Search results

1 – 10 of 535
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Janusz Sitek, Dubravka Ročak, Krystyna Bukat, Janeta Fajfar‐Plut and Darko Belavič

The European Commission has decided that from the second half of 2006 only lead‐free solder pastes will be permitted for use in the electronics industry. Earlier results…

Abstract

The European Commission has decided that from the second half of 2006 only lead‐free solder pastes will be permitted for use in the electronics industry. Earlier results of testing showed that lead‐free solder pastes may not be appropriate for both printed‐circuit‐board (PCB) and hybrid‐circuit applications, because of the materials' compatibility with the soldering process and with the solder pads. The basic properties of the investigated pastes show which of the tested solder pastes can be used for both applications. After selection of the appropriate solder pastes, reliability tests were conducted. The surface insulation resistance was tested for both the hybrid circuits and PCBs, whereas the mechanical strength of the soldered joints of components was only tested for the PCBs.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Timo Liukkonen, Pekka Nummenpää and Aulis Tuominen

The electronics industry will implement lead‐free soldering in the near future. Lead‐free implementation steps are divided into lead‐free process and lead‐free product…

Abstract

The electronics industry will implement lead‐free soldering in the near future. Lead‐free implementation steps are divided into lead‐free process and lead‐free product. The eutectic Sn/Ag/Cu alloy seems to have become the most widely used alloy in the implementation of lead‐free processes. In this study, the requirements for component placement are discussed from the lead‐free process point of view. Experiments concerning the self‐alignment capability and tack strength of both tin‐lead and lead‐free solder pastes are presented. According to the results, a bigger variation in self‐alignment capabilities can be expected when using a lead‐free paste. The paste properties affecting the self‐alignment mechanism and tack strength are also discussed.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Joe Smetana, Rob Horsley, John Lau, Ken Snowdon, Dongkai Shangguan, Jerry Gleason, Irv Memis, Dave Love, Walter Dauksher and Bob Sullivan

The High Density Packaging Users Group conducted a substantial study of the solder joint reliability of high‐density packages using lead‐free solder. The design, material…

Abstract

The High Density Packaging Users Group conducted a substantial study of the solder joint reliability of high‐density packages using lead‐free solder. The design, material, and assembly process aspects of the project are addressed in this paper. The components studied include many surface mount technology package types, various lead, and printed circuit board finishes and paste‐in‐hole assembly.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

K. Akinade, R. Burgess, M. Campbell, S. Carver, L. Sanderson, R. Wade and C. Melton

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on…

Abstract

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on lead‐free solders in this journal and other journals. At the latest Surface Mount International conference, several papers were presented on lead‐free solder alloys, conductive adhesives and organic preservatives, all in search of replacements for lead‐containing finishes. The efforts to find a replacement for tin/lead are in response to possible legislation banning lead or possible taxation on the use of lead. In an attempt to reduce the use of lead in this company's assembly operation, five lead‐free solder pastes and four corresponding flux vehicles (for A, B, C and E pastes) were evaluated. All of the flux vehicles passed the standard industry tests except for two flux vehicles (pastes B and C) that failed the copper mirror test. An assembly trial of the lead‐free pastes was carried out by building liquid crystal display panels with minimal process modification. Printability, process compatibility and solder joint reliability were assessed. This paper describes the preliminary results of the authors' investigation.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Girish S. Wable, Quyen Chu, Purushothaman Damodaran and Krishnaswami Srihari

Historically, tin‐lead solder has been a commonly used joining material in electronics manufacturing. Environmental and health concerns, due to the leaching of lead from…

Abstract

Purpose

Historically, tin‐lead solder has been a commonly used joining material in electronics manufacturing. Environmental and health concerns, due to the leaching of lead from landfills into ground water, have necessitated legislation that restricts the use of lead in electronics. The transition from tin‐lead solder to a lead‐free solder composition is imminent. Several alternative solder alloys (and their fluxes) have been researched for electronics assembly in the last few years. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic selection process for choosing a “preferred” lead‐free solder paste, based on its print and reflow performance.

