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Article

Bhushan Praveen Jangam

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the global value chain (GVC) participation and the associated improvements in labour productivity and employment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the global value chain (GVC) participation and the associated improvements in labour productivity and employment among 16 Asia-Pacific countries.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the indicators of GVC participation are computed using annual multi-region input-output tables over the period 1990-2014. Second, the study examines the long-run association between GVCs and labour productivity through Pedroni (2004) and Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration techniques. Then in the third step, the long-run elasticities are estimated using dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) and fixed-random effects models. Finally, the direction of causality is examined using the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) panel causality technique.

Findings

The result shows an increasing participation of GVCs among Asia-Pacific countries. The findings also show the long-run relationship between GVCs and labour productivity. The long-run elasticities suggest the positive association of GVCs with labour productivity and employment. Further, the categorization of Asia-Pacific countries based on income groups reveals that improvement in labour productivity and employment outcomes is significantly greater in the case of middle-income countries. Finally, the results from panel causality infer that the direction of causality runs from GVCs to labour productivity and GVCs to employment.

Practical implications

The findings enable policymakers to formulate appropriate policies in Asia-Pacific countries to keep the momentum of increasing their participation in GVC for boosting labour productivity and employment gains.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first empirical study examining the spillover effects of GVC on labour productivity and employment in case of Asia-Pacific countries.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article

Ruchini Senarath Jayasinghe and Nirodha Gayani Fernando

The purpose of this paper is to establish labour productivity norms (LPNs) on an elemental basis to investigate a measurement for the labour productivity (LP) of aluminium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish labour productivity norms (LPNs) on an elemental basis to investigate a measurement for the labour productivity (LP) of aluminium system formwork (ASF) in low-cost housing projects (LHPs) in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

Case study approach was selected as the most appropriate for the study and semi-structured interviews, document review and direct observations were used for the data collection. Four case studies were conducted. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted among four cases. Further, document review was used in three cases, and direct observation was used in one case. The validation of the results was not possible in a real life project due to time limitations.

Findings

The findings identified six labour productivity factors (LPFs) affecting the LP of ASF. The need for LPNs for ASF on an elemental basis is identified. Further, LPNs were developed using LPFs.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to LHPs for underserved settlements in Colombo, Sri Lanka which use ASF. The LPNs were prepared based on time studies and were restricted to structural elements such as slabs, beams and columns.

Originality/value

The LPNs were developed for ASF in LHPs based on the effect of weather, crew, site, management and project factors. Further, the study addresses a gap in the literature regarding the development of LPNs of ASF for LPHs in Sri Lanka. LPNs for ASF have enhanced LP while promoting economic and social stability in the industry.

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Article

Štefan Bojnec and Nastja Tomšič

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between economic performance in terms of labour productivity of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between economic performance in terms of labour productivity of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their corporate sustainability in association with the driving forces of internationalization process and enterprise networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops an innovative theoretical–conceptual approach and applied unique empirical survey to investigate the simultaneous causalities between labour productivity and corporate sustainability, in the context of the set of relationships controlled with two other set of variables for mediating role of the internationalization process and enterprise networks focusing on business collaborations between SMEs. Four hypotheses are tested by the developed structural equation model for the unique in-depth survey data of Slovenian SMEs.

Findings

The results highlight significant positive correlations between the studied variables and their constructs, which indicate scientific justification to variables as factors. The results confirmed that internationalization process and enterprise networks are positively associated in improving corporate sustainability, which drives labour productivity.

Practical implications

The implications of this research are for managers regarding strategies and approaches aiming at sustainable development of SMEs, and for policy-makers regarding appropriate policies for practices encouraging internalization processes and enterprise networks as important drivers of corporate sustainability and labour productivity of SMEs.

