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Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2007

Ira W. Lieberman

Russia's size – both in terms of population and geography, spanning 11 time zones, 89 oblasts (states or regions) and autonomous republics and its privatization program…

Abstract

Russia's size – both in terms of population and geography, spanning 11 time zones, 89 oblasts (states or regions) and autonomous republics and its privatization program, encompassing some 100,000 small-scale enterprises, 25,000 medium to large firms, and 300 or so of its largest firms, made its privatization program the largest sale/transfer of assets conducted among the transition economies, with the possible exception of China. Comparisons by many of the program's critics, and there are many, to Poland, Hungary, or the Czech republic are invidious, especially the latter two countries whose populations are similar to just that of greater Moscow.

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Privatization in Transition Economies: The Ongoing Story
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-513-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Jan Váně, František Kalvas and Josef Basl

This case study of the readiness of engineering companies for Industry 4.0 (I4.0) presents how surveyed key figures manage the implementation of I4.0. The research…

Abstract

Purpose

This case study of the readiness of engineering companies for Industry 4.0 (I4.0) presents how surveyed key figures manage the implementation of I4.0. The research comprised a census of larger and medium-sized engineering companies in the Pilsen region of the Czech Republic. The selected region is characterised by a long industrial tradition and a high concentration of technical and technology-oriented companies. The survey questionnaire monitors a wide range of topics. In this text, the authors present the results only from selected areas. In particular, the authors examined: (1) the use of I4.0 technologies in individual areas, (2) the level of the digital strategy (DS), (3) factors influencing investments in I4.0 technologies, (4) the impact of I4.0 on the workforce and (5) existing threats to I4.0 implementation. The purpose of this paper is to show how key figures with a real impact on the implementation of I4.0 think and act in practice (as opposed to declarations).

Design/methodology/approach

In the presented article, thanks to the unique data obtained in the form of a census in the selected, traditionally engineering-oriented Pilsen region, and within the highly industrially oriented Czech Republic, the authors explored the state of readiness of companies for implementation of I4.0. The obtained data allowed the authors to present, in a suitably descriptive way, the current level, with respect to the future, of the planned use of I4.0 principles in the surveyed companies. They monitored not only the state of the adoption process (Industry of 4.0 technologies) compared to the declared proclamations but also which phenomena represent key obstacles.

Findings

First, medium-sized companies have barely implemented I4.0, whereas I4.0 is more often implemented in larger companies, especially the so-called DS aspect of I4.0. Furthermore, it appears that larger companies also clearly consider I4.0 more often and see it more significantly as a key success factor. Second, the survey highlighted the fact that customer satisfaction is the determining impetus for the introduction of I4.0. It can be assumed that with an increase in pressure from customers and a decrease in the price of technology, the introduction of I4.0 will increase. The third important finding is that the authors can observe a kind of two-stage flow of innovation in the results. The transformation towards I4.0 is approached by larger companies first, because they are more sensitive to customer satisfaction, are looking for new opportunities, and have greater resources to cover the costly implementation of innovations.

Originality/value

In the presented article, thanks to the unique data obtained in the form of a census in the selected, traditionally engineering-oriented Pilsen region, and within the highly industrially oriented Czech Republic, the authors explored the state of implementation of I4.0. The obtained data allowed the authors to present, in a suitably descriptive way, the current level, with respect to the future, of the planned use of I4.0 principles in the surveyed companies.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

António Dias, Lúcia Lima Rodrigues, Russell Craig and Maria Elisabete Neves

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) literature has focused mainly on larger firms. Only recently has discussion of the engagement of small and medium-sized enterprises…

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Abstract

Purpose

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) literature has focused mainly on larger firms. Only recently has discussion of the engagement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in CSR emerged in research studies. Here we contribute to that growing discussion of CSR in SMEs by analyzing the disclosure practices of 57 Portuguese companies of different sizes (small, medium, large).

Design/methodology/approach

We use stakeholder theory to identify the stakeholders that SMEs and large firms prioritize. By means of thematic content analysis and an index of disclosure (calculated according to company type and stakeholder type) we analyze whether business characteristics influence CSR disclose strategies.

