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1 – 10 of over 17000
Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Davood Feiz, Meysam Fakharyan, Mohammad Reza Jalilvand and Marzieh Hashemi

In recent years, increasing competition in communicational network of Iran has led to attracting more attention to marketing and particularly, advertising activities. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, increasing competition in communicational network of Iran has led to attracting more attention to marketing and particularly, advertising activities. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of TV advertising appeals of communication companies (in this study, MTN Irancell Company) on customers' attitude towards their advertising efforts and their brand.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim was achieved through an empirical study involving a survey. Of 400 questionnaires sent out, 384 were returned. The dataset from the sample underwent series of statistical analyses, i.e. reliability test, factor analyses (exploratory and confirmatory) and structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

Factor analyses extracted seven dimensions, i.e. one‐sided appeal, two‐sided appeal, humour appeal, fear appeal, comparative appeal, attitude toward advertising and brand attitude. All related indicators manifested their constructs, respectively. The results show that there is a positive, direct, and significant relationship between: advertising appeals and attitude towards advertising; advertising appeals and brand attitude; and attitude towards advertising and brand attitude.

Originality/value

The paper empirically justified the interrelationship among advertising appeals, attitude toward advertising and brand attitude in an integrated model. Communication companies may find this paper useful as perceptual measures can be empirically substantiated using SEM.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Gudrun Roose, Maggie Geuens and Iris Vermeir

The purpose of this paper is to perform a preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary advertisements for healthy and…

1115

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary advertisements for healthy and unhealthy foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Western (European) food advertisements published in Belgian food magazines were content analyzed to identify informational and transformational advertising appeals. Belgian food advertising was selected as an adequate representation of Western (European) food advertising because marketing in Belgium is permeated by international influences (cf. Belgian Federal Government). Advertisements were sampled from three magazines over a period of five years, from January 2009 to December 2013. The sample comprised 325 unique advertisements, including 159 for healthy foods and 166 for unhealthy foods.

Findings

The results of the content analysis indicated that healthy food advertisements in Belgium are mainly informational, whereas unhealthy food advertisements are mainly transformational.

Originality/value

This preliminary examination of informational and transformational advertising appeals in contemporary healthy food and unhealthy food advertisements shows that healthy food advertisements in Belgium are mainly informational, whereas the segment of consumers which is precarious – people low-involved with healthy food – are mainly attracted by transformational advertising appeals. The contrasting transformational strategy of unhealthy-food advertisements can provide inspiration for healthy food advertisers to help increase healthy food consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Rahim Hussain, Ahmed Shahriar Ferdous and Gillian Sullivan Mort

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether advertising type (static or dynamic) and appeal (emotional or rational) moderate the relationship between web banner…

3043

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether advertising type (static or dynamic) and appeal (emotional or rational) moderate the relationship between web banner advertising frequency and consumer attitudinal response.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment involving 400 participants was conducted to test for the moderating effect. Factorial ANOVA is used to measure brand attitude.

Findings

The results identified that the web banner advertisement type acted as a moderator between frequency and brand attitude. However, the moderating effect of banner advertisement appeal was found to be insignificant at a single banner advertisement frequency (i.e. exposure) but significantly different at a higher frequency. The study findings provide better directives for online marketers.

Practical implications

The major limitation is the fact that the impact of banner advertisement frequency was manipulated from one to five exposures. Future research needs to determine what happens after the fifth exposure, perhaps ten exposures or more, to determine the wear-out effect and in turn, to decide on the optimal frequency level in an effort to design more appropriate web communication strategies.

Social implications

The result shows that pop-up banner advertisements are intrusive, and that high level of exposures to pop-up banner advertisement could annoy online users. Thus, online advertisers should avoid repeating the pop-up banner advertisements because this could adversely affect the attitude towards the online advertising in general, and could also negatively influence attitudes towards the brand and ultimately effect online purchase.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the theory by providing more insights into the repetition effect, and comprehensive conclusions can be drawn based on the manipulation of banner advertisement frequency on different frequency levels. The research identifies that if the communication objective is to generate brand attitude, different strategies can be adopted depending on the banner advertisement type (pop-up vs static) and banner advertisement appeal (emotional vs rational).

