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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Huda Khan, Richard Lee and Larry Lockshin

The common market practice by foreign marketers is to sell their brands in standard or localised packaging or sometimes both in the context of Pakistan. By examining the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The common market practice by foreign marketers is to sell their brands in standard or localised packaging or sometimes both in the context of Pakistan. By examining the differential influence of standard (Western) and local (Urdu) packaging on Pakistani consumers’ perceptions and choice under conspicuous and inconspicuous situations, this study aims to examine whether the localisation strategy is effective or even necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test first identified suitable products and brands. The main survey was conducted using convenience sampling in popular shopping precincts of the Lahore district in 2015. Participants first rated the packaging of hedonic and utilitarian products. After rating the packaging likeability, the respondents were asked to assume the two consumption situations. Their choice of standard versus local packaging under conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption situations for the same brand was recorded.

Findings

Overall, findings suggest that for hedonic products, localisation is not an effective strategy particularly for well-known Western brands such as M&M’s. For utilitarian products, packaging localisation does not render a Western brand more competitive as consumers did not like one packaging type over the other. Mode of consumption did not change the preference for standard packaging in case of hedonic products, whereas in case of utilitarian products, the mode of consumption did moderate the results for the choice of packaging; standard packaging is chosen more often under conspicuous a situation but not under an inconspicuous situation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this research show that indiscriminately localising the packaging of any products as they enter foreign markets may not be the most effective strategy for international marketers.

Originality/value

This is first study to question the common market practice of packaging localisation and investigate the differential effects of standard versus local packaging of foreign products on consumers’ perceptions and choice under varying consumption modes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Huda Khan, Larry Lockshin, Richard Lee and Armando Corsi

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By…

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Abstract

Purpose

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By examining the differential influence of standard (Western) and local (Chinese) packaging on Chinese consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour, this study aims to examine whether this strategy is effective or even necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test first identified suitable products and brands. Using a multiple methods approach, online participants in China first rated the brands and packaging of hedonic and utilitarian products. The ratings were then validated by triangulating with the results of a discrete choice experiment that captured participants’ choice behaviour.

Findings

For hedonic products, standard packaging is rated more positively and chosen more often than local packaging. For utilitarian products, there are no differences in ratings and choice. For hedonic products, brand likeability is higher for standard packaging than for local packaging. For utilitarian products, brand likeability does not differ between the two packaging types.

Research limitations/implications

These findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of indiscriminate packaging localisation. International marketers need to rethink their approach, particularly in non-Western markets. Interviews with five brand managers in charge of major consumer brands in China revealed their actual market practice and further illuminate this study’s findings.

Originality/value

This is first study to question the common market practice of packaging localisation and investigate the differential effects of standard versus local packaging of foreign products on consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Larry Lockshin and Armando Maria Corsi

The purpose of this paper is to present seven mega-topics wine business researchers could collaborate on to help the global wine industry better cope with changes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present seven mega-topics wine business researchers could collaborate on to help the global wine industry better cope with changes occurring across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The first six of these topics emerged at a strategy planning session held in Australia in July 2019, and one more topic of concern was decided to be added that will help wine business researchers better model wine buying/wine tourism behaviour.

Findings

The seven topic areas are profitability and sustainability of different wine business models; interrelated risk and opportunities in the wine supply chain; how to stimulate innovation; managing growing social pressure and social license; building regional resilience and managing local growth; conducting research in emerging markets and how to measure the impact of marketing activities there; and accounting for infrequent and non-wine alcohol buyers in research.

Originality/value

Academics in wine business (and other areas) often pursue research of personal interest and convenience. However, this behaviour has often led to the accusation, particularly from industry, that this research does not really provide answers to the questions that really matter to industry. This viewpoint provides an industry-generated set of big picture research areas that have both academic and practical value.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Michelle Rasmussen and Larry Lockshin

As Australia embarks on the new millennium, marketers must understand the basis of consumer choice, both domestically and internationally. Generally, brands are becoming…