Findings

Companies give priority to CSR activities that are directly related to maintaining business and achieving economic results. CSR disclosure practices of SMEs and large companies do not differ significantly. However, larger companies disclose more information on Environment and Society. Companies who are closer to consumers disclose more information on Customers, Community and Society. The act of assuring a CSR report drives system improvements and extended CSR disclosure.

Research limitations/implications

We recognize that it is difficult to compare CSR in Small and large enterprises. For this reason, we have developed a methodology based on the most basic aspects of the CSRD, and therefore applicable without distinction to large and small companies.

Practical implications

A framework to evaluate the CSRD of SMEs was developed. We identify CSR indicators divided in five dimensions (customers, employees, environment, community and society) that are applicable to firms of all sizes.

Originality/value

This study extends knowledge of CSR by comparing the disclosure practices of SMEs and large (listed and un-listed) Portuguese companies. This study takes account of the particularities of SMEs and other fundamental business characteristics using a replicable assessment framework.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Neelam Kinra

Asks to what extent the process of strategic marketing planning isdifferent among large and small‐to‐medium‐sized companies. Reports on asurvey undertaken into approaches…

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2584

Abstract

Asks to what extent the process of strategic marketing planning is different among large and small‐to‐medium‐sized companies. Reports on a survey undertaken into approaches to strategic dimensions in marketing planning among a sample of television manufacturing companies. Finds that while a broad customer orientation does indeed prevail among large, medium and small companies, they are only vaguely conscious of their mission or business purpose. Claims that despite this fact, management philosophies and corporate image are strongly supportive to the development of marketing strategies. Finds evidence that shows that large‐sized companies see more prospects in terms of intensive growth strategies through market penetration in the domestic market, with future prospects being identified in terms of new product development in the domestic market, rather than in exploring new market development possibilities in overseas markets. Small/medium‐sized companies are more concerned with market development through identifying new untapped segments in the domestic market. Concludes that the majority of firms being small in size, strategic marketing planning as it is being practised requires much more consistency between company mission, objectives and stated growth strategies despite the dynamism in the mood of the industry itself.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Muhammad Usman and Wim Vanhaverbeke

Open innovation in start-ups is a relatively unexplored field and studies focusing on collaborative innovation between start-ups with large companies seen from the…

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5811

Abstract

Purpose

Open innovation in start-ups is a relatively unexplored field and studies focusing on collaborative innovation between start-ups with large companies seen from the former’s point of view are virtually inexistent. The authors address this gap in an exploratory study built on in-depth case studies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how start-ups successfully organize and manage open innovation with large companies. The paper highlights common challenges and barriers faced by start-ups in adopting open innovation practices along with its benefits for them.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study based on two case studies. The cases are diligently selected to examine two key forms of open innovation – inbound and outbound open innovation – in start-ups.

Findings

The paper provides an insight on how start-ups organize and manage open innovation activities with large companies and how it benefits them in overcoming liability of newness and smallness. The practices significantly differ from those followed in large companies. The paper highlights the advantages and challenges of inbound and outbound open innovation for start-ups. This paper also ascertains the crucial role of start-up manager for successful implementation of open innovation and shows how start-up’s managers with prior experience of working in/with a large company can proficiently deal with the larger counterpart in the innovation network.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on exploratory case studies so the conclusions drawn from these two cases may be hard to generalize. The findings of the study could be used for further development of the theoretical framework. Future research, including quantitative studies, will be helpful in examining the conclusions and providing more in-depth understanding of open innovation in start-ups.

Practical implications

The paper includes several practical implications for the managers including the role start-up managers play in organizing and managing open innovation activities. Furthermore, this paper suggests how start-ups could orchestrate open innovation ecosystem.

Originality/value

The paper is a step forward in filling the literature gap about open innovation and start-ups with some definite implications for start-up managers. A lot is written about the collaboration between large firms and start-ups from a former’s point of view but the start-up’s perspective has been left unexplored.