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

Yun‐Ying Wang, J.J. Jaw, Bruce E. Pinkleton and Cathy Morton

Because of Southeast Asia's strong economic performance in the past decade and great marketing potential, many Western marketers have increased their marketing activities…

301

Abstract

Because of Southeast Asia's strong economic performance in the past decade and great marketing potential, many Western marketers have increased their marketing activities in this area and hope for a lucrative future. Along with this strong marketing interest is a rapid increase in the number of Western advertising agencies and advertising expenditures in Southeast Asia. For example, six out of the top ten agencies in Taiwan are managed by, or work in cooperation with, American or Japanese agencies (Taipei Advertising Agency Association, 1992). According to Ogilvy & Mather, in 1985, advertising expenditures in Southeast Asia rose by almost 50 percent from 1980 to 1984. During this period, over one billion dollars were spent on mass media advertising in the region (Frith & Frith, 1990). And for the first time, U.S. agency billings from foreign sources surpassed domestic billings in 1988 (Frazer, 1990). International advertising has become a big business in Southeast Asia.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Mehdi Behboudi, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Kobra Najafi and Mina Najafi

– The purpose of this study is to verify the factors affecting the use of emotional and rational appeals in online advertising among Muslim customers in Iran.

3187

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to verify the factors affecting the use of emotional and rational appeals in online advertising among Muslim customers in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing the literature of advertising appeals and developing a comprehensive theoretical model, the effect of rational and emotional appeals on online advertising was examined. Expert questionnaire was administered to verify the validity of collected features. The Student's t-test was utilized to analyze the data collected from 271 participants.

Findings

Five latent variables, namely user type, product involvement, e-lifestyle, advertising strategies, and internet motives were examined to explain factors affecting online advertising appeals among Muslim customers in Iran. It was found that “advertising strategies” and “user type” are the most effective factors influencing Muslims customers in developing an online advertising campaign.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of this study was Iranian experts and it is necessary to conduct a survey with a larger sample size.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into factors affecting the selection of emotional and rational appeals in Muslims countries. Moreover, it reports the primary columns of online advertising appeals.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Barbara Czarnecka and Emmanuel Mogaji

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of emotional appeals in advertisements for loans and explored consumers’ perceptions of advertisements featuring such…

1588

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of emotional appeals in advertisements for loans and explored consumers’ perceptions of advertisements featuring such appeals in order to explore how emotional meanings are transferred to consumers via advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 employed content analysis to examine the use of emotional appeals in loan advertisements. Over 2,900 editions of eight British newspapers were monitored for advertisements for loans containing emotional appeals. Study 2 employed 33 semi-structured interviews to explore consumers’ perceptions of emotional appeals in loan advertisements.

Findings

Loans were positioned as services providing relief, security and excitement. The use of negative emotional appeals such as guilt, fear and sorrow was sporadic. Loans that carried the most risk were advertised with positive emotional appeals the most frequently. Five dimensions of perceptions of emotional loan advertisements were conceptualised from the reported data in Study 2.

Originality/value

This is the first study in the UK to examine the use of emotional appeals in loan advertising and to explore consumers’ perceptions of loan advertisements featuring emotional appeals. The study identified five dimensions of perceptions of emotional appeals.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Fang Liu, Hong Cheng and Jianyao Li

Sex appeal has been widely used in most countries. However, little is known about consumers' responses to sex appeal advertising in different cultures. The purpose of this…

21242

Abstract

Purpose

Sex appeal has been widely used in most countries. However, little is known about consumers' responses to sex appeal advertising in different cultures. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of sex appeal on ad and brand evaluation among Australian, Chinese and US consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopted a three (Australia, China and the USA) × two (male or female model) × two (low or high level of sex appeal) between‐group factorial design.

Findings

Australian, Chinese and US consumers have significantly different attitudes when exposed to the same ad. However, consumer buying intentions towards the advertised brand are not significantly different. Despite the general assumption that Chinese consumers might react least favourably to sex appeal ads, this paper finds that they hold similar attitudes towards sex appeal ads as US consumers and even more favourable attitudes than Australian consumers. Product involvement is found to be a significant covariate.

Research limitations/implications

The sample includes young consumers, who may be more tolerant to sex appeal advertising than older generations in China. A similar situation may exist in Australia and the USA.

Practical implications

Understanding how consumers in different cultures respond to different advertising appeal strategies is important for international advertisers.

Originality/value

This is the first reported empirical study that compares Chinese consumers' responses to sex appeal advertising with those in Western countries. Findings add to the understanding of the standardisation‐localisation debate.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Hae‐Kyong Bang, Mary Anne Raymond, Charles R. Taylor and Young Sook Moon

This cross‐national study seeks to examine the service quality dimensions and advertising appeals conveyed in services advertisements in the USA and Korea.

4058

Abstract

Purpose

This cross‐national study seeks to examine the service quality dimensions and advertising appeals conveyed in services advertisements in the USA and Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Hofstede's cultural dimensions as a basis for distinguishing cultures, this study explores the role of culture in services advertising strategy. Content analysis was used to examine services advertising in the USA and Korea.