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Abstract

As Australia embarks on the new millennium, marketers must understand the basis of consumer choice, both domestically and internationally. Generally, brands are becoming globalised (Boze and Patton, 1995), but the wine industry provides an interesting example of global branding in the context of a plethora of brand names. In Australia alone, over one thousand wine companies produce over 16,000 wine brands (Spawton, 1998). This array of wine product creates a complex marketplace, which causes consumers great difficulty when making a purchase decision (Greatorex and Mitchell, 1988). To combat this problem, wine companies have been using branding as a means of differentiating their product (Lockshin, 1997). The introduction of geographical indicators (registered names for specific regions of origin) has spurred on the use of regional branding as a branding tool. This research is being conducted to clarify the effect of regional branding on consumer choice behaviour. The results from the qualitative research stage highlighted the fact that a small number of consumers used regional branding as a cue in their choice decision. These consumers generally had higher perceived knowledge of wine, greatly enjoyed purchasing wine and spent a longer time in the wine retail outlet than other consumer groups. A quantitative study will now be conducted to clarify which consumer groups use regional branding as part of the choice process and to determine the importance of a company's brand and price used in consumers' choice process. As wine is not the only product branded by its region of origin, this research will be beneficial to other product categories such as cheese, seafood and olive oil (Belk King, 1997).

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Martin Hirche, Juliane Haensch and Larry Lockshin

Little research on the influence of external factors, such as weather and holiday periods, on retail sales on alcoholic beverages is available. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Little research on the influence of external factors, such as weather and holiday periods, on retail sales on alcoholic beverages is available. This study aims to investigate how weekly retail sales of different alcoholic beverages vary in association with daily maximum temperatures and annual federal holidays across selected US counties in the years 2013 to 2015. The research provides information, which can contribute to better sales forecasts.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data of weekly retail sales (volume) of alcoholic beverages from 37,346 stores in 651 counties in the USA are analysed. The data cover on average 21% of all existing US counties and 12% of the total US off-trade retail sales of alcoholic beverages in the period studied (Euromonitor, 2017). Additional data of federal holidays and meteorological data are collated for each county in the sample. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with exogenous regressors (SARIMAX) are applied to develop forecasting models and to investigate possible relationships and effects.

Findings

The results indicate that off-trade retail sales of beer, liquor, red and white wine are temperature sensitive throughout the year, while contrary to expectations rosé, sparkling and other wines are not. Sales sensitivities to temperature also differ by geography. In the warmest regions, liquor and white wine sales do not respond to temperature changes, as opposed to the coolest regions, where they are responsive. Public holidays, particularly Easter, Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year holidays, represent a constant influencing factor on short-term sales increases for all investigated alcoholic beverage categories.

Originality/value

This is the first large-scale study of weather and holiday-related sales variations over time, across geographies and different alcoholic beverage categories. Seasonal and non-seasonal short-term sales variations are important for retailers and manufacturers alike. Accounting for expected changes in demand accommodates efficiencies along the supply chain and has implications for retail management, as well as adjusting marketing efforts in competing categories.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Joyce Hei Tong Lau, Huda Khan, Richard Lee, Larry S. Lockshin, Anne Sharp, Jonathan Buckley and Ryan Midgley

Obesity among elderly consumers precipitates undesirable health outcomes. This study aims to investigate the effects of environmental cues on food intake of elderly…

Abstract

Purpose

Obesity among elderly consumers precipitates undesirable health outcomes. This study aims to investigate the effects of environmental cues on food intake of elderly consumers in an aged-care facility.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal study conducted over 17 weeks in situ within an aged-care facility with 31 residents investigated how auditory (soothing music), olfactory (floral-scented candle) and visual (infographic on health benefits of the main meal component) cues influenced food intake quantity during a meal, while accounting for portion size effect (PSE).

Findings

Analysing the cross-sectional results of individual treatments and rounds did not reveal any consistent patterns in the influence of the three environmental cues. Longitudinal analyses, however, showed that the presence of auditory and olfactory cues significantly increased food intake, but the visual cue did not. Moreover, PSE was strong.

Research limitations/implications

Extending research into environmental factors from a commercial to a health-care setting, this study demonstrates how the presence of auditory and olfactory, but not cognitive cues, increased food intake behaviour among elderly consumers. It also shows that a cross-sectional approach to such studies would have yielded inconclusive or even misleading findings. Merely serving more would also lead to higher food intake amount.

Practical implications

Environmental factors should be a part of health-care providers’ arsenal to manage obesity. They are practical and relatively inexpensive to implement across different health-care settings. However, the same environmental factors would have opposite desired-effects with normal or underweight residents, and hence, aged-care facilities need to separate the dining experience (or mealtime) of obese and other residents. Quantity served should also be moderated to discourage overeating.