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European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Hernan Riquelme

Earlier research studies predicted that it would be small and medium‐sized businesses that were more likely to adopt and benefit from the use of the Internet because of…

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3095

Abstract

Earlier research studies predicted that it would be small and medium‐sized businesses that were more likely to adopt and benefit from the use of the Internet because of their greater flexibility. Anecdotal evidence appears in the literature to support this claim; however, little systematic empirical research has been done among SMEs to test this speculation. A sample of 248 companies in Shanghai, China, was divided into small, medium and large groups. The statistical analysis indicates that there are significant differences between large and small companies. Large companies have benefited considerably more from the Internet than small companies not only in their increased sales (derived from the Internet) but also from cost savings. Although the whole sample confirms the main reason for establishing an Internet connection, to gain a competitive advantage, companies also think that the Internet does not work equally for all players.

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Internet Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1980

David Ray, John Gattorna and Mike Allen

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of…

Abstract

Preface The functions of business divide into several areas and the general focus of this book is on one of the most important although least understood of these—DISTRIBUTION. The particular focus is on reviewing current practice in distribution costing and on attempting to push the frontiers back a little by suggesting some new approaches to overcome previously defined shortcomings.

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International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 10 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Morten H. Abrahamsen

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in…

Abstract

The study here examines how business actors adapt to changes in networks by analyzing their perceptions or their network pictures. The study is exploratory or iterative in the sense that revisions occur to the research question, method, theory, and context as an integral part of the research process.

Changes within networks receive less research attention, although considerable research exists on explaining business network structures in different research traditions. This study analyzes changes in networks in terms of the industrial network approach. This approach sees networks as connected relationships between actors, where interdependent companies interact based on their sensemaking of their relevant network environment. The study develops a concept of network change as well as an operationalization for comparing perceptions of change, where the study introduces a template model of dottograms to systematically analyze differences in perceptions. The study then applies the model to analyze findings from a case study of Norwegian/Japanese seafood distribution, and the chapter provides a rich description of a complex system facing considerable pressure to change. In-depth personal interviews and cognitive mapping techniques are the main research tools applied, in addition to tracer studies and personal observation.

The dottogram method represents a valuable contribution to case study research as it enables systematic within-case and across-case analyses. A further theoretical contribution of the study is the suggestion that network change is about actors seeking to change their network position to gain access to resources. Thereby, the study also implies a close relationship between the concepts network position and the network change that has not been discussed within the network approach in great detail.

Another major contribution of the study is the analysis of the role that network pictures play in actors' efforts to change their network position. The study develops seven propositions in an attempt to describe the role of network pictures in network change. So far, the relevant literature discusses network pictures mainly as a theoretical concept. Finally, the chapter concludes with important implications for management practice.

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Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

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1286

Abstract

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

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Management Decision, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Masoomeh Zeinalnezhad, Muriati Mukhtar and Shahnorbanun Sahran

The purpose of this paper is to explore current levels of lead benchmarking implementation and lead performance indicators among Malaysian organizations. Comparing small…

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1916

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore current levels of lead benchmarking implementation and lead performance indicators among Malaysian organizations. Comparing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with large companies, it identifies what benefits and difficulties are present during benchmarking implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive analyses, one-way ANOVAs between and within groups, and parametric and non-parametric tests are used to compare responses obtained from small, medium and large Malaysian manufacturing organizations.

Findings

Findings suggest that larger organizations have a more progressive approach to lead benchmarking. Strategy and employee development are dominant lead performance indicators of continuous improvement. Large companies experience fewer challenges when implementing benchmarking projects. Perceptions of key benchmarking implementation barriers shift from mere lack of resources toward lack of knowledge and training, information sharing, commitment and trust.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is specific in nature (Malaysian manufacturing organizations); results should be interpreted accordingly.

Originality/value

Little is known about lead benchmarking practices in Malaysia, particularly within the contexts of SMEs. The outcomes of this study provide a basis for further improvement and valuable knowledge for top management of manufacturing organizations to refine strategies and advance quality management approaches.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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