Originality/value

The main scientific value added of this research is that combines and empirically examines driving forces of corporate sustainability in SMEs based on related studies, to develop more comprehensive structural equation model for better understanding of the corporate sustainability behaviour in SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Article

Luong Hai Nguyen

Construction labor productivity (LP) is the key element in forming the success of construction projects. Numerous studies on the topic of critical success factors (CSFs…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction labor productivity (LP) is the key element in forming the success of construction projects. Numerous studies on the topic of critical success factors (CSFs) within construction LP have been conducted, but the results have rarely emphasized developing factors related to managerial function behaviors (MFBs) and examining its relationship with construction LP, a key criterion for measuring construction effectiveness; these less researched topics were the aims of this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical research studies were designed to develop managerial behavior's attributes based upon a literature adaptation and focus group studies (FGSs). Then, the causal relationships between MFBs and LP were examined by drawing on project-specific data collected from 195 completed construction projects in Vietnam, which was to the approach to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique.

Findings

The findings reveal that the MFBs' attributes were organized into a four-factor MFB framework: “cooperation emphasis (COOP),” “people orientation (PEOP),” “commitment emphasis (COMT)” and “leadership promotion (LEAD).” The findings reveal that COOP, PEOP and COMT have significant effects on LP.

Originality/value

The success of this approach is expected to broaden academic's horizons of factors affected LP and suggest a useful tool for supporting the project management professionals in enhancing construction LP and sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article

Marina Macedo de Abreu and Alberto Casado Lordsleem Jr

The purpose of this paper is to establish and evaluate the concrete loss and labor productivity (LP) indicators in the concreting step of aluminum formwork system (AFS) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish and evaluate the concrete loss and labor productivity (LP) indicators in the concreting step of aluminum formwork system (AFS) in construction in Brazil. The loss and productivity indicators are directed to a regional database (Pernambuco, Brazil).

Design/methodology/approach

Case study was selected as the most appropriate approach. The methodology included data collection in the construction project with 10 residential towers of 320 apartments, in the city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Brazil, throughout 82 concrete pouring days using 415 concrete mixer trucks, with a total of 2,582.50 m3 of concrete.

Findings

The findings identified an average concrete loss of 2.6 percent and the LP indicator varying between 0.15 and 0.97 WH/m3. It could be verified that the loss indicators were influenced mainly by the learning effect associated to the qualification of the labor. In addition, the productivity indicators were strongly influenced by delays at the beginning of the concrete pouring and by problems coming from the sequence of concrete supply.

Originality/value

LP indicators are still literature restricted, especially considering only the concreting step. The direct observations of this study allow the identification of factors that inhibit productivity. The comparison of indicators for the concreting service between the ASF and the conventional system attests to the speed, low cost and efficiency of the system studied in this paper.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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Book part

Sangjun Jeong

This paper explores the pattern of technical change in the Korean economy from 1970 to 2013 and investigates its determinants. We use the Classical growth-distribution…

Abstract

This paper explores the pattern of technical change in the Korean economy from 1970 to 2013 and investigates its determinants. We use the Classical growth-distribution schedule to show that the labor-saving and capital-using pattern has predominated. For the rationale behind this Marx-biased technical change, we focus on the relationship between technical change and real wage growth via the evolution of labor and capital productivity, and verify the historical direction of technical change against the rise and fall of the working class. Furthermore, we find that the deviation during the post-crisis period from the long-run trend of Marx-biased technical change is not attributable to the vitality of new technological innovations, but rather the reflection of class dynamics over extracting productivity under weaker capital deepening. The results suggest that the recent deterioration of labor share and labor unions in Korea is closely associated with low incentive for technological progress, which contributes to prolonged stagnation.

Details

Return of Marxian Macro-Dynamics in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-477-4

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Article

Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Shivam Gupta and Pavitra Dhamija

It is essential to track the development of resource and pollution intensive industries such as textile, leather, pharmaceutical, etc., under burgeoning pressure of…

Abstract

Purpose

It is essential to track the development of resource and pollution intensive industries such as textile, leather, pharmaceutical, etc., under burgeoning pressure of environmental compliance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the progress of Indian leather industry in terms of individual factors and total factor productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies and examines the various concepts of productivity such as labor productivity, capital productivity, material productivity and energy productivity. Further, it assesses and compares the performance of Indian leather industry in Tamil Nadu (TN), West Bengal (WB) and Uttar Pradesh (UP) based on productivity analysis, spatial variations determinants in productivity and technology closeness ratio.