Originality/value

While studies into managing obesity, particularly among older adults, have mainly focused on techniques such as pharmacotherapy treatments with drugs, dietary management or even lifestyle change, less attention has been given to the influence of environmental cues. This study, executed in situ within an aged-care facility, provided evidence of the importance of considering the impact of environmental factors on food intake to help reduce obesity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Larry Lockshin and Tony Spawton

Wine tourism is a major public relations medium and for many wineries a major source of revenue. This article uses theories of brand equity to develop cellar door…

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Abstract

Wine tourism is a major public relations medium and for many wineries a major source of revenue. This article uses theories of brand equity to develop cellar door strategies. These theories are supported by previous research into product involvement with wine, which shows that high and low involvement wine buyers behave differently. The two segments must be catered for differently if a winery is to build its overall reputation and brand equity. Wineries can enhance their long‐term market‐based assets through building customer relationships at cellar door. Strategies and examples are provided.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Larry Lockshin and Eli Cohen

This study aims to use product attributes and retail display information to develop cross‐national segments.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use product attributes and retail display information to develop cross‐national segments.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses consumers' choice in wine stores to develop segments of consumers, based on the relative importance of 13 factors consumers use for the retail purchase of wine. Data are collected from 11 countries, using seven languages on five continents. Best worst scaling (BWS) and latent class analysis were used to develop the clusters.

Findings

A three‐cluster structure provides a straightforward and robust segmentation across the 11 countries. This model fits better than one based on 11 single country segments. The three segments reveal different ways in which consumers choose wines: cognitive‐based, assurance‐based, and in‐store promotion‐based.

Research limitations/implications

The samples are convenience‐based and do not represent the population of wine drinkers in each country. Choice criteria, including retail communications, can be used to develop useful and robust segments cross‐nationally.

Practical implications

The three segments found in this study provide clear guidelines for wine marketers depending on whether they work for small or large wine companies. The use of choice attributes and BWS show the utility of this method in cross‐national research.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates that product attributes and retail communication devices like labels and displays can be used for cross‐national segmentation. Applying BWS and Latent Class Clustering to choice criteria leads to clear, usable, and robust segmentation across a wide range of cultures and product use histories.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Hervé Remaud and Larry Lockshin

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a wine region should develop and position its brand using the best worst scaling (BWS) approach. A better understanding of the…

2696

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a wine region should develop and position its brand using the best worst scaling (BWS) approach. A better understanding of the features that characterize a wine region is critical when raising the profile of a region and trying to capture wine consumers’ share of mind.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the degree of importance was measured of 13 features that can represent and characterize a wine region currently perceived as commodity‐based, using a questionnaire designed for the BWS approach.

Findings

The results mainly showed key similarities between the consumers and wine professionals regarding the features that can activate to raise the profile of the region. Findings also contradict the positioning recommended by industry groups and consultants.

Research limitations/implications

Using an original way to assess and measure features that would support regional brand salience, these findings confirmed the importance given to geographical names as well as activating a set of features.

Practical implications

The paper's findings suggest that the Riverland or any commodity‐based wine region would benefit from using a set of features in order to build their brand salience than relying on one single feature.

Originality/value

This paper provides preliminary findings showing the relevance of using the BWS approach when developing the key positioning messages for a wine region, or for other brands.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Larry Lockshin and David Knott

The purpose of this paper is to focus on both the sales effects of free wine tastings and the effects on attitudes towards future purchases four weeks after the tastings.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on both the sales effects of free wine tastings and the effects on attitudes towards future purchases four weeks after the tastings.

Design/methodology/approach

Store scanner data for the four weeks before and after each of ten wine tastings are used to measure the effect tastings had on sales. A total of 170 consumers, who attended a free tasting in wine shops across 4 cities, are interviewed as they leave the store and 37 of these consumers respond to a call back survey one month after the free tasting.

Findings

Scanner data shows a 400 per cent increase in sales of the wines tasted on the day of tasting, and a small but significant effect on sales during the four weeks afterwards. The survey shows that there is no difference in purchasing between those attending a tasting with the intention to purchase and those just stopping by. Both groups purchase at about the same rate. Only about 33 per cent of the attendees purchase; the other two‐thirds are boozing.

Research limitations/implications

Free tastings boost immediate sales just like most price promotions, but the effect on the intention to purchase is stronger for those who made a purchase. The study is conducted in one country among a small number of buyers, which limits its generalisability.

Practical implications

The results and implications of this research can be used by retailers and wine companies to make more informed decisions about free tastings. From this small study, attracting the maximum number of tasters to increase sales and long‐term purchasing intentions would be recommended.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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