its decomposition into productive and environmental efficiency indexes for the ITPPs

Findings

The authors show that given the aggregated nature of data on coal reported by CEA, CEA’s computation of CO2 emissions through a deterministic linear formula that does not distinguish between different coal types and the tiny share of oil in coal-based power plants, the computed output-based environmental efficiency indexes are no longer informative. Meaningful measurement of environmental efficiency using CEA data is possible only along the dimension of the coal input. Productive efficiency is positively associated with the engineering concept of thermodynamic/energy efficiency and is also high for power plants with high operating availabilities reflecting better management and O&M practices. Both these factors are high for private and centrally owned as opposed to state-owned power-generating companies. The example of Sipat demonstrates the importance of (ultra)supercritical technologies in increasing productive and thermodynamic efficiencies of the ITPPs, while also reducing CO2 emitted per unit of the net electricity generated.

Originality/value

This paper uses the by-production approach for the first time to measure technical efficiency of ITPPs and highlights how the nature of the Indian data impacts on efficiency measurement.

1 – 10 of 86