Design/methodology/approach

After a detailed study of industry preferences, published experimental data, and recommendations of various industrial consortia, a near eutectic tin‐silver‐copper (SAC) composition was selected as the preferred alloy for evaluation. Commercially available SAC solder pastes with a no‐clean chemistry were extensively investigated in a simulated manufacturing environment. A total of nine SAC pastes from seven manufacturers were evaluated in this investigation. A eutectic Sn/Pb solder paste was used as a baseline for comparison. While selecting the best lead‐free paste, it was noted that the selected paste has to perform as good as, if not better than, the current tin‐lead paste configuration used in electronics manufacturing for a particular application. The quality of the solder pastes was characterized by a series of analytical and assembly process tests consisting of, but not limited to, a printability test, a solder ball test, a slump test, and post reflow characteristics such as the tendency to form voids, self‐centring and wetting ability.

Findings

Each paste was evaluated for desirable and undesirable properties. The pastes were then scored relative to each other in each individual test. An aggregate of individual test scores determined the best paste.

Originality/value

This paper summarizes a systematic approach adopted to evaluate lead‐free solder pastes for extreme reflow profiles expected to be observed in reflow soldering lead‐free boards.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the NiO nano-reinforced solder joint characteristics of ultra-fine electronic package.

Design/methodology/approach

Lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder paste was mixed with various percentages of NiO nanoparticles to prepare the new form of nano-reinforced solder paste. The solder paste was applied to assemble the ultra-fine capacitor using the reflow soldering process. A focussed ion beam, high resolution transmission electron microscopy system equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used in this study. In addition, X-ray inspection system, field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindenter were used to analyse the solder void, microstructure, hardness and fillet height of the solder joint.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the highest fillet height was obtained with the content of 0.01 Wt.% of nano-reinforced NiO, which fulfilled the reliability requirements of the international IPC standard. However, the presence of the NiO in the lead-free solder paste only slightly influenced the changes of the intermetallic layer with the increment of weighted percentage. Moreover, the simulation method was applied to observe the distribution of NiO nanoparticles in the solder joint.

Originality/value

The findings are expected to provide a profound understanding of nano-reinforced solder joint’s characteristics of the ultra-fine package.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available
Article

Barbara Dziurdzia, Maciej Sobolewski, Janusz Mikołajek and Sebastian Wroński

This paper aims to investigate voiding phenomena in solder joints under thermal pads of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) assembled in mass production environment by reflow…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate voiding phenomena in solder joints under thermal pads of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) assembled in mass production environment by reflow soldering by using seven low-voiding lead-free solder pastes.

Design/methodology/approach

The solder pastes investigated are of SAC305 type, Innolot type or they are especially formulated by the manufacturers on the base of (SnAgCu) alloys with addition of some alloying elements such as Bi, In, Sb and Ti to provide low-void contents. The SnPb solder paste – OM5100 – was used as a benchmark. The solder paste coverage of LED solder pads was chosen as a measure of void contents in solder joints because of common usage of this parameter in industry practice.

Findings

It was found that the highest coverage and, related to it, the least void contents are in solder joints formed with the pastes LMPA-Q and REL61, which are characterized by the coverage of mean value 93.13% [standard deviation (SD) = 2.72%] and 92.93% (SD = 2.77%), respectively. The void diameters reach the mean value equal to 0.061 mm (SD = 0.044 mm) for LMPA-Q and 0.074 mm (SD = 0.052 mm) for REL61. The results are presented in the form of histograms, plot boxes and X-ray images. Some selected solder joints were observed with 3D computer tomography.