Findings

The findings suggest that as per the productivity analysis, WB leather clusters have performed remarkably better in terms of partial factor productivity and technical efficiency (TE), followed by TN and UP. This can be attributed to shifting of leather cluster of WB to a state-of art leather complex with many avenues for resource conservation. Further, the findings reveal that the firm size and partial factor productivities have significant positive correlation with TE which supports technological theory of the firm.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be useful for the policy makers associated with the Indian leather industry especially to design interventions to support capacity building at individual firm level as well as cluster level to enhance the efficiency and productivity of overall industry.

Social implications

The findings also support the resource dependence theory of firm according to which the larger size firms should reflect on resource conservation practices, for instance the concept of prevention is better than cure based upon 3R (reduce, recycle and reuse) principles.

Originality/value

The paper gives an explanation of the productivity in the leather industry in terms of its factor productivity and TE.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article

Naqeeb Ur Rehman, Arjona Çela, Fatbardha Morina and Kriselda Sulçaj Gura

Western Balkans countries (WBCs) have a great potential for growth and among the main focuses of entrepreneurial activity is small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME…

Abstract

Purpose

Western Balkans countries (WBCs) have a great potential for growth and among the main focuses of entrepreneurial activity is small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) sector. Moreover, SMEs are believed to contribute in the economy by stimulating employment, increasing production, transferring new technologies and so forth. Due to this crucial importance the purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers that hinder labor productivity (LP) of SMEs in WBCs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method employed to discover solution to this research problem is quantitative analysis by using survey data of World Bank. Research methodology applied in this paper found it correctly to use cross-sectional data and conducts a factor analysis and ordinary least square (OLS) regression as the best procedure for this type of data.

Findings

The results show variability for different countries access to finance, tax rates, tax administration, corruption, inadequately educated labor force, competition in informal sector and political instability appear to be some of the main obstacles that are negatively affecting LP of SMEs in WBC.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study is the first to analyze all the possible obstacles for the six WBCs using factor analysis better results could be obtained with larger samples and panel data.

Practical implications

The policy implications of this study suggest that in order to boost productivity of these firms there must be a reduction of the barriers and improvement of business environment. Although, this study is the first to analyze all the possible obstacles for the six WBCs using factor analysis and contributes as insight to policy makers, better results could be obtained with larger samples using panel data.

Originality/value

Differently from previous studies this work uses explanatory factor analysis and method OLS to estimate regressions for all barriers in each country of Western Balkan region.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Thoralf Daßler, David Parker and David S. Saal

The European telecommunications sector is undergoing major structural change in the face of new technology, privatisation and European Commission directives requiring…

Abstract

The European telecommunications sector is undergoing major structural change in the face of new technology, privatisation and European Commission directives requiring market liberalisation. This study considers the comparative performance of the major European telecommunications operators between 1978 and 1998. This period encompasses an era of state monopolies, market liberalisation initiatives and a number of privatisations. The objectives are to assess: the extent so far to which market liberalisation and privatisation have impacted on the efficiency with which telecommunications services are provided in Europe; and changes in the performance of the different telecommunications operators over time with a view to providing an insight into the comparative efficiency performance of the different telecommunications operators in Europe. Performance is measured in terms of profit margins and labour and total factor productivity.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article

Eoin O’Leary

Uses a specially constructed data set to present new evidence on the convergence performance of Ireland among European Union (EU) countries at the aggregate, sectoral and…

Abstract

Uses a specially constructed data set to present new evidence on the convergence performance of Ireland among European Union (EU) countries at the aggregate, sectoral and industry levels for the period 1960 to 1990. Overall, aggregate convergence occurred among the EU 12 over the period. Ireland did exhibit catch‐up on the EU average. However, Ireland’s convergence performance becomes distinctly less favourable if adjustments are made for the increase in net factor outflows during the late 1980s. This is especially the case when gross national product is used instead of gross domestic product (GDP) to measure Irish living standards as this results in a divergent trend emerging. For labour productivity the adjustment of Irish GDP to take account of transfer pricing by multinationals leads to the finding that labour productivity convergence performance in Irish manufacturing is substantially overstated if “official” GDP estimates are used. This translates into more muted convergence performance at the aggregate level if the adjustments are made.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 24 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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