Findings

The results of a content analysis of over 400 magazine advertisements suggest that advertisers may be able to standardize services advertising in magazines by type of advertising appeal and on specific service quality dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

As the service sector continues to grow, future research is needed to compare services advertising for different types of services and in other media. Experimental studies that explicitly examine what types of cues are effective with Korean consumers are needed.

Practical implications

Implications for advertisers attempting to reach Korean consumers suggest that, in magazine advertising, rational appeals tend to be considerably more common than emotional appeals. Cues related to reliability and assurance also are used very frequently, suggesting that they may be well received by Korean consumers and thus that they should be used by many services advertisers. However, advertisers must consider the significance of what an Asian factor means for advertising strategy.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature and provides insights to services providers and advertisers by comparing which advertising appeals and dimensions of service quality are conveyed in services advertising in Korea and the USA and by comparing the advertising strategies with cultural dimensions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Syed Hassan Raza, Hassan Abu Bakar and Bahtiar Mohamad

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study…

1626

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of the advertising appeals (AP) on consumers’ behavioural intention, specifically to use global brands. In addition, the study investigates how attitude operates as a process variable that mediates the relationship between AP and behavioural intention (BI). This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Centred on the theory of planned behaviour, this study proposes a model that encompasses norm congruence, in which the degree of individuals’ uncertainty avoidance (UA) moderates the relationship between advertising appeal (AP) and behavioural intention (BI), and attitude towards advertising appeal (AT) serve as key causal mechanism that mediates advertising appeal–behaviour relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested using a 2 × 2 experimental design with a sample size of 372.

Findings

Results showed that the relationship between AP and BI based on global brands is significantly mediated by attitude towards AP and moderated by uncertainty avoidance. These findings have yielded partial validation of the proposed model and have provided empirical support for the roles of uncertainty avoidance and attitude towards AP.

Practical implications

The authors propose that marketers should reduce the level of consumers’ uncertainty. Uncertainty avoidance effects can be achieved through the dissemination of norm-congruent advertisement appeals and by placing more weight on social compatibility attributes which may gratify consumers’ interest, sebsequently enhance the intention of Muslim consumers to use global brands.

Originality/value

A moderator is a variable that affects the strength of the relation between the predictor and criterion variable. This paper also explores the congruity of individuals’ norms in advertising appeal–intention relationship. Previous studies did not capture any effects of culturally congruent advertising appeals by considering the level of uncertainty avoidance influence on individuals’ intention to use global brands in a Muslim country context. In response to the recent calls for research to re-examine the antecedents of the theory of planned behaviour, this study re-evaluates the roles of attitude towards AP and the interaction of cultural norms.

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Hongxia Zhang, Jin Sun, Fang Liu and John G. Knight

This research aims to examine the use of emotional and rational advertising appeal regarding service options that differ in terms of their experience and credence…

28763

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the use of emotional and rational advertising appeal regarding service options that differ in terms of their experience and credence properties and exploring the moderating role of individual difference in affect intensity on the consumers’ varying reliance on rational vs emotional appeals.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 is a 2 (service type: restaurant vs dentist) × 2 (advertising appeal: emotional vs rational) between-subjects design. In total, 137 undergraduate students took part in this study. Study 2 is a 2 (service type: airline vs hospital) × 2 (advertising appeal: emotional vs rational) between-subjects design. In total, 84 MBA students were randomly assigned to each of the experimental conditions. Study 3 is a 2 (service type: airline vs hospital) × 2 (advertising appeal: rational vs emotional appeal) × 2 (affect intensity: high vs low) between-subjects design. The sample size was 170 undergraduates.

Findings

The results of the first two studies provided support that an emotional advertising appeal led to a higher purchase intention in the experience service condition, while a rational message generated higher purchase intention in the credence service condition. Study 3 showed the moderating role of individual difference in affect intensity. High affect intensity individuals reported higher levels of brand favorability than did their low affect intensity counterparts when exposed to ads using emotional appeal. Conversely, subjects showed no significant differences in the intensity of their emotional responses when exposed to rational appeals.

Practical implications

Our results suggest a strong need to tailor ads to fit different service categories. An emotional appeal would be more effective for experience services, and a rational appeal would be more effective for credence services. Besides, individual traits may also need to be considered when matching the appeal to the service type.

Originality/value

This study makes an important contribution to the limited existing research by providing a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between advertising appeal and the type of service across different sub-categories, themes, individual trait and effectiveness measures. Specifically, the present research seeks to illuminate the relative effectiveness of emotional vs rational appeals in services advertising. In addition, the current research reveals new knowledge about the role that affect intensity plays in determining consumer responses to advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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