Originality/value

The statistical analyses are carried out on the basis of 2D X-ray images with using Origin software. They enable to compare features of various solder pastes recommended by manufacturers as low voiding. The results might be useful for solder paste manufacturers or electronic manufacturing services.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

I. Artaki, A.M. Jackson and P.T. Vianco

Fine pitch (0.4 mm) surface mount assembly studies were conducted with several lead‐free solder pastes formulated with both traditional RMA (∼6% residue level) and low…

Abstract

Fine pitch (0.4 mm) surface mount assembly studies were conducted with several lead‐free solder pastes formulated with both traditional RMA (∼6% residue level) and low residue (1%) flux vehicles. The lead‐free solder alloys evaluated included the two baseline eutectic binary alloys, Sn‐Bi and Sn‐Ag, and three new lead‐free solder compositions: (1)91.8Sn–4.8Bi–3.4Ag (wt%) developed at Sandia Laboratories, (2) 77.2Sn–20ln–2.8Ag (Indalloy 227) developed at Indium Corporation of America and (3) 96.2Sn–2.5Ag–0.8Cu–0.5Sb (Castin) provided by AIM, Inc. The basic physical properties pertinent to assembly performance (melting temperature and wetting behaviour) were determined for each of the new alloys. Assembly performance was assessed as a function of circuit board surface finishes, thermal reflow profiles and solder paste flux composition. The feasibility of 0.4 mm pitch assembly was established with each of the lead‐free solder alloys investigated. No issues particular to the combined use of low residue flux vehicles and lead‐free solder powders were identified. The circuit board laminates did not suffer any thermal degradation effects (reflow was performed in an inert atmosphere). All lead‐free solders, compared with the Sn‐Pb eutectic solder, exhibited reduced spreading on the circuit board lands after reflow. It was concluded that the performance of the new solder formulations is adequate for surface mount applications. Further differentiation among these solders will have to be based on their long‐term reliability performance. These studies are currently under way.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

S.T. Nurmi, J.J. Sundelin, E.O. Ristolainen and T. Lepistö

Lead‐free soldering is becoming a common practice in the electronics industry because of the growing general opposition to lead‐containing solders. The reliability of…

Abstract

Lead‐free soldering is becoming a common practice in the electronics industry because of the growing general opposition to lead‐containing solders. The reliability of lead‐free solders has been studied a lot recently, but knowledge of it is still incomplete and many issues related to them are under heavy debate. This paper presents results from a study of the formation of voids with regard to the number of reflow cycles in three different kinds of solder joints: first the ones prepared with lead‐free solder paste and lead‐free plastic ball grid array (PBGA) components, next the ones prepared with lead‐free solder paste and tin‐lead‐silver PBGA components, and last the ones prepared with tin‐lead solder paste and tin‐lead‐silver PBGA components.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Fakhrozi Che Ani, Azman Jalar, Abdullah Aziz Saad, Chu Yee Khor, Roslina Ismail, Zuraihana Bachok, Mohamad Aizat Abas and Norinsan Kamil Othman

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the characteristics of ultra-fine lead-free solder joints reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles in an electronic assembly.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focused on the microstructure and quality of solder joints. Various percentages of TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with a lead-free Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder paste. This new form of nano-reinforced lead-free solder paste was used to assemble a miniature package consisting of an ultra-fine capacitor on a printed circuit board by means of a reflow soldering process. The microstructure and the fillet height were investigated using a focused ion beam, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope system equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and a field emission scanning electron microscope coupled with an EDS and X-ray diffraction machine.

Findings

The experimental results revealed that the intermetallic compound with the lowest thickness was produced by the nano-reinforced solder with a TiO2 content of 0.05 Wt.%. Increasing the TiO2 content to 0.15 Wt.% led to an improvement in the fillet height. The characteristics of the solder joint fulfilled the reliability requirements of the IPC standards.

Practical implications

This study provides engineers with a profound understanding of the characteristics of ultra-fine nano-reinforced solder joint packages in the microelectronics industry.

Originality/value

The findings are expected to provide proper guidelines and references with regard to the manufacture of miniaturized electronic packages. This study also explored the effects of TiO2 on the microstructure and the fillet height of ultra-fine capacitors.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

1 – 10